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Chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion

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Title: Chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion


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Chapter 10Motivation and Emotion
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The Motivation of Hunger and Eating Biological
Factors
  • Brain regulation
  • Lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus
  • Paraventricular nucleus
  • Glucose and digestive regulation
  • Glucostatic theory
  • Hormonal regulation
  • Insulin and leptin

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Figure 10.2 The hypothalamus. This small
structure at the base of the forebrain plays a
role in regulating a variety of human biological
needs, including hunger. The detailed blowup
shows that the hypo-thalamus is made up of a
variety of discrete areas. Scientists used to
believe that the lateral and ventromedial areas
were the brains start and stop centers for
eating. However, more recent research suggests
that the paraventricular nucleus is more crucial
to the regulation of hunger.
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The Motivation of Hunger and Eating
Environmental Factors
  • Learned preferences and habits
  • Exposure
  • When, as well as what
  • Food-related cues
  • Appearance, odor, effort required
  • Stress and arousal
  • Link between heightened arousal and overeating

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Eating and Weight The Roots of Obesity
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Body Mass Index and adoption study
  • The Concept of Set Point
  • Size not number of fat cells
  • Dietary restraint
  • Disinhibition

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Figure 10.5 Dietary intake in modern versus
paleolithic times. Eaton, Shostak, and Konner
(1988) estimated the makeup of our paleolithic
ancestors typical diet and compared it to that
of the average person in modern society. They
maintain that there have been some striking
shifts in dietary intake, and that modern humans
ignore nutritional requirements that are the
product of millions of years of evolution.
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Figure 10.6 The heritability of weight. Body mass
index is a measure of weight that controls for
variations in height. Twin studies reveal that
identical twins are much more similar in body
mass index than fraternal twins, suggesting that
genetic factors account for much of the variation
among people in the propensity to become
overweight. (Data from Stunkard et al., 1990)
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Sexual Motivation and Behavior Determining Desire
  • Hormonal regulation
  • Estrogens
  • Androgens
  • Testosterone
  • Pheromones
  • Synchronized menstrual cycles
  • Aphrodisiacs
  • Erotic materials
  • Attraction to a Partner
  • The Coolidge effect
  • Evolutionary factors

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Figure 10.7 Rape victim-offender
relationships. Based on a national survery of
3187 college women, Mary Koss and her colleagues
(1988) identified a sample of 468 women who
indicated that they had beena victim of rape and
who provided information on their relationship to
the offender. Contrary to the prevailing
stereotype, only a small minority (11) of these
women were raped by a stranger. (Data based on
Koss et al., 1988)
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Figure 10.8 Parental investment theory and mating
preferences. Parental investment theory suggests
that basic differences between males and females
in parental investment have great adaptive
significance and lead to gender differences in
mating propensities and preferences, as outlined
here.
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Figure 10.9 The gender gap in how much people
think about sex. This graph summarizes data on
how often males and females think about sex,
based on a large-scale survey by Laumann, et al.,
(1994). As evolutionary theorists would predict,
based on parental investment theory, males seem
to manifest more interest in sexual activity than
their female counterparts.
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Figure 10.10 The gender gap in desire for a
variety of sexual partners. Buss and Schmitt
(1993) asked college students about how many
sexual partners they ideally would like to have
for various time intervals ranging up to ones
entire lifetime. As evolutionary theorists would
predict, males are interested in having
considerably more partners than females.
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Figure 10.11 Gender and potential mates
financial prospects. Consistent with evolutionary
theory, Buss (1989) found that females place more
emphasis on potential partners financial
prospects than males do. Moreover, he found that
this trend transcended culture. The specific
results for 6 of the 37 cultures studied by Buss
are shown here.
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Figure 10.12 Gender and potential mates physical
attractiveness. Consistent with evolutionary
theory, Buss (1989) found that all over the
world, males place more emphasis on potential
partners good looks than do females. The
specific results for 6 of the 37 cultures studied
by Buss are shown here.
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Figure 10.13 Evolutionary hypotheses about gender
differences in relationship jealousy. Evolutionary
theory suggests that the issue of paternity
uncertainty creates basic differences between
males and females in the types of infidelity that
will elicit the strongest feelings of jealousy,
as outlined here.
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Figure 10.14 The gender gap in jealousy. Buss et
al. (1992) asked subjects to vividly imagine
scenarios involving either sexual or emotional
infidelity by their partner. Subjects distress
while imagining these scenarios was assessed by
monitoring various indexes of emotional and
physiological arousal. As these results show,
sexual infidelity generated the most distress in
males, whereas emotional infidelity elicited the
most arousal in females.
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The Mystery of Sexual Orientation
  • Heterosexual Bisexual Homosexual
  • A continuum
  • Theories explaining homosexuality
  • Environmental
  • Biological
  • Interactionist

