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Elements of Poetry

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Title: Elements of Poetry


1
Elements of Poetry
  • http//homepage.mac.com/rush723/school/Elements20
    of20Poetry.htm
  • http//www.buzzle.com/articles/basic-elements-of-p
    oetry.htmll
  • http//www.dscc.edu/weeks/elements_of_poetry.htm
  • WRITING AND GRAMMAR Prentice Hall 2001

2
Suggestions for Reading Poetry
  • Read the poem more than once
  • Look up unfamiliar words
  • Listen for patterns of sound in the poem
  • Pay attention don't "drift off"
  • Read the poem aloud to hear it

3
Look For These Points in the Poems
  • Who is the speaker?
  • What is the occasion?
  • What is the point of the poem?

4
ALLITERATION
  • Alliteration occurs when the initial sounds of a
    word, beginning either with a consonant or a
    vowel, are repeated in close succession. Examples
    Athena and Apollo Nate never knows People
    who pen poetry

5
ALLUSION
  • An indirect reference to a well-known person,
    place, event, literary work, or work of art.
  • ie In Ode on a Grecian Urn,the pictures on the
    face of the urn might appear to be simple
    artwork, but they allude to episodes in the poem.

6
ASSONANCE
  • Assonance occurs when the vowel sound within a
    word matches the same sound in a nearby word, but
    the surrounding consonant sounds are different.
  • "Tune" and "June" are rhymes
  • but
  • "tune" and "food" are assonant
  • (the rhyme is in the vowel sounds only)

7
DENOTATION
  • Denotation is the objective meaning of a word.
  • Denotation can best be remembered as the literal,
    dictionary meaning of a word.

8
CONNOTATION
  • The connotative meaning of a word is based on
    implication, or shared emotional association with
    a word.
  • Connotation is best defined as the emotional
    feeling one gets from a wordnegative or
    positive.
  • Think of how you connect with a word you read in
    a poem is the feeling positive or negative?

9
DICTION
  • Diction refers to both the choice and the order
    of words.
  • Elevated diction is the use of larger, more
    meaningful words.
  • Low diction is the use of more common words.

10
IMAGE
  • As one reads a poem, the mind's eye begins to
    paint a picture. This image is what helps one to
    recall the details of the poem.
  • Poetic imagery alters or shapes the way we see
    what the poem is describing.

11
IMAGERY
  • The use of descriptive language in poetry to
    appeal to the reader's senses and emotions.

12
IRONY
  • Irony refers to a difference between the way
    something appears and what is actually true.
  • Irony refers to a surprising, amusing, or
    interesting contradiction.
  • The key to irony is often the tone, which is
    sometimes harder to detect in poetry than in
    speech.

13
METAPHOR
  • Metaphors immediately identify one object or idea
    with another, in one or more aspects.
  • Metaphors compare two or more items without using
    like or as to relate them.
  • "He's such a pig!"
  • "She's a real goat!"

14
METER
  • Meter is the rhythm established by a poem, and it
    is usually dependent not only on the number of
    syllables in a line but also on the way those
    syllables are accented (stressed and unstressed.)
  • The rhythmic unit is often described as a foot
    patterns of feet can be identified and labeled. A
    foot may be iambic, which follows a beat pattern
    of unstressed and stressed syllables.
  • ( / ) stressed ( ? )unstressed

15
example of Meter
  • For example, read aloud "The DOG went WALKing
    DOWN the ROAD and BARKED." Look at the
    capitalized words. They carry a loud beat. The
    beats will tell you how many iambs there are in
    this foot. Because there are five iambs, this
    line follows the conventions of iambic pentameter
    (pent five), the common form in Shakespeare's
    time.
  • The loud parts are stressed syllables and are
    labeled with a "/" slash mark above and
    unstressed syllables with a "U" mark above.

16
Example of how to label the meter of a line...
  • U / U / U /
    U /
  • The DOG went WALKing DOWN the ROAD
  • U /
  • and BARKED.

17
RHYME RHYTHM
  • The basic definition of rhyme is two words that
    sound alike.
  • There are varieties of rhyme internal rhyme
    functions within a line of poetry.
  • The more common end rhyme occurs at the end of
    the line and at the end of some other line,
    usually within the same stanza.
  • The pattern of words that accent or form beats at
    fixed intervals in the poem.

18
SIMILE STANZA
  • A comparison of two or more unrelated things
    using like or as.
  • A group of lines in a poem, seen as a unit, much
    like a paragraph.

19
SYMBOL
  • A symbol works two ways It has a literal
    meaning, and it also suggests something deeper.
  • It is crucial to distinguish a symbol from a
    metaphor Metaphors are comparisons between two
    seemingly dissimilar things symbols associate
    two things, but their meaning is both literal and
    figurative.
  • Apple pie literally, a dessert /
    symbolically, it
  • represents innocence or homespun values.
  • Raven literally, a black bird /
    symbolically, it
    represents death.

20
TONE
  • The tone of a poem is roughly equivalent to the
    mood it creates in the reader. Think of an actor
    reading a line such as "I could kill you." He can
    read it in a few different ways If he thinks the
    proper tone is murderous anger, he might scream
    the line and cause the veins to bulge in his
    neck. He might assume the tone of cool power and
    murmur the line in a low, even voice. Perhaps he
    does not mean the words at all and laughs as he
    says them. Much depends on interpretation.
  • The poet will convey his attitude toward the
    subject of the poem in the tone of the wording or
    language he/she uses. It might be happy, sad,
    anxious, remorseful, etc.

21
WORD ORDER
  • Word order matterssometimes for clarity of
    meaning (a solo guitar isn't the same as a guitar
    solo) and sometimes for effect ("a dying man" is
    roughly the same as "a man, dying," but the
    effect of the word order matters).

22
POETRY TERMINOLOGY
allusion assonance alliteration connotation couplet
denotation diction epic figurative language hyperbole
image irony lyric poem metaphor meter
mood narrative poem ode personification refrain
rhyme rhyme scheme rhythm simile sonnet
speaker stanza symbol theme tone
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