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The French-Indian War

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Title: The French-Indian War Author: Susan M. Pojer Last modified by: Pam Thompson Created Date: 10/17/2012 11:20:49 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The French-Indian War


1
The French Indian War (1754 1763)
The Great War for Empire
2
Why was 1763 a "turning point" in
British-colonial Relationships?
3
Life in the American Colonies by 1760
  • Navigation Acts Trade laws
  • Colonies could only import manufactured goods
    from England (not even other colonies)
  • If they wanted something not manufactured in
    England, it had to be shipped through England and
    taxes paid on it.
  • Certain products (cash crops) from the Southern
    colonies could ONLY be sold to England, like
    cotton, tobacco, indigo.

4
Life in the American Colonies by 1760
  • Navigation Acts Trade laws
  • Hard to enforce
  • Led to smuggling ( frustration)

5
Life in the American Colonies by 1760
Population in the American Colonies 1,503,625
people 325,806 were of African Ancestry (not
all were slaves)
6
Life in the American Colonies by 1760
Law Government
Colonies established self-government
system. Oldest of which was Virginias House of
Burgesses
In most colonies, women could participate in
economy but few could own property non could
vote
If you could not afford to come to the colonies,
you could have your passage paid and agree to
serve 4-7 years as an indentured servant. Early
in colonial settlement, many servants did not
live long enough to fulfill their contracts. By
1760, their chances had improved.
Southern colonies developed slave codes to
control their growing slave populations.
7
The French Neighbors
  • The growing population in the British colonies
    made the French nervous.
  • They needed to protect their lucrative fur trade.

8
Global Tension
  • The French and the British were not just
    competing in North America.
  • Africa
  • India
  • Europe (Germany)
  • and North America
  • Plus The French had allied with the Spanish

9
North America in 1750
10
1754 ? Albany Plan of Union
Ben Franklin ? representatives from New England,
New York, Maryland, Pennsylvania Iroquois
nations met to try to create an organization
similar to the Iroquois League
Albany Congress ? failed. Iroquois broke off
relations with Britain threatened to trade with
the French.
11
While delegates were meeting in Albany
12
1754 ? The First Clash
The Ohio Valley
British
French
Fort Necessity Fort
Duquesne George Washington
Delaware Shawnee
Indians
13
1755 ? British Decide to Eliminate French
Presence in N. America
Gen. Edward Braddock Sent to evict the French
from the Ohio Valley Canada (Newfoundland
Nova Scotia)
But
14
The French and Indians attacked from the trees -
destroyed the British
  • Braddock was killed 10 miles from Ft. Duquesne
    by 1500 French and Indian forces.

15
1756 ? War Is Formally Declared!
Lord Loudouin
Marquis de Montcalm
Native American tribes exploited by both sides!
16
British-American Colonial Tensions
British
Colonials
  • March in formation or bayonet charge.
  • Indian-style guerilla tactics.

Methods of Fighting
  • Br. officers wanted to take charge of
    colonials.
  • Col. militias served under own captains.

Military Organization
  • Drills tough discipline.
  • No mil. deference or protocols observed.

Military Discipline
  • Colonists should pay for their own defense.
  • Resistance to rising taxes.

Finances
  • Prima Donna Br. officers with servants
    tea settings.
  • Casual, non-professionals.

Demeanor
17
1757 ? William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister
He understood colonial concerns.
He offered them a compromise
- Colonial loyalty military cooperation
--gtBritain would reimburse colonial assemblies
for their costs.
- Lord Loudouin would be removed.
RESULTS? ? Colonial morale
increased by 1758.
18
1758-1761 ? The Tide Turns for England
19
1763 ? Treaty of Paris
France --gt lost her Canadian possessions, most of
her empire in India, and claims to lands east of
the Mississippi River.
Spain --gt got all French lands west of the
Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida
to England.
England --gt got all French lands in Canada,
exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and
commercial dominance in India.
20
North America in 1763
21
How does it compare?
1763
  • 1750

22
Effects of the War on Britain?
1. It increased her colonial empire in the
Americas.
2. It greatly enlarged Englands debt.
3. Britains contempt for the colonials
created bitter feelings.
Therefore, England felt that a major
reorganization of her American Empire was
necessary!
23
Effects of the War on the American Colonials
1. It united them against a common enemy for
the first time.
2. It created a socializing experience for
all the colonials who participated.
3. It created bitter feelings towards the
British that would only intensify.
24
Why was 1763 a "turning point" in
British-colonial Relationships?
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