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Business Process Technology

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Dirk Draheim Business Process Technology A Unified View on Business Processes, Workflows and Enterprise Applications Figures Listings Figures Fig. 1.1. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Business Process Technology


1
Business Process Technology
Dirk Draheim
  • A Unified View on Business Processes,
  • Workflows and Enterprise Applications

Figures Listings
2
Figures
3
Fig. 1.1. Gaps and tensions between business
process modeling, workflow control and dialogue
control
Business Process Modelling
gaps and tensions
Workflow Definition
Application Programming
4
Fig. 2.1. Applying the cohesion principle of
business process reengineering.
(a)
(d)
(b)
(c)
(e)
(f)
(ii)
(i)
Business units
Business Process Reengineering
(a)
(d)
(b)
(c)
(e)
(f)
(ii)
(i)
5
Fig. 2.2. Identifying and extracting a
potentially parallel activity.
hidden independent activity
1
2
3
5
6
7
8
9
4
4
Business Process Reengineering
5
6
7
time savings
1
2
3
8
9
4
synchronization
parallel split
6
Fig. 2.3. Gaining routine with tasks by running
process instances in parallel.
sequential process execution
1A
2A
3A
1B
2B
3B
1C
2C
3C
parallel process execution
1A
2A
3A
routine
1B
2B
3B
time savings
1C
2C
3C
7
Fig. 2.4. Creating specialized processes for
alternative cases.
sufficient for first case
sufficient for second case
1
2
3
8
9
10
4
5
6
7
Business Process Reengineering
first case
1
2
3
10
4
5
8
9
time savings
decision point
1
2
3
10
6
7
8
9
second case
8
Fig. 2.5. Creating a specialized activity for a
lean case.
sufficient for lean case
4b
4c
1
2
3
5
6
7
4
Business Process Reengineering
standard case
1
2
3
5
6
7
4
decision point
1
2
3
4b
4c
7
lean case
time savings
9
Fig. 2.6. Business process management lifecycle.
Business Process Optimization
Business Process (Re-)Definition
Business Process Monitoring
Business Process Execution
10
Fig. 2.7. The Deming wheel for quality control.
11
Fig. 2.8. The business continuity management
lifecycle according to British standard BS 25999.
Understanding the Organization
Embedding BCM in the Organization
Exercising Maintaining Reviewing
BCM program management
Determining BCM Strategy
Developing and Implementing BCM Response
12
Fig. 2.9. The stages of the incident timeline
according to BS 25999.
back to normal as quickly as possible
Incident Response
Business Continuity
Recovery/Resumption
13
Fig. 2.10. ITIL v3 best practices stack tackling
business continuity.
Event Management
Service Catalogue Management
Incident Management
Request Fulfilment
Service Level Management
Problem Management
Capacity Management
Access Management
Availability Management
Service Operation
Continuity Management
Service Transition
Service Design
IT Security Management
Service Strategy
Supplier Management
14
Fig. 2.11. Enterprise application integration as
seen by IBM's On Demand Business strategy.
partners suppliers
Integration along the value chain
Manufacturing
Purchasing
Sales
Distribution
horizontal integration
vertical integration
15
Fig. 2.12. Forrester Research poll on which
business problems are important resp. very
important.
16
Fig. 2.13. Total impact of IT ownership.
Total Impact of IT Ownership
Auxiliary Benefits
Total Cost of Ownership
Total Benefit of Ownership
Hardware Costs
Software Costs
Operations Costs
Cost Savings
Profit
Availability
Scalability
Security
Probabilistic Costs
Quality of Service
17
3.1. System architecture of IBM's San Francisco
framework.
Independent Software Vendor Solutions
Core Business Processes
Common Business Objects
Foundation
Java Virtual Machine
18
Fig. 3.2. Efforts for division of labour and
productizing according to Frederik Brooks.
Interfaces System Integration
Programming System
Program
?3
?3
Generalization Testing Documentation Maintenance
Programming System Product
Programming Product
19
Fig. 3.3. An example manufacturing execution
system.
