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Topic 7 * INFORMATION PROCESSING * Cerebral Cortex Thin layer on the brain s surface that include lobes or sections. Occipital lobe = process vision. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Topic 7

  • Listening visualizing ? an important
    element in communication.
  • Through auditory perception and visual
    perception (stimulus)
  • A person can understand what message the
    other person trying to convey
  • How to respond back to the perceptions
  • Stimulus received ? is then process
    (information processing) ? where individual
    digest (process) what information he has
    learn from his environment ? ten store
    them in the memory.

Information Processing
  • Cognitive psychology developed around late
  • Primary focus of cognitive psychology is on
    memory (the storage retrieval of information).
  • Information Processing theorists proposed that
    like the computer ? the human mind is a system
    that processes information through the
    application of logical rules and strategies.
  • Like the computer, the mind has a limited
    capacity for the amount and nature of the
    information it can process.

Information Processing
  • This group of information theorist used
    computer as a model for the way human think,
    where they look at
  • The way people
  • take in,
  • process , and
  • act on information
  • focusing on attention, perception memory.

Information Processing Approach
  • What is memory?
  • Memory is the retention of learned material
  • Information processing model are used to
  • describe and explain cognitive (mental)
    process, such as thinking problem solving.
  • Whenever one's senses are activated (physical
    energy) the information immediately is placed in
    sensory store/register ? Information that one
    "attends to" is transferred to Short Term Memory
    (STM)? Information in STM that is rehearsed is
    transferred to Long Term Memory (LTM).

Information Processing Approach
  • Humans have three types of memory-
  • Sensory Register
  • Short Term memory
  • Long Term memory
  • Each type of memory has two characteristics
  • a. Capacity
  • large capacity/small capacity/unlimited capacity
  • b. Duration
  • brief duration/ short duration/ unlimited
  • The information processing approach focuses on
    the study of the structure and function of mental
    processing within specific contexts,
    environments, or ecologies.

Types of Memory
  • Sensory register
  • Part of memory that receives all the
    information a person senses from the environment
    and stores it fleetingly.
  • Short term memory
  • A part where new information is stored
    temporarily, until it is either lost or placed
    into long term memory
  • Also known as working memory (working space),
    where a decision must be made to discard
    information or to transfer it to permanent
    storage, in long-term memory.
  • Long Term memory
  • Part of memory which has unlimited capacity
    can hold information indefinitely.
  • the encyclopedic mental processing unit in which
    information may be stored permanently and from
    which it may be later retrieved.

Information Processing Approach
  • When people pay attention to an information?
    the sensory register will pick the information
    ? goes into the working memory.
  • Once in working memory ? information is
    processed/ practiced within 15-20 sec ? then
    transfer to the long term memory.
  • If people dont pay attention ? the information
    is lost.
  • New information will be transferred to Long
    term memory when
  • it is linked in some way with prior knowledge
    already in the LTM.
  • Information is translated into meaningful
    form (encoded)
  • Information in the LTM is retrieve through a
    process of identification recall for a
    particular purpose.

The four main beliefs of the information-processi
ng approach
  • When a person perceives, encodes, represents,
    and stores information from the environment in
    his mind/retrieves that information, he is
  • Thinking also includes responding to any
    constraints or limitations on memory processes.
  • The proper focus of study is the role of change
    mechanism in development.
  • Four critical mechanisms work together to bring
    about change in childrens cognitive skills
  • Encoding
  • Strategy construction
  • Automatization
  • Generalization
  • To solve problems effectively, children must
    encode critical information about a problem and
    then use this encoded information and relevant
    prior knowledge to construct a strategy to deal
    with the problem

The four main beliefs of the information-processi
ng approach
  • Development is driven by self modification.
  • According to the information-processing
    approach, children play an active role in their
    own development. Through self-modification, the
    child uses knowledge and strategies she has
    acquired from earlier problem solution to modify
    her responses to a new situation or problem.
  • In this way, she builds newer and more
    sophisticated responses from prior knowledge
  • Investigators must perform careful task analysis
    of the problem situations they present to
    children, i.e. child performance may be
    limited by
  • the childs own level of development, and
  • the nature of the task .
  • Thus a child may possess the basic ability
    necessary to perform a particular task when it is
    presented in a simple form , but if if extra or
    misleading information is added to the same task,
    the child may become confused and be unable to
    perform it.

Strategies In Encoding/ Memorizing
  • Chunking
  • Rehearsal
  • Imagery
  • Mnemonics
  • Schema activation
  • Level of processing

Strategies in encoding/ memorizing
  • Chunking
  • Breaking the information into manageable
  • Rehearsal
  • Simple repetition
  • Elaboration ? when info to be remembered is
    linked to other information
  • Imagery
  • Conjured image of an object/related meaning.

