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Governments and Economies of Africa

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GOVERNMENTS AND ECONOMIES OF AFRICA Governments Republic of Kenya- Kenya gained its independence from British in 1963 under the leadership of Jomo Kenyatta. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Governments and Economies of Africa


1
Governments and Economies of Africa
2
Governments
  • Republic of Kenya-
  • Kenya gained its independence from British in
    1963 under the leadership of Jomo Kenyatta.
  • They currently had a democratic republic with an
    elected president and a one house (unicameral)
    law making body.
  • Republic of South Africa-
  • Up until 1994 South Africa had an Oligarchy form
    of government, in which the white leaders of the
    Apartheid controlled
  • Today, South Africa has a democratic government
    made up of two different houses the National
    Assembly (elected by the citizens), and the
    National Council of Provinces (elected by the
    provincial legislature of every province).

3
Government of Kenya
  • Republic
  • Executive branch is the strongest and president
    serves a 5 year term
  • President is the head of state and head of
    government.
  • Legislative parliament, is a unicameral body
    called the National Assembly, or Bunge. (224
    members and 12 are appointed by president)
  • Rights of Citizens
  • Suffrage 18 years of age universal
  • Right to participate in political process

4
Government of South Africa
  • Constitution ratified in 1996 splits power
    between the executive and legislative and
    judicial branches
  • Constitution also contains a Bill of Rights for
    South Africans.
  • Executive President
  • President elected to a five year term
  • President is the head of government and head of
    state.
  • Leader of the party with the most seats in
    National Assembly
  • Legislative bicameral parliament.
  • 1st house called the National Assembly(400
    members) 2nd house National Council of Provinces
    (90 officals appointed by provincial
    legislature).

5
Governments
  • Unlike the Republics of Kenya and South Africa,
    many countries have fallen under the leadership
    of dictators since their independence. For
    example
  • Sudan-
  • Although Sudan is called the Republic of Sudan,
    it is run by a military dictatorship.
  • President is Chief of state and Head of
    government

6
Governments
  • Sudan-
  • Government Type
  • Government of National Unity (GNU) - the National
    Congress Party (NCP) and Sudan People's
    Liberation Movement (SPLM) formed a power-sharing
    government under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace
    Agreement (CPA)
  • the NCP, which came to power by military coup in
    1989, is the majority partner the agreement
    stipulates national elections in 2009
  • Egypt-
  • Has a Constitutional Democracy

7
Problems with governments
  • Although many countries in Africa are guided by a
    democratic form of government, there is still
    corruption and instability.
  • Kenya, for example, has a democracy- but the
    citizens have very little say. Much of the
    decision making process is dominated by the
    president and his party.
  • Like Kenya, South Africas government is still
    plagued with problems. Even with the end of the
    Apartheid much of South Africas wealth does not
    reach the black population causing poverty among
    half the population.

8
Problems with government..
  • Other problems include civil wars that have
    broken out in countries like Sudan and Nigeria-
    causing government instability.
  • Sometimes government policies hold certain
    citizens back from succeeding.
  • Example Sudan- Women have limited rights and are
    not given proper education.

9
Economies
  • Nigeria-
  • While Nigeria should be one of the wealthiest
    countries in Africa due to its resources, it is
    not. Why?
  • Nigeria is torn apart by civil war, corrupt
    government, and an increase in population.
  • Nigeria has a large supply of oil- that has
    brought the country money, but also corruption.
  • Most of the money the country makes off of oil
    goes to the government- leaving the rest of the
    population in poverty.

10
Economies.
  • South Africa-
  • South Africa is the most developed country in
    Africa
  • They have a mixed economy that leans heavily on
    the market side--currency is called the Rand.
  • South Africa, like the U.S. relies heavily on
    Service Industry
  • Service Industries- Banking, tourism,
    entertainment, retail, etc.
  • Problems- South Africas economy is still
    fighting the legacy of the Apartheid- 30 of the
    population is unemployed- the majority of those
    people are black.
  • Also crime has made it harder to attract foreign
    investment even with their abundant natural
    resources.
  • South Africa also has the highest rate of
    HIV/AIDS in Africa- causing the country to spend
    more money on health car than anything else

11
Economies
  • Egypt-
  • Egypts has a mixed economy, but the state or
    public owned businesses account for nearly 70 of
    Egypt's goods or services- making it more of a
    command econ.
  • Their economy on tourism, natural resources
    (oil), and agricultural goods (cotton, wheat).

12
What is holding African countries back
  • What is holding African countries back from
    becoming a developed nation?
  • Famine
  • Disease
  • Low Literacy Rates
  • Political instability since independence

13
Improving Economies
  • Southern African Development Community (SADC)
  • 9 South African countries came together in 1980
    to help financial growth
  • The Economic Community of West African States
    (ECOWAS)
  • Created in 1975 to raise the standard of living
    and stability in West African countries
  • What are ways that countries in Africa can
    improve their economies?
  • Investment in Human Capital (workers)
  • Through education
  • Better benefits
  • Investment in Capital goods
  • New technology
  • New machinery
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