800
830
900
930
1000
1030
1100
1130
1200
923
03
05
09
12
14
16
A1
01
06
07
10
15
17
A2
02
04
08
11
13
A3
02
07
14
B1
03
08
B2
01
09
15
B3
06
10
B4
04
11
B5
05
12
B6
02
01
07
05
09
C1
03
06
04
08
C2
20
Fig. 3.4. Production planning, execution and
control system architecture.
21
Fig. 3.5. Industrial information integration
backbone.
Production Planning System (PPS)
PPS
production schedule
production report
Industrial Information Integration Backbone
Manufacturing Execution System (MES)
MES
operational commands
operational response
operational commands
operational response
Machine and Device Control
Machine and Device Control
22
Fig. 3.6 Cut-out of the Wal-Mart data warehouse
schema.
23
Fig. 3.7. Completely crosscutting information
backbone.
Business Intelligence (BI)
BI
process report
planning rules
ADW
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
ERP
Industrial Information Integration Backbone
production schedule
production report
MES
Manufacturing Execution System (MES)
operational commands
operational response
operational commands
operational response
Machine and Device Control
Machine and Device Control
24
Fig. 3.8. Direct analytical processing for
manufacturing data.
ERP
Analytical Processing
Industrial Information Integration Backbone
MES
25
Fi.g 4.1. Business process definition and
business process supervisory.
A
B
C
D
V
V
business process design
E
F
G
H
A
B
C
D
V
V
A
B
C
D
V
V
A
B
C
D
V
V
A
B
C
D
V
V
business process supervisory
G
E
F
H
E
F
G
H
E
F
G
H
E
F
H
G
26
Fig. 4.2. Workflow supervisory and workflow
automation.
A
B
C
D
V
V
A
B
C
D
V
V
A
B
C
D
V
V
A
B
C
D
V
V
workflow supervisory
G
E
F
H
E
F
G
H
E
F
G
H
E
F
H
G
state changes
new tasks
workflow automation
  • Task C
  • Task F
  • Task E
  • Task D
  • Task H
  • Task D

Dialogue
27
Fig. 4.3. Workflow Management Coalition workflow
reference model.
Definition Tool
Administrator
generates
references
references
Process Definition
interprets
Organizational Role/Model Data
Workflow Control Data
maintains
refers to
Workflow Application
Workflow Engine
Workflow Application
Workflow Applications
invokes
uses
interact via work list
Workflow Enactment Service
update
Workflow Relevant Data
Work List
invokes
Workflow Application
Worklist Handler
Workflow Application
Workflow Applications
invokes
User Interface
User
external products and data
software components and data of workflow
management system
28
Fig. 4.4. Complex business process state
resulting from business process cycle.
C
C
B1
B
instantiation
A1
B2
A2
B3
A
V
V
A3
A4
29
Fig. 4.5. Supervision of production process
instances.
800
830
900
930
1000
1030
923
A1 A2 A3
03
05
09
12
A1
A
01
06
07
10
A2
02
04
08
11
A3
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6
02
07
B1
03
08
B2
B
01
09
B3
06
B4
04
B5
05
B6
C1 C2
C
02
01
C1
03
06
C2
30
Fig. 4.6. Example ARIS process chain.
Event
Function
Information Object
Business Partner Organizational Unit
Output
Customer Order
Customer order arrived
Sales
Order Processing
Confirmation
Order accepted
Order Planning
Production Plan
Order included in planning
31
Fig. 4.7. Events in business process modeling
languages and Petri nets.
capture registration
capture registration
registration captured
registration captured
(i)
(ii)
V
insert data
confirm registration
insert data
confirm registration
registration confirmed
data inserted
data inserted
registration confirmed
V
condition or place
process registration
event or transition
process registration
registration processed
registration processed
32
Fig. 4.8. Alternatives to express decision points
in visual process specifications.
yes
cond
DIN66001 flowchart
(i)
no
cond
BPMN
(ii)
decision construct
default alternative
cond
event-driven process chain
XOR
(iii)
?cond
33
Fig. 4.9. Modeling an expiring condition.