Strategies in encoding/ memorizing
  • Mnemonics
  • Memory strategy to help remember information
  • Eg. A rhyme or pairing of to-be-learned
    information with well learned information.
  • Schema activation
  • Strategy to use with encoding complex info. ?
    relates new information to prior knowledge.
  • Level of processing
  • Material that is only skimmed will not be
    as deeply processed as material that is
    studied in detail.

There are four major theories of how we humans
process information
  • Stage approach
  • Levels-of-processing theory
  • Parallel distributed processing theory
  • Connectionistic models

Stage Model Atkinson and Shriffin (1968)
  • The focus of this model is on how information is
    stored in memory.
  • The model is based on the work of Atkinson and
    Shriffin (1968) and proposes that information is
    processed and stored in three stages
  • Sensory memory (sensory register) (SR)
  • Short term memory (STM)
  • Long term memory (LTM)
  • This model viewed information processing as
    moving through a series of processing units
    (SR, STM, LTM) in each of which it may be
    stored, either fleetingly or permanently.

Levels-of-processing theory Craik and Lockhart
  • The major proposition is ? all stimuli that
    activate a sensory receptor cell are permanently
    stored in memory.
  • According to these researchers, the issue is not
    storage, but retrieval.
  • Rather than hypothesize that information is
    processed in stages, Craik and Lockhart believe
    that retrieval of information is based on the
    amount of elaboration used as information is
  • This is done on a continuum from perception,
    through attention, to labeling, and finally

Parallel distributed processing theory
  • The parallel-distributed processing model states
    that information is processed simultaneously by
    several different parts of the memory system,
    rather than sequentially as hypothesized by
  • The model postulates that information is not
    inputted into the memory system in a step by step
    manner but instead, facts or images are
    distributed to all parts in the memory system at
  • "These models assume that information processing
    takes place through interactions of large numbers
    of simple processing elements called units, each
    sending excitatory and inhibitory signals to
    other units." (McLelland, J., Rumelhart, D.,
    Hinton, G., 1986,p.10)

Connectionistic models Rumelhart and McClelland
  • The connectionistic model proposed by Rumelhart
    and McClelland (1986) extends the
    parallel-distributed processing model.
  • This model emphasizes the fact that information
    is stored in multiple locations throughout the
    brain in the form of networks of connections.
  • It is one of the dominant forms of current
    research in cognitive psychology and is
    consistent with the most recent brain research.
  • It is also consistent with the
    levels-of-processing approach in that the more
    connections to a single idea or concept (i.e.,
    the more extensively elaboration is used), the
    more likely it is to be remembered.

Information Processing Model The Stage Theory
  • (Atkinson Shiffrin, 1968)
  • Information Is Processed Stored In 3 Stages
  • Sensory Memory
  • Short Term Memory
  • Long Term Memory

Information Processing Model The Stage Theory
(Atkinson Shiffrin, 1968)
Sensory Memory (SM)
  • Memory starts with a sensory input from the
    environment , i.e. sensory as source of
    information (vision, light, sound, smell, heat,
  • In the SM ? input are held for a very brief
    time ? several seconds.
  • Sensory receptor (neurons) send this message
    (receive from sensory organ) ? as a form of
    energy to the brain.
  • Through the process of transduction (change
    from one form of energy to another), a
    memory is created.
  • Memory in the SM is very short
  • Vision less than ½ second Hearing less
    than 3 sec
  • SM is a very important stage because the
    person must attend to the information receive
    at this initial stage in order to transfer it
    (info) to the next stage.
  • Individual are more like to pay attention to a
    stimulus if
  • It has an interesting features
  • It activates a known pattern

Short Term Memory (STM)
  • Also known as working memory ? Relates to
    what we are thinking about at any given
    moment in time.
  • STM is created through-
  • Attention to an external stimulus
  • Attention to internal thoughts
  • Both external stimulus and internal thoughts.
  • STM will last for 15-20 sec ?unless is
    repeated (known as maintenance rehearsal) ? can
    last for up to 20 min.
  • Attention ? focused on items of information?
    repeated over over (silently/loudly)?
    processed in such a way link it to other
    prior information that has already been
    stored in the memory.
  • Elaborative rehearsal? giving the material
    organization meaning as it is being
    rehearsed ? use strategies that give meaning
    organization to material ? so that the
    to-be-remembered information can be fitted in
    with the existing organized long term memories.

