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The New Deal

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The New Deal Chapter 15 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The New Deal


1
The New Deal
  • Chapter 15

2
Chapter Overview
  • FDR launches a program aiming to end the Great
    Depression. The Depression and Roosevelts New
    Deal have profound effects on the nation.

3
The New Deal Fights Depression
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Inauguration, March 1933
  • 20th Amendment
  • The New Dealprogram designed to alleviate the
    Great Depression
  • 3 Goals
  • Relief for needy
  • Economic recovery
  • Financial reform

4
The New Deal Fights Depression
  • The Hundred DaysMarch 9-June 16
  • Congress passed more than 15 major pieces of New
    Deal legislation
  • Expanding the role of government
  • The Importance of the Fireside Chat
  • Explained the New Deal in clear, simple language
  • Explained the banking system

5
The New Deal Fights Depression
  • Regulating Banking and Finance1st Step
  • Emergency Banking Relief Actauthorized
    inspection of the countrys banks
  • StableOpen UnstableClosed
  • Glass-Steagall ActEstablished FDIC
  • Provide federal insurance for individual bank
    accounts up to 5,000
  • Federal Securities ActStock companies
    responsible for misrepresentation
  • Securities Exchange Commissionregulate the
    stock market prevent insider trading

6
The New Deal Fights Depression
  • Rural Assistance
  • Agricultural Adjustment Actraise crop prices by
    lowering production
  • Tennessee Valley Authorityrenovated
    constructed dams in order to generate electricity
    and prevent floods

7
The New Deal Fights Depression
  • Providing Work Projects
  • Civilian Conservation Corpsput young men (18-25)
    to work building roads, developing parks,
    planting trees, etc
  • Public Works Administrationprovided to state
    to create jobs in construction of school
    community buildings
  • Civil Works Administration (more of the same)

8
The New Deal Fights Depression
  • Promoting Fair Practices
  • National Industrial Recovery Act
  • National Recovery Administrationset prices to
    ensure fair competition and establish standards
    for working hours
  • Food, Clothing and Shelter
  • Home Owners Loan Corporation
  • Federal Housing Administration
  • Federal Emergency Relief Administration

9
The New Deal Fights Depression
  • The People React
  • Conservativestoo much spent
  • Liberalsnot enough done
  • The Supreme Court Reacts
  • Called several New Deal programs
    unconstitutionalthey gave too much power to
    federal government
  • AAA, NIRA
  • Court Packing
  • FDR suggests 6 new justices be added
  • Ultimately adds 7 of his choice over next 4 years

10
The Second New Deal Takes Hold
  • Reelecting FDR
  • 1936, overwhelming victory
  • The Second New Deal
  • Called for more extensive relief for farmers
    workers
  • Helping Farmers
  • Replaced 1st AAA with Soil Conservation
    Domestic Allotment Act
  • 2nd Agriculture Adjustment Act
  • Farm Security Administrationloaned to farmers
    to buy land

11
The Second New Deal Takes Hold
  • Work Progress Administration
  • create as many jobs as possible
  • Built airports, roads, sewed clothes
  • Criticized because private companies should give
    jobs, not the government
  • National Youth Administration
  • specifically to provide education, jobs,
    counseling recreation to young people

12
The Second New Deal Takes Hold
  • Improving Labor Conditions
  • Wagner Actprotected workers rights to join
    unions prohibited unfair labor practices
  • National Labor Relations Boardto hear about
    unfair labor practices and provide workers union
    representation
  • Social Security Act
  • Old-age insurance for retirees 65 or older
    spouses
  • Unemployment compensation
  • Aid to families with dependent children disabled

13
The Second New Deal Takes Hold
  • Expanding and Regulating Utilities
  • Rural Electrification Administrationfinanced and
    worked with electrical cooperatives to bring
    electricity to isolated areas
  • 1935, 12.6...1945, 48...1949, 90
  • Pg 500New Deal Programs Chart

14
The New Deal Affects Many Groups
  • WOMEN
  • Eleanor Roosevelt pressured her husband to
    appoint women to government jobs
  • Frances Perkins1st female cabinet member
    Secretary of Labor
  • Also appointed 2 female diplomats a female
    federal judge

15
The New Deal Affects Many Groups
  • AFRICAN AMERICANS
  • Appointed 100 to key positions in the government
  • Mary McLeod Bethune
  • head of Negro Affairs of the National Youth
    Administration
  • Organized Black Cabinet of influential African
    Americans to advise FDR administration on racial
    issues
  • Never fully committed to Civil Rights, but still
    had support from black community because New Deal
    was helping

16
The New Deal Affects Many Groups
  • NATIVE AMERICANS
  • John Collierappointed commissioner of Indian
    Affairs
  • Helped create Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
  • Move away from assimilation
  • Restored reservation land

17
The New Deal Affects Many Groups
  • New Deal Coalitionalignment of diverse groups
    dedicated to supporting the Democratic Party
  • FDR gained much support from many different
    groups

18
Culture in the 1930s
  • MOVIES
  • Profitable time for Motion-Picture industry
  • Films offered escape from hard realities
  • End of Silent films talkies
  • Movies
  • Gone With the Wind
  • The Wizard of Oz
  • Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs

19
Culture in the 1930s
  • Radio
  • 90 of American homes had radios
  • Fireside Chats
  • Orson Wells War of the Worlds
  • The Lone Ranger
  • Soap Operas
  • Woody Guthrie

20
Culture in the 1930s
  • Art
  • More serious works
  • Grant Wood American Gothic
  • Federal Art Project (WPA)
  • Literature
  • Zora Neale Hurston
  • Richard Wright
  • John Steinbeck
  • Federal Writers Project (WPA)

21
The Impact of the New Deal
  • FDR faced pressure to scale back New Deal
  • New Deal expanded power of federal government
  • Infused economy with millions
  • Created federal jobs
  • Attempted to regulate supply demand
  • Increased government participation in labor
    disputes
  • Regulate Banking FinanceFDIC, SEC

22
The Impact of the New Deal
  • Federal government greatly in debt
  • Did not end depression, but helped thousands of
    suffering men, women children
  • WWII would eventually end the Great Depression

23
The Impact of the New Deal
  • Lasting Legacies
  • FDIC SEC to regulate banking investment
  • Wagner Act Fair Labor Standards Act
  • National Labor Relations Board still active today
  • Social Security
  • Government accepted responsibility for assisting
    needy
  • Commodity Credit Corporation
  • Loans made to farmers under AAA
  • Tennessee Valley Authority
  • National Park system, Dams
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