V
confirm registration
insert data
If the registration has been confirmed and the
data has been inserted proceed with processing
the registration. If the data has been inserted
and it takes more than 1 day before the
confirmation has been completed, repeat the data
insertion step in order to check whether the data
is still valid.
process registration
34
Fig. 4.10. Specification of starting an operation
process in a hospital.
operation requested
V
operation
surgeon team available
operating theatre available
35
4.11. A Petri net specification of starting an
operation process.
operation requested
surgeon team available
surgeon team not available
operation
OP theatre not available
OP theatre available
36
4.12. Alternative specification of starting an
operation process.
operation requested
operation
V
surgeon team available and OP theatre available
37
Fig. 4.13. Specification of an even simpler start
of an operation process.
operation requested
V
operation
operating theatre available
38
4.14. A Petri net specification of the operation
process.
operation requested
operation
OP theatre available
maintenance requested
OP theatre maintenance
39
Fig. 4.15. Attempt to model processes competing
for a resource.
operation
operation requesting step
V
maintenance requesting step
operating theatre maintenance
V
40
Fig. 4.16. End synchronization of two business
processes.
process A
B
A
process C
V
E
F
V
C
D
process B
41
Fig. 4.17. Synchronization of two business
processes at a synchronization point.
process A
B
A
E
F
V
V
V
C
D
G
H
process B
42
4.18. Business process synchronization in
presence of cycles.
(i)
C
B
V
b
F
A
1
a
d
V
V
g
D
E
V
(ii)
C
B
2
V
b
F
A
a
d
V
V
g
D
E
3
V
(iii)
C
B
4
V
b
F
A
5
a
d
V
V
g
D
E
3
V
(iv)
C
B
6
4
V
b
F
A
a
d
V
V
g
D
E
7
3
V
(v)
C
B
6
4
V
b
F
A
9
a
d
V
V
g
D
E
8
3
V
43
Fig. 4.19. History of the business process
instance in Fig. 4.18.
4
6
2
1
8
5
7
3
9
44
Fig. 4.20. Modified version of the business
process model in Fig. 4.18.
C
B
11
4
V
b
true
e
F
A
a
d
V
V
g
D
E
false
8
10
V
45
5.1. Building a model hierarchy bottom-up.
decomposition
abstraction
decomposition
abstraction
46
5.2. A business process model with data flow and
role specifications.
e
m
b
q
s
u
B
E
J
M
a
c
f
h
k
m
p
d
w
C
F
K
N
H
I
A
P
g
n
t
D
G
L
O
r
i
y
47
5.3. Example for decomposition with unique start
and exit points.
AH
IP
d
w
a
m
e
s
u
b
q
J
M
B
E
k
m
p
w
a
c
f
h
d
d
K
N
I
P
C
F
H
A
n
g
t
L
O
i
y
D
G
r
48
Fig. 5.4. Transforming a decomposition that spans
more than one level.
A
B
C
D
E
C
D
E
49
Fig. 5.5. Transforming an explicitly given
hierarchy.
E
C
D
E
C
D
50
Fig. 5.6. Recursion via levels.
x
A
B
a
b
w
x
g
CD
w
y
C
D
g
d
w
y
a
w
AB
51
Fig. 5.7. The usage of case distinctions in data
flow diagrams.
x
x
A
B
b
w
b
A
B
w
x
g
x
g
(i)
(ii)
CD
CD
52
Fig. 5.8. An instance of the business process
model in Fig. 5.6.
a
A
x
g
w
C
y
g
a
w
A
x
a
g
w
y
C
D
g
d
w
53
Fig. 5.9. Flattening the recursive business
process specification in Fig. 5.6.
x
A
B
a
b
w
x
g
y
w
a
C
D
d
y
54
Fig. 5.10. Self-recursive business process model
that is not end-recursive.
x
A
B
a
b
b
x
a
AB
b
55
Fig. 5.11. An instance of the business process
model in Fig. 5.10.