Long Term Memory (LTM)
  • Unprocessed information ? will be lost/
  • When information are placed in LTM, they are
    put into organized categories ? where they
    reside for days, months, years, life time.
  • When you remember something ? a copy of the
    item is withdrawn (retrieve) from the LTM.
  • Some theories believe ? there is no true
    forgetting from the long-term memory ? because
    once information is stored, it is there for
  • If/when we seem to forget ? it is because we
    have trouble retrieving or getting access to
    what has been stored (information stored in
    unorganized way).
  • Thus, information in the Long Term Memory must
    be encoded, stored and placed in memory in
    organized way ? for easy retrieval.

  • Discuss on the following theories of
    information processing
  • Levels-of-processing theory
  • Parallel distributed processing theory
  • Connectionistic models

Divided Attention
  • What is Attention?
  • What is Divided Attention?

What is Attention?
  • Attention is..
  • a concept studied in cognitive psychology that
    refers to how we actively process specific
    information present in our environment.
  • the cognitive process of selectively
    concentrating on one aspect of the environment
    while ignoring other things.
  • Attention has also been referred to as the
    allocation of processing resources.

  • Examples
  • Listening to a mobile phone conversation while
    driving a car
  • Listening carefully to what someone is saying
    while ignoring other noisy conversations in a
  • Numerous sights, sounds and sensations going on
    around you the pressure of your feet against
    the floor, the sight of the street out of a
    nearby window, the soft warmth of your shirt, the
    memory of a conversation you had earlier with a
  • How do we manage to experience all of these
    sensations and still focus on just one element of
    our environment?

How are we able to concentrate on one
specific thing while there are many stimulus
around us?
  • According to William James,
  • attention is the taking possession of the mind,
    in clear and vivid form, of one out of what may
    seem several simultaneously possible objects or
    trains of thoughtsIt implies withdrawal from
    some things in order to deal effectively with
    others 1.
  • Think of attention as a highlighter, i.e. as you
    read through a section of text in a book, the
    highlighted section stands out, causing you to
    focus your interest on that area.
  • Attention allows you to tune out information,
    sensations and perceptions that are not relevant
    at the moment and instead focus your energy on
    the information that is important.

What is Divided attention?
  • Divided attention is
  • the condition of paying attention to more than
    one stimulus or to a stimulus presented in more
    than one modality.
  • The process by which an individual can perform
    multiple tasks at the same time.
  • An individual attention can be divided
    between two
  • Verbal task
  • Visual task

  • A person can pay simultaneous attention on
    both verbal and visual tasks because
  • They have enough practice (often do it)
  • They are able to divide their attention
    automatically (acquire a high degree of
  • Our brain has the ability to pay attention
    to selected aspect of the environment and
    further divide the attention between
    tasks (verbal visual).

Study suggests why cell phones and driving dont
  • Study suggests why cell phones and driving dont
  • According to a study carried out by a Johns
    Hopkins University psychologist, the reason why
    talking on a cell phone makes drivers less safe
  • the brain cant simultaneously give full
    attention to both the visual task of driving and
    the auditory task of listening
  • Directing attention to listening effectively
    turns down the volume on input to the visual
    parts of the brain. The evidence we have right
    now strongly suggests that attention is strictly
    limited - a zero-sum game. When attention is
    deployed to one modality (for e.g. , talking on
    a cell phone) - it necessarily extracts a cost on
    another modality - in this case, the visual task
    of driving.

(No Transcript)
Cerebral Cortex
  • Thin layer on the brains surface that include
    lobes or sections.
  • Occipital lobe process vision.
  • Temporal Lobe process hearing
  • Parietal Lobe process sensory stimuli
  • Frontal Lobe critical thinking problem solving

Automaticity Processing
  • What is automaticity?
  • Automaticity refers to knowing how to perform
    some arbitrary task at a competent level without
    requiring conscious efforti.e. it is a form of
    unconscious competence.
  • Automaticity is the ability to do things without
    occupying the mind with the low-level details
    required, allowing it to become an automatic
    response pattern or habit ? i.e. performing of
    a primary task is minimally affected by other
    ongoing tasks
  • People often refer to automaticity by saying
    I can do the task on auto-pilot or in
    my sleep.
  • Examples speaking, bicycle-riding, assembly-line
    work, and driving a car.
  • It is usually the result of learning, repetition
    and practice.

Automaticity Processing
  • Practice played a major role in determining
    ones performance.
  • After an activity is sufficiently practiced, it
    is possible to focus the mind on other activities
    or thoughts while undertaking an automaticized
    activity (for example, holding a conversation or
    planning a speech while driving a car).