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Figure 10.15 Homosexuality and heterosexuality as
endpoints on a continuum. Sex researchers view
heterosexuality and homosexuality as falling on a
continuum rather than make an all-or-none
distinction. Kinsey and his associates (1948,
1953) created this seven-point scale (from 0 to
6) to describe peoples sexual orientation. They
used the term ambisexual to describe those who
fall in the middle of the scale, but such people
are commonly called bisexual today.
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Figure 10.17 Genetics and sexual orientation. A
concordance rate indicates the percentage of twin
pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the
same characteristic. If relatives who share more
genetic relatedness show higher concordance rates
than relatives who share less genetic overlap,
this evidence suggests a genetic predisposition
to the characteristic. Recent studies of both gay
men and lesbian women have found higher
concordance rates among identical twins than
fraternal twins, who, in turn, exhibit more
concordance than adoptive siblings. These
findings are consistent with the hypothesis that
genetic factors influence sexual orientation.
(Data from Bailey Pillard, 1991 Bailey et al.,
1993)
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Figure 10.18 An interactionist theory regarding
the development of sexual orientation. As the
text explains, Daryl Bem (1996, 1998) has
recently proposed a radically different
theoretical overview of how sexual orientation
develops. His model proposes a developmental
sequence in which biological predispositions
shape youngsters temperament, which in turn
shapes learning experiences. Critics have argued
that Bems model underestimates the importance of
biology, overestimates the similarity of males
and females experiences, and posits a rather
implausible final step. Nonetheless, it is a
thought-provoking theory that is worthy of
empirical research.
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The Human Sexual Response
  • Masters and Johnson 1966
  • Stages
  • Excitement
  • Plateau
  • Orgasm
  • Resolution

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Affiliation and Achievement Motivation
  • Affiliation motive need for social bonds
  • Devote more time to interpersonal activities
  • Worry more about acceptance
  • Achievement motive need to excel
  • Work harder and more persistently
  • Delay gratification
  • Pursue competitive careers
  • Situational influences on achievement motives
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

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Figure 10.22 Determinants of achievement
behavior. According to John Atkinson, a persons
pursuit of achievement in a particular situation
depends on several factors. Some of these
factors, such as need for achievement or fear of
failure, are relatively stable motives that are
part of the persons personality. Many other
factors, such as the likelihood and value of
success or failure, vary from one situation to
another, depending on the circumstances.
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The Elements of Emotional Experience
  • Cognitive component
  • Subjective conscious experience
  • Physiological component
  • Bodily (autonomic) arousal
  • Behavioral component
  • Characteristic overt expressions

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Figure 10.23 Emotion and autonomic
arousal. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is
composed of the nerves that connect to the heart,
blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands
(consult Figure 3.7 for a more detailed view).
The ANS is divided into the sympathetic system,
which mobilizes bodily resources in response to
stress, and the parasympathetic system, which
conserves bodily resources. Emotions are
frequently accompanied by sympathetic ANS
activation, which leads to goose bumps, sweaty
palms, and the other physical responses listed on
the left side of the diagram.
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Figure 10.24 Emotion and the polygraph. A lie
detector measures the autonomic arousal that most
people experience when they tell a lie. After
using nonthreatening questions to establish a
baseline, a polygraph examiner looks for signs of
arousal (such as the sharp change in GSR shown
here) on incriminating questions. Unfortunately,
the polygraph is not a very dependable index of
whether people are lying.
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Theories of Emotion
  • James-Lange
  • Feel afraid because pulse is racing
  • Cannon-Bard
  • Thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the
    cortex and the autonomic nervous system
  • Schacters Two-Factor Theory
  • Look to external cues to decide what to feel
  • Evolutionary theories
  • Innate reactions with little cognitive
    interpretation

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Figure 10.28 Theories of emotion. Three
influential theories of emotion are contrasted
with one another and with the commonsense view.
The James-Lange theory was the first to suggest
that feelings of arousal cause emotion, rather
than vice versa. Schachter built on this idea by
adding a second factorinterpretation (appraisal
and labeling) of arousal.
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Figure 10.29 Primary emotions. Evolutionary
theories of emotion attempt to identify primary
emotions. Three leading theoristsSilvan Tomkins,
Carroll Izard, and Robert Plutchikhave compiled
different lists of primary emotions, but this
chart shows great overlap among the basic
emotions identified by these theorists. (Based on
Mandler, 1984)
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Figure 10.30 Emotional intensity in Plutchiks
model. According to Plutchik, diversity in human
emotion is a product of variations in emotional
intensity, as well as a blending of primary
emotions. Each vertical slice in the diagram is a
primary emotion that can be subdivided into
emotional expressions of varied intensity,
ranging from most intense (top) to least intense
(bottom).
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Happiness
  • Commonsense notions incorrect
  • Income, age, parenthood, intelligence, and
    attractiveness largely uncorrelated
  • Physical health, good social relationships,
    religious faith, and culture modestly correlated
  • Love, marriage, work satisfaction, and
    personality strongly correlated
  • Subjective rather than objective reality
    important

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Figure 10.31 Measuring happiness with a nonverbal
scale. Researchers have used a variety of methods
to estimate the distribution of happiness. For
example, in one study in the United States,
respondents were asked to examine the seven
facial expressions shown and select the one that
comes closest to expressing how you feel about
your life as a whole. As you can see, the vast
majority of participants chose happy faces. (Data
adapted from Myers, 1992)
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Figure 10.33 Happiness and marital status. This
graph shows that the percentage of adults
characterizing themselves as very happy as a
function of marital status. Among both women and
men, happiness shows up more in those who are
married as opposed to those who are separated,
divorced, or who have never married. These data
and many others suggest that marital satisfaction
is a key ingredient of happiness. (Adapted from
Myers, 1999)
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Figure 10.34 Possible causal relations among the
correlates of happiness. Although we have
considerable data on the correlates of happiness,
it is difficult to untangle the possible causal
relationships. For example, we know that there is
a moderate positive correlation between social
activity and happiness, but we cant say for sure
whether high social activity causes happiness or
whether happiness causes people to be more
socially active. Moreover, in light of the
research showing that a third variableextraversio
ncorrelates with both variables, we have to
consider the possibility that extraversion causes
both greater social activity and greater
happiness.
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