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Chapter 2 The Solar System

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Chapter 2 The Solar System Section 1 Observing the Solar System – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 2 The Solar System


1
Chapter 2 The Solar System
  • Section 1 Observing the Solar System

2
Ch. 2, section 1 Observing the Solar System
Objectives
  • Explain how the heliocentric and geocentric
    models of the solar system differ
  • Describe Keplers discovery about the planets
    orbit
  • Identify two factors that keep the planets in
    their orbits.

3
Geocentric A description of the solar system in
which all of the planets revolve around Earth.
4
2. Heliocentric A description of the solar
system in which all of the planets revolve around
the sun.
5
3. Ellipse An elongated circle, or oval shape.
6
4. Inertia The tendency of a moving object to
continue in a straight line or a stationary
object to remain in place.
7
1. In a _________________, Earth is at the center
of the revolving planets.
geocentric system
8
2. In a _________________, Earth and the other
planets revolve around the sun.
heliocentric system
9
3. Galileos two discoveries to support the
heliocentric system were - he saw __________
___________ revolving around Jupiter. - he also
saw that ____________ goes through phases similar
to those of Earths moon. http//www.youtube.
com/watch?vK6AHDhmJXKo
four
moons
Venus
10
4. Kepler discovered that the orbit of each
planet is an __________.
ellipse
11
5. Newton concluded that two factors _________
and __________ combine to keep the planets in
orbit.
inertia
gravity
12
Chapter 2 The Solar System
  • Section 2 The Sun

13
Ch. 2, section 2 The Sun Objectives
  • Explain how the sun gets its energy
  • Identify the layers of the suns atmosphere
  • Describe some features of the suns surface

14
Nuclear Fusion The process by which hydrogen
atoms join together to form helium, releasing
energy.
15
Core The central part of the sun, where nuclear
fusion occurs.
16
3. Photosphere The inner layer of the suns
atmosphere.
17
4. Chromosphere The middle layer of the suns
atmosphere.
18
5. Corona The outer layer of the suns
atmosphere.
19
6. Solar wind A stream of electrically charged
particles produced by the suns corona.
20
7. Sunspot A dark area of gas on the sun that
is cooler than surrounding gases.
21
8. Prominence A loop of gas that protrudes from
the suns surface, linking parts of sunspot
regions.
22
9. Solar flare An explosion of hydrogen gas
from the suns surface that occurs when loops in
sunspot regions suddenly connect.
23
1. The suns __________ comes from nuclear fusion.
energy
24
2. Nuclear fusion takes place in the suns
_________.
core
25
3. The suns atmosphere has three layers the
____________, the ____________, and the
__________.
photosphere
chromosphere
corona
26
4. During a _______________, you can see light
from the corona.
total solar eclipse
27
5. Features on or above the suns surface include
___________, _____________, and ____________.
sunspots
prominences
solar flares
28
Chapter 2 The Solar System
  • Section 3 The Inner Planets

29
Ch. 2, section 3. The Inner Planets Objectives
  • Describe the main characteristics of the inner
    planets.

30
Terrestrial planets The name given to the four
inner planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
31
2. Retrograde rotation The spinning motion of a
planet from east to west, opposite to the
direction of rotation of most planets and moons.
32
3. Greenhouse effect The trapping of heat by a
planets atmosphere.
33
1. The four inner planets are ___________,
_________, __________, and ___________.
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
34
2. The four inner planets are __________ and have
_________ surfaces.
small
rocky
35
3. The planet closest to the sun is __________.
Mercury
36
4. Mercury has an extremely _________ atmosphere.
thin
37
5. Venus rotates from __________ to _________,
the opposite direction from most other planets
and moons.
east
west
38
6. The atmosphere of Venus is so _________ that
every day is a __________ one.
thick
cloudy
39
7. Astronomers have found that some water remains
on Mars in the form of ___________ at its north
pole.
ice
40
Chapter 2 The Solar System
  • Section 4 The Outer Planets

41
Ch. 2, section 4. The outer planets Objectives
  • Describe the main characteristics of the gas
    giant planets
  • Explain how Pluto differs from the outer planets

42
Gas Giants The name given to the four outer
planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
43
1. The four outer planets are __________,
_________, __________, and ___________.
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
44
2. Because the gas giants have so much mass, they
exert a much stronger ____________ ___________
than the terrestrial planets.
gravitational
force
45
3. The four outer planets have deep _____________.
atmospheres
46
4. None of the gas giants has a __________
_________.
solid
surface
47
5. An especially interesting feature in Jupiters
atmosphere is its ________ _________ ________.
Great
Red
Spot
48
6. Jupiters four moons are ______, _______,
__________, and _________.
Europa
Io
Ganymede
Callisto
49
7. Saturns rings are made of chunks of _________
and __________, each traveling in its own orbit.
ice
rock
50
8. Strangely, Uranuss axis is tilted at an angle
of about ___________ from the vertical.
90 degrees
51
9. Viewed from Earth, Uranus is rotating from
________ to _________ instead of from _________
to ___________.
top
bottom
side
side
52
10. The planet Neptune was discovered as a result
of a ____________ ___________.
mathematical
prediction
53
Chapter 2 The Solar System
  • Section 5 Comets, Asteroids, and Meteors

54
Ch. 2, section 5 Comets, Asteroids, and Meteors
Objectives
  • Describe the characteristics of comets and
    asteroids
  • Identify where meteoroids come from

55
Comet A ball of ice and dust whose orbit is a
long, narrow ellipse.
56
2. Asteroids Objects revolving around the sun
that are too small and too numerous to be
considered planets.
57
3. Asteroid belt The region of the solar system
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, where
many asteroids are found.
58
4. Meteoroid A chunk of rock or dust in space.
59
5. Meteor A streak of light in the sky produced
by the burning of a meteoroid in Earths
atmosphere.
60
6. Meteorite A meteoroid that has hit Earths
surface.
61
1. Comets are chunks of _________ and _________
whose orbits are usually very long , narrow
ellipses.
ice
dust
62
2. Most asteroids revolve around the sun between
the orbits of _________ and __________.
Mars
Jupiter
63
3. ___________ usually come from comets or
asteroids.
Meteoroids
64
4. Meteoroids that enter the Earths atmosphere
are called ___________.
meteors
65
5. Meteoroids that pass through the atmosphere
and hit Earths surface are called __________.
meteorites
66
  • Section 5 reading.
  • Video
  • Part 1 (922 minutes)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vdku64Ad3agA
  • Part 2 (1020 minutes) http//www.youtube.com/watc
    h?v29byorgwMGY

67
Chapter 2 The Solar System
  • Section 6 Is There Life Beyond Earth?

68
Ch. 2, section 6 Is There Life Beyond Earth?
Objectives
  • Describe what living things need to exist on
    Earth
  • Explain why scientists are looking at Mars and
    Europa for signs of life

69
Extraterrestrial life Life that arises outside
of Earth.
70
1. Earth has ___________ and a ___________________
and ___________ for living things to survive.
liquid water
suitable temp. range
atmosphere
71
2. Since life as we know it requires __________,
scientists hypothesize that ________ may have
once had the conditions needed for life to exist.
water
Mars
72
3. If there is liquid water on ________, there
might also be life.
Europa
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