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Understanding Multimedia Elements

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Understanding Multimedia Elements Sound, Animation, Video Unit C – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding Multimedia Elements


1
Understanding Multimedia Elements Sound,
Animation, Video
  • Unit C

2
Objectives
  • Understand sound
  • Sound on the Web
  • 2-D animation
  • 3-D animation
  • Animation on the Web

3
Objectives
  • Video
  • Video compression video editing
  • Video on the Web

4
Understanding Sound Analog
  • Sound waves
  • Analog wave pattern
  • Volume height of each peak
  • Higher the peak, louder the sound
  • Frequency(pitch) distance between peaks
    measured in hertz(Hz)
  • Greater the distance, lower the sound

5
Understanding Sound Digital
  • Converted to bits via sampling
  • Quality depends on
  • Sample rate number of times sample is taken
    (11.025 kHz, 22.05 kHz 44.1 kHz)
  • Sample size amount of information stored (8 bit
    and 16 bit)

6
Digitizing Process
  • Cassette tape player, videotape player, CD or
    microphone is captured by sound card
  • Software/user controls sample rate and size
  • Sound-editing program used for manipulation

7
Sound File Formats
  • WAV
  • Windows or Macintosh
  • Used on the Web
  • AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format)
  • AIFFC (AIFF Compressed)
  • Windows or Macintosh
  • RealAudio (.ra)
  • Allows streaming of sound over Web
  • MP3 (MPEG Layer 3)
  • Compresses entire songs for Web
  • Near stereo quality

8
MIDI Sound Files
  • Musical Instrument Digital Interface
  • Electronic musical instruments create sound then
    stored on computer
  • Contain code/commands, not digitized sounds
  • Very small files

9
Sound on the Web
  • File size is an issue
  • File compression used for certain file formats
    (RealAudio and MP3)
  • Sounds stored on Web server
  • Media player installed on user computer
  • RealPlayer, Windows Media Player, MP3, QuickTime

10
Streaming Media
  • Audio and video can be played in real time
  • File starts playing immediately doesnt wait
    for full download
  • Connection to web server is continuous

11
Tips for Using Sound on Web
  • Is the sound appropriate? Is there a benefit?
  • Is it a good sound quality?
  • Can you afford the cost of recording the sound?
  • Should you just use sound with still images
    instead of video?
  • Can you stream the files?
  • Can you give the user control?

12
2-D Animation Can Provide
Simulation of actual events
Action and realism in entertainment
Visualization and demonstration in education
13
2-D Animation Issues
  • Movement is made up of many still images
  • Each still image has its own frame
  • Speed of moving these frames
  • Movies on film 24 fps
  • Television 30 fps
  • Computer animation 12-15 fps

14
2-D Animation Types Cel Animation
  • Based on changes that occur from one frame to
    another
  • Background image is stationary
  • Celluloid images placed on background
  • Celluloid images change from frame to frame

15
2-D Animation Types
Cel Animation
16
2-D Animation Types Path Animation
  • Object moved along predetermined path on screen
  • Object can stay the same, be resized or rotated
  • Tweening in an authoring program
  • Define beginning position in one frame
  • Define ending position in another frame
  • Software fills in intervening frames

17
2-D Animation Types
Path Animation
18
2-D Animation Software Allows
  • Frame rate changes
  • Transitions
  • User playback control
  • Looping
  • Object drawing and animating
  • Sound clips

Cheap shareware to expensive authoring packages
19
3-D Animation
  • Games and adventure titles
  • Users are participants, not spectators
  • Much more complex than 2-D
  • Involves
  • Modeling
  • Animation
  • Rendering

20
3-D Modeling and Animation
Draw views by setting points on a grid
Create contours and structure
Define objects motion, lighting perspective
views
21
3-D Rendering
  • Give objects attributes
  • Colors
  • Surface textures
  • Transparency amounts
  • Programs
  • Strata 3D
  • LightWave 3D
  • 3D Studio Max
  • Maya
  • Houdini