A
B
x
A
B
x
A
B
x
x
A
B
56
Fig. 5.12. Flattening the recursive business
process specification in Fig. 5.10.
c0
x
A
B
c0
a
a
b
b
x
cgt0
b
a
a
cc1
cc-1
57
Fig. 5.13. Example for decomposition with
multiple start and exit points.
e
m
AD
EL
MP
ii
viii
v
ix
w
a
f
m
i
iii
x
vi
xiv
xi
g
n
iv
xii
vii
xiii
e
m
u
b
M
B
ix
ii
i
e
m
p
w
a
c
f
a
m
q
s
E
J
viii
v
N
P
xiv
C
A
xi
iii
f
h
k
m
d
g
n
F
H
K
I
x
vi
t
O
y
D
xiii
iv
g
n
G
r
L
i
xii
vii
58
Fig. 5.14. Alternative control flows for a sub
business process from Fig. 5.2.
c1
e
b
q
B
E
c2
a
c
f
h
d
(i)
A
C
F
H
XOR
OR
g
else
t
r
D
G
e
b
q
B
E
a
c
f
h
d
(ii)
A
C
F
H
OR
v
g
t
r
D
G
e
b
q
B
E
a
c
f
h
d
(iii)
A
C
F
H
v
v
g
t
r
D
G
59
Fig. 5.15. Decomposing a business process
according to business goals.
e
B
E
n
b
L
O
g
m
D
G
J
q
r
i
s
t
y
m
c
a
w
a
w
BP
AL
MO
A
n
e
m
B
E
b
q
J
M
u
s
a
c
f
h
k
m
p
d
w
C
F
K
N
H
I
A
P
g
y
t
n
i
r
D
G
L
O
60
Fig. 5.16. Overlapping business goals that are
compatible in a hierarchy.
c1
e
b
q
B
E
c2
a
c
f
h
d
a
A
C
F
H
XOR
OR
g
t
r
else
D
G
61
Fig. 5.17. An alternative business process
specification with duplicated activities yielding
more options for decomposition.
e
b
m
u
q
s
d
B
E
J
M
H
I
P
w
a
c
f
h
k
m
p
d
w
C
F
K
N
H
I
A
P
g
t
n
y
r
i
d
w
D
G
L
O
H
I
P
62
Fig. 5.18. An example business goal oriented
decomposition.
b
BEHIJMP
v
w
ii
f
ACDG
a
w
FHIKNP
i
iv
vi
iii
r
w
HILOP
vii
e
m
u
w
b
b
q
s
d
B
E
J
M
H
I
P
v
ii
h
k
m
p
d
w
c
f
f
a
F
K
N
H
I
P
C
A
i
iii
vi
n
y
g
t
r
i
d
w
r
L
O
H
I
P
D
G
iv
vii
63
Fig. 5.19. Parallel decomposition of activities
and transitions.
AD
EL
MP
w
a
efg
mmn
e
m
u
b
M
B
ix
ii
e
m
f
p
w
a
c
a
q
s
m
E
J
viii
v
N
P
xiv
C
A
i
xi
iii
f
h
k
m
d
g
n
F
H
K
I
x
vi
t
O
y
D
xiii
iv
g
n
G
r
L
i
xii
vii
64
Fig. 5.20. Completely symmetric decomposition of
nodes and edges in a graph.
65
Fig. 5.21. Simple example for parallel
decomposition of activities and transitions.
AC
DE
a
w
de
d
w
b
B
D
a
?
A
g
E
C
w
e
66
Fig. 5.22. Tyical structural frictions in a
combined business process and system model.
Customer System Analyst
Visio
EPCs Function Trees Task Models
MindMap
Word
Articles
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EPCs State Charts Class Diagrams
Word
System Designer Developer
67
Fig. 5.23. Mitigating structural frictions in a
combined business process and system model.
selected business process notation
single selected modeling tool
other notation
68
Fig. 5.24. Variant Modeling.
customer process (ii)
reference process
customer process (i)
customer process (iii)
sales modularization
natural on-the-fly hierarchy
Home Delete Change
Articles
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Home
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NO
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Change House ?