Practice played a major role in determining
ones performance.
  • Try to remember your first few driving
    lessons/ to learn to cycle/ remembering a
    song, etc. is it difficult?
  • Do you have to concentrate on what to do?
    What not to do? Etc
  • But, the more you practiced, the more
    automatic your action (e.g. driving) became,
    until you could actually drive without thinking
    about what to do.
  • In fact while driving, at the same time
    your mind could be thinking about something
    else, you are talking to someone or you could
    be listening to the radio, etc
  • Processing activities become automatic
    as a result of prolonged practice

Why does error occur in information processing
and action?
  • Why do we make mistakes?!!
  • Slips/mistakes are amusing, harmless happen to
    all of us but sometimes it may lead to
    embarrassment or dangerous situations they
    usually seem like harmless oddities. Examples of
  • Forgetting about an important information
  • Forgetting to turn on headlights when driving a
    car at night is also common.
  • Slip of action ? we meant something else
    but we said something else left ? we
    mean right
  • A story of an air-traffic controller ? An
    air-traffic controller once told a plane to taxi
    to the left runway when he meant the right.
  • Such a left/right slip is the most common of
    verbal confusions, but in this case it could have
    led to tragedy (fortunately, it didnt).

Why do we make mistakes?
  • According to Sigmund Freud, slips occur due
    to a persons unconscious wish or intentions.
  • Slips also can occur
  • when stray information throws off human
    information-processing system.
  • As a result from competition and intermixing
    among underlying mental-processing mechanisms,
    often working parallel to one another.

  • According to Donald Norman, most actions are
    carried out by subconscious mechanisms i.e. We
    'will' an action.
  • The intention, once specified, releases control
    processes, or "scheme," that lead to the
    exquisitely timed, complex motor actions involved
    in manipulation of mind and body. For example?
    When I drive home from work, the appropriate
    schemes are activated by previous actions. I need
    not plan the details I simply decide and act.
  • Slips also may occur when different parts
    of the information-processing sequence go awry .
  • The likelihood of human error also increases
    when there is stress.

  • An example of description error
  • A chartered airliner flying from Houston to
    Montreal crashed exactly on the border between
    the United States and Canada. A major political
    issue developed over the following question In
    which country should the survivors be buried?
  • Most people puzzle over the choice of country. In
    fact, the story was made up to trap the unwary
    it is the dead who should be buried, not the
  • The story sets us up to be lazy mentallyto
    except the critical leftovers to be the dead
    onesso we dont process the word "survivors"
    deeply enough.

  • An example of selection errors are similarly
    common. For instance
  • In getting ready for a party, one person
    carefully prepared a cake and a salad, then put
    the cake in the refrigerator and the salad in the
    oven. Or.
  • eating your friends sandwich from a plate that
    looks like yours, or
  • putting the top of the sugar bowl on top of a
    coffee mug of the same size.
  • Tossing away your sweaty T-shirt into the
    toilet, instead of into the laundry basket.

Concept Formation
What is concepts?
  • Words are not concepts ? Words are signs for
  • Concepts are generalized ideas that represent a
    class of objects or events ? an abstract
    idea/mental symbol, typically associated with a
    corresponding representation in language or
    symbol, that denotes all of the objects in a
    given category or class of entities,
    interactions, phenomena, or relationships between
  • Whats the difference between perception and
  • Perceptions? is based on a particular images of
    individual objects
  • Concepts ? cannot be visualized (not image) ?
    They can only be thought about, or designated, by
    means of a name.

What is Concept formation ?
  • Concepts are the categorization of objects,
    events, or people that share common properties.
  • By using concepts, we are able to organize
    complex notions into simpler, and therefore more
    easily usable forms.
  • Concept formation is the process by which we
    learn to form classes of things, event, people,
  • According to Piaget Vygotsky ? children form
    their own concepts through experience, assimilate
    existing concepts such as cultural values, norms
    beliefs from adults ? then further create and
    develop their own concepts as they mature toward

Concept formation .
  • Based on combination between -
  • the physical, concrete/abstract characteristics
    of objects, logico-mathematical principle, and
  • everyday experiences (with the natural and social
    worlds) and our subjective, personal, and
    cultural interpretations we give to them
  • The combination of this lead to the creation
    and defining of new concepts ? as we
    interact with our world, seeking to understand
    all that we encounter and innovating, creating
    new and better concepts and substantial objects
    that improve the quality of our lives.

  • Discuss the following-
  • How does children form science and
    mathematics concepts?
  • How automaticity processing occur in a
  • Why do we make mistakes?