22
3-D Morphing
23
Warping
  • Distort a single image
  • Change a frown into a smile

24
Virtual Reality (VR)
  • Creates an environment that surrounds the user so
    the user becomes part of the experience
  • Examples
  • Boeing Corporation flight simulators
  • CD-based adventure games Myst and 7th Guest
  • Virtual tour sites
  • Some require special equipment like goggles
    gloves

25
Animation on the Web
  • Animated text
  • Animated GIF
  • Macromedia Director applications
  • 3-D environments

You must have the plug-ins to play these
animations!
26
Animated Text on the Web
  • Rotating, zooming, scrolling, distorting,
    blinking
  • Use authoring software
  • Use HTML
  • ltblinkgtHellolt/blinkgt

Scrolling Text
Scrolling Text
Scrolling Text
27
Animated GIFs on the Web
Each .gif image file is a little different
28
Macromedia Applications on the Web
Director or Flash to author
Shockwave to deliver on Web
29
VRML
  • Virtual Reality Modeling Language
  • Creates interactive 3-D on the Web
  • User is moved through the environment (instead of
    object moving)
  • Environment is dynamic and always changing

30
Understanding Video
  • Video can be
  • Very expensive
  • Time-consuming to create
  • Very large files
  • Video can be found in stock film companies
  • Video must be digitized from an analog signal

31
Digitizing an Analog Video Signal
32
Editing Video
  • Digitized video is not linear like analog video
  • Can access any part of video randomly
  • Can cut and paste
  • Can use special effects and transitions

33
Digital Video File Size Considerations
  • 1 second of high-quality color video on ¼ of the
    computer screen 1 MB file size
  • Determining file size
  • Frame rate lower the better (15 fps minimum)
  • Image size use smaller playback window
  • Color depth 8-bit vs. 16-bit vs. 24-bit color

34
Video Compression/Decompression
  • Codecs
  • Lossless gives larger file by preserving exact
    image
  • Lossy eliminates some image data smaller file,
    but poorer quality

35
MPEG Compression Format
  • Motion Pictures Experts Group
  • Reduce file size by eliminating redundant
    information (backgrounds)
  • Also looks for changes from frame to frame

36
Video Compression Software
  • Apples QuickTime and QuickTime for Windows
  • Dual platform
  • Lossy compression
  • Microsoft Windows Media Player
  • AVI format
  • Both synchronize sound and motion
  • Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language
    (SMIL)
  • Markup language like HTML

37
Video Editing Software
Adobe Premiere
  • Transitions dissolves, wipes, spins
  • Animations fly-in logo
  • Special effects twisting, zooming, rotating
  • Filters color balance, brightness/contrast,
    blurring, distortions, morphing

38
Video on the Web
  • Only practical for 56K or higher connections
  • Planning
  • Is animation or still images with sound better?
  • Are stock videos better?
  • Quality-versus-cost and relevance of video to
    application

39
Video Transfer Types HTTP
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol
  • Downloads entire video to hard drive of user
  • User can play it over and over quickly
  • Better for small video clips

40
Video Transfer Types RTSP
  • Real-Time Streaming Protocol
  • Continuous playing/streaming
  • Not saved on hard drive
  • User can randomly access any video part
  • Better for large videos and live broadcasts

41
Streaming Video
  • HorizonLive live video presentations

42
Video and Virtual Reality
  • Apple QuickTime VR system
  • iPEX system
  • Starts with panoramic photographs
  • Camera rotated after each picture for 360 degrees
  • Photographs electronically stitched together
  • User can navigate and zoom (White House site)

43
Issue The Napster Controversy
  • Intellectual Property Rights and Emerging Web
    Technologies
  • Sharing MP3 files through the web
  • Recording Industry Association of America filed
    suit

44
Understanding Multimedia Elements Sound,
Animation, Video
  • End
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