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Home
Ground Solid Wall Thick Window Glass Door
Wood Roof Red Pool 2m
Result
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Wall
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Error
Change
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69
Fig. 6.1. Semi-formal formation rules for
structured flowcharts.
(i) basic activity
A
C
(ii) sequence
D
C
D
C
C
(iii) case
a
D
D
y
(iv) do-while
a
C
C
n
n
(v) repeat-until
a
C
C
y
70
6.2. Example flowchart that is not a D-flowchart.
n
n
a
b
A
B
C
D
y
y
71
Fig. 6.3. Characterization of bisimilarity for
business process models.
?
A
A
(i)
?
?
A
A
C
D
C
D
iff
(ii)
?
C
E
C
E
y
y
?
a
a
?
iff
(iii)
n
n
?
D
F
D
F
72
Fig. 6.4. Example business process model that is
not structured.
y
a
A
n
y
b
B
C
n
73
Fig. 6.5. Structured business process models that
replace the non-structured one in Fig. 6.4.
y
y
a
a
A
A
n
n
C
C
n
n
b
b
B
B
y
y
A
A
n
(i)
(ii)
a
?a
A
y
n
y
B
B
74
Fig. 6.6. Block-structured versus arbitrary
business process model.
6
?
y
a
A
6
n
7
y
a
A
4
C
n
1
?
n
b
B
B
y
2
y
b
C
n
A
7
ii
y
6
5
6
ii
a
A
a
4
B
ii
n
1
3
C
iv
C
?
B
3
2
b
2
b
2
1
B
1
B
?
5
A
a
A
a
75
Fig. 6.7. Listing enriched with arrows for making
jump structure explicit.
01 WHILE alpha DO 02 A 03 B 04 IF beta THEN
GOTO 02 05 C
76
Fig. 6.8. Example business process hierarchy.
C
n
b
B
DoA

y
A
B
DoA

DoA
y
a
A
77
Fig. 6.9. Example for a deeper business process
hierarchy.
C
n
b
B
DoA

y
B
Ado

Ado
A
DoA

DoA
y
a
A
78
Fig. 6.10. Structured business process model that
replaces the non-structured one in Fig. 6.2.
n
n
a
b
A
B
C
D
y
y
B
A
y
?a
B
n
C
79
Fig. 6.11. Two example business processes without
structured presentation using no other than their
own primitives.
reject workpiece due to defects
quality must be improved
amount exceeds threshold
revision is necessary
quality insurance
handle workpiece
approve purchase order
prepare purchase order
y
y
y
y
n
n
n
n
(i)
(ii)
dispose deficient workpiece
finish workpiece
submit purchase order
80
Fig. 6.12. Business process with cycle that is
exited via two distinguishable paths.
y
y
B
A
b
a
n
n
C
D
81
Fig. 6.13. Resolution of business process cycles
with multiple distinguishable exits by the usage
of auxiliary logic and state.
dfalse
y
y
B
a
A
dtrue
A
n
n
d
C
D
82
Fig. 6.14. Two business processes that are not
behavioral equivalent.
A
B
B
(i)
(ii)
y
y
a
a
A
n
n
A
C
C
83
Fig. 7.1. Process definition with one form for
each activity as implementing system dialogue.
A
B
C
D
Start
Start
Start
Start
a
b
c
d
a
b
c
d
84
Fig. 7.2. Strictly chained forms of a
terminal-server style workflow system.
A02a1
A02a2
A02a3
A01a1
A01a2
A01a3
Tasks
Tasks
foo
1.
ding
1.
ben
1.
you
1.
to
1.
and
1.
A01 A02 A03
A01 A03 B02
bar
2.
bats
2.
ach
2.
can
2.
und
2.
tha
2.
zapf
3.
mac
3.
can
3.
try
3.
ers
3.
ttt
3.
Submit
Submit
Submit
Submit
Submit
Submit
Start
Start
B01b1
B01b2
B01b3
C01c1
C01c2
C01c3
Tasks
Tasks
asd
1.
aba
1.
all
1.
fer
1.
orzu
1.
nefg
1.
A03 B02 B01
A03 B02 C01
ist
2.
nix
2.
och
2.
qwe
2.
deda
2.
ga
2.
nun
3.
hier
3.
den
3.
dd
3.
bnu
3.
tuht
3.
Submit
Submit
Submit
Submit
Submit
Submit
Start
Start
85
Fig. 7.3. Alternative activity support by a
superform-based dialogue.
A
Start
a b c d
a/b/c/d
86
Fig. 7.4. Workflow system that allows for saving
screen states.
A02a
A03a
A02a
A02a
Tasks
Tasks
Tasks
Tasks
foo
1.
this
1.
foo
1.
foo
1.
A01 A02 A03
A01 A02 A03
A01 A02 B03
A01 B03 B02
b
2.
isr
2.
b
2.
bar
2.
3.
eally
3.
3.
asd
3.
Save
Save
Save
Save
Start
Start
Start
Start
Submit
Submit
Submit
Submit
87
Fig. 7.5. Exploiting windowing for saving screen
states of a workflow system.
A02a
A02a
A02a
Tasks
Tasks
Tasks
Tasks
foo
1.
foo
1.
1.
foo
1.
A03a
A03a
A01 A02 A03
A01 A02 A03
A01 A02 A03
A01 A02 A03
b
2.
b
2.
2.
b
2.
this
this
3.
3.
3.
3.
isr
isr
Submit
Submit
Submit
ea
eally
Start
Start
Start
Start
Submit
Submit
88
Fig. 7.6. Virtual screens versus viewports versus
windows.
virtual screens
computer terminal
windows
viewports
89
Fig. 7.7. Exploiting the root pane of a windowing
system as worklist.
90
Fig. 7.8. Fully exploiting windowing for saving
screen states of a workflow system.
91
Fig. 7.9. Process definition with complex
activity implementing system dialogues.
A
B
C
D
Start
Start
Start
Start
a3
b3
c3
d3
a1
b1
c1
d1
a3
b3
c3
d3
a1
b1
c1
d1
a2
b2
c2
d2
a2
b2
c2
d2
92
Fig. 7.10. Strictly chained process execution in
a terminal-server style workflow system.
A02a1
A02a2
A02a3
A01a1
A01a2
A01a3
Tasks
Tasks
foo
1.
ding
1.
ben
1.
you
1.
to
1.
and
1.
A01 A02 A03
A01 A03 B02
bar
2.
bats
2.
ach
2.
can
2.
und
2.
tha
2.
zapf
3.
mac
3.
can
3.
try
3.
ers
3.
ttt
3.
Submit
Submit
Submit
Submit
Submit
Submit
Start
Start
B01b1
B01b2
B01b3
C01c1
C01c2
C01c3
Tasks
Tasks
asd
1.
aba
1.
all
1.
fer
1.
orzu
1.
nefg
1.
A03 B02 B01
A03 B02 C01
ist
2.
nix
2.
och
2.
qwe
2.
deda
2.
ga
2.
nun
3.
hier
3.
den
3.
dd
3.
bnu
3.
tuht
3.
Submit
Submit
Submit
Submit
Submit
Submit
Start
Start
93
Fig. 7.11. Roles attached to a workflow
definition.
B
E
H
A
D
G
I
C
F
Role X
Role Y
Role Z
T
U
V
PT
PU
PV
94
Fig. 7.12. Repaintings of the workflow definition
in Fig. 7.11.
D
U
E
A
T
U
V
A
D
D
(i)
(ii)
F
T
U
U
U
B
E
B
E
T
U
T
U
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
D
C
F
F
U
V
T
U
U
C
E
T
U
V
V
F
U
V
95
Fig. 7.13. Business process model with the same
role attached to multiple activities.
B
A
C
Role X
T
U
V
96
Fig. 7.14. Attempt to detail the meaning of the
process model in Fig. 7.13.
B
A
C
Role X
TUV
T
U
V
97
Fig. 7.15. Business process with complex actor
assignment for conducting a business trip.
manager A
manager B
manager C
Team B
Team A
Team C
Team C
Team A
Team B
deputies
employee
team manager
employee
travel application
review travel application
travel
travel accepted
98
Fig. 7.16. General dynamic actor scheduling in
workflow automation.
enterprise resource data
workflow history
dynamic staffing
Task
99
Fig. 8.1. The evolution of SOA paradigms and
visions.
Flexible Processes
Software Productizing
B2B
2000
EAI
1996
100
Fig. 8.2. Gartner Group tier terminology for
service-oriented architecture.
shared business logic shared data IO
iii
iv
Enterprise Databases
Services
Tier A
i
ii
results feedback
updates queries
Online Application
Internet Server Application
Local Batch Application
EDI Application
Mobile Application
Tier B
Internet Client Web Browser
Desktop PC
Dump Terminal
Batch Application
Mobile Client
Tier C
101
Fig. 8.3. Example CORBA service bus for banking
applications.
Internet Banking
Telephone Banking
ERP
Application Server
SAP
CORBA Service Bus
COBOL
COBOL
30 million bank accounts
IMS-MSG
IMS-MSG
IMS/DC
IMS/DC
IMS
IMS
102
Fig. 8.4. The web services technology stack then
and now.
BPEL4People
UDDI
BPEL
UDDI
JBI
WSDL
WSDL
SOAP
SOAP
HTTP
HTTP
103
Fig. 8.5. Exploitation of concrete web services
technologies for building business process
management systems.
full application embedding
Business Process Management Suite
Auxiliary Application
Visual Programming Interface
Client Presentation
WSDL
Business Logic
BPEL BPEL4PEOPLE
Wrapper
SOAP
Queue
ESB
Rapid Development Tool
Forms Designer
service embedding
Programming Interface
service embedding
104
Fig. 8.6. Stagewise development of silo software
systems.
Project A
Project B
Project C
105
Fig. 8.7. Iterative development of a silo
software system.
Project
106
Fig. 8.8. Division of a project into sub projects.
distribution
integration
Project
107
Fig. 8.9. Software reuse across project
boundaries.
Project A
Project B
Project C
reuse
reuse
SOA Governance
Project D
108
Fig. 8.10. Software reuse from a maintained
software product.
Project A
reuse
reuse
Project B
109
Fig. 8.11. SOA governance as ubiquitous reuse.
Projects Subprojects Iterations
reuse
110
Fig. 9.1. Concrete business process technologies.
Business Process Modelling Tools
Monitoring
Simulation
Business Process Management Suites
V
V
V
Workflow Management Systems
A
V
B
V
E
F
111
Fig. 9.2. Business process model for conducting a
business trip.
employee
travel rejected
team manager
employee
employee
employee
travel expense report
travel application
review travel application
travel
travel accepted
v
revision needed
secretary
support travel
travel improved
employee
team manager
improve travel application
travel withdrawn
112
Fig. 9.3. Workflow chart for conducting a
business trip.
employee
rejected travel information
team manager
withdrawn travel information
rejection form
it is possible to reject the application
the page has been revisited
withdraw travel
accept or reject
true
team manager
employee
employee
travel application
travel expense report
travel application
travel application form
review travel application
acceptance form
travel expense report
travel expense form
accept or return
true
it is possible to return the application
secretary
delete
travel data
support travel
employee
continue
revision form
improve form
113
Fig. 9.4. Basic workflow chart.
unique choice
D1
f1
multiple choice
s1
Dp
fp
A
E1
sm
g1
gk
Ek
114
Fig. 9.5. Implicit versus explicit multiple
choice.
true
true
true
B1
B1
v
s
?s
s
?s
115
Fig. 9.6. Deferred server actions as entries to
workflows.
G
I
J
C
K
M
A
H
B
L
D
N
E
O
P
R
Q
F
S
R
Q
F
S
G
H
G
I
H
B
J
I
K
M
B
J
C
L
D
N
K
M
C
L
D
N
O
E
P
O
R
E
P
Q
F
S
R
O
M
F
S
E
P
D
N
116
Fig. 9.7. Standard example for synchronization in
workflow charts.
Side effect bfalse cfalse
Side effect btrue
Activation condition c
(i)
BP
BS
BF
true
AP
DP
DS
DF
AS
AF
true
CP
CS
CF
Activation condition b
Side effect ctrue
B
A
D
(ii)
v
v
C
117
Fig. 9.8. An enterprise system landscape before
integration.
118
Fig. 9.9. Enterprise application integration with
the help of workflow technology.
B
A
V
C
D
G
V
E
H
V
F
V
I
119
Fig. 9.10. Inserting auxiliary specification
between client pages and immediate server actions.
e1
(i)
A
e2
I
(ii)
c1
A
c2
J
120
Fig. 9.11. Synchronizing auxiliary activity
against form submission.
worklist
true
A
D
B
I
H
C
E
true
J
121
Fig. 9.12. Alternative insertion of auxiliary
specification between client pages and immediate
server actions.
e1
I
c1
A
c2
J
e2
122
Fig. 9.13. Synchronizing auxiliary activity
against worklist selection.
worklist
C1
a1
true
A
B
I
H
a2
true
C2
K
c1
c2
L
123
Fig. 9.14. Business process platform mitigating
gaps and tensions between business process
modeling, workflow control and dialogue control.
Business Process Modelling
integration and tracing
124
Listings
125
Listing 6.1. Textual presentation of the business
process in Fig. 6.2. with a jump into the loop.
01 REPEAT 02 A 03 B 04 UNTIL alpha 05
C 06 IF beta THEN GOTO 03 07 D
126
Listing 6.2. Alternative textual presentation of
the business process in Fig. 6.2. with a jump out
of the loop.
01 A 02 REPEAT 03 B 04 IF NOT alpha THEN
GOTO 01 05 C 06 UNTIL NOT beta 07 D
127
Listing 6.3. Textual presentation of the business
process in Fig. 6.4.
01 WHILE alpha DO 02 A 03 B 04 IF beta THEN
GOTO 02 05 C
128
Listing 6.4. Textual presentation of business
process (i) in Fig. 6.4.
01 WHILE alpha DO 02 A 03 B 04 WHILE beta DO
BEGIN 05 A 06 WHILE alpha DO 07 A 08
B 09 END 10 C
129
Listing 6.5. Textual presentation of business
process (ii) in Fig. 6.4.
01 WHILE alpha DO 02 A 03 B 04 WHILE beta DO
BEGIN 05 REPEAT 06 A 07 UNTIL NOT
alpha 08 B 09 END 10 C
130
Listing 6.6. go to-Program for seeking the
position of a value in an array according to
204.
for i1 step 1 until m do if Aix then go to
found fi not found im1 mi
AixBi0 found BiBi1
131
Listing 6.7. Reformulation of the go to-Program
in Listing 6.6.
01 i1 02 WHILE iltm DO BEGIN 03 IF Aix
THEN GOTO 10 04 ii1 05 END 07 mi 08
Aix 09 Bi0 10 BiBi1
132
Listing 6.8. Structured Program for seeking the
position of a value in an array according to
204.
01 i1 02 WHILE (iltm and (NOT (Aix))) DO
BEGIN 03 ii1 04 END 05 IF NOT (iltm) THEN
BEGIN 06 mi 07 Aix 08 Bi0 09
END 10 BiBi1
133
Listing 6.9. Making unique the finalizing actions
that react on the single conditions of a composed
loop condition.
01 i1 02 WHILE iltm and (NOT (Aix)) DO
BEGIN 03 ii1 04 END 05 IF NOT (iltm) THEN
BEGIN 06 mi 07 Amx 08 Bm1 09
END ELSE BEGIN 10 BiBi1 11 END
134
Listing 6.10. Moving special actions that react
on the single conditions of a composed loop
condition into the loop.
01 stopfalse 02 i0 03 WHILE (NOT stop)
BEGIN 04 ii1 05 IF igtm THEN BEGIN 06
mm1 07 Amx 08 Am1 09
stopTRUE 10 END ELSE BEGIN 11 IF Aix
THEN BEGIN 12 BiBi1 13
stoptrue 14 END 15 END 16 END
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