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Title: ISLAM-Ch11


1
ISLAM-Ch11
2
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3
Beginnings of Islam
  • Spiritually-Islam was founded by Ibrahim/Abraham,
    about 2000 BC
  • Historically-Islam began with the Prophet
    Muhammad, born in 570AD
  • Historically, Islam was founded by Muhammad about
    622AD

4
Beginnings of Islam
  • Ibrahim/Abraham-founder of both Judaism Islam,
    ancestor of Jews and Arabs.
  • Sons
  • Isaac, Ancestor of the Jews
  • Ishmail-Ancestor of the Arabs
  • Over the generations, both Arabs and Jews fell
    away from the true faith
  • God sent prophets, including Moses Jesus to
    recall people to the true faith
  • God sent the last greatest prophet, Muhammad,
    in 570AD

5
Byzantine Empire
  • The Byzantine Empire dominated the region of the
    Mediterranean and much of the middle east just
    before Muhammad was born

6
Middle East, ca. 600 A.D.
7
Arabia
  • The climate of Arabia was mostly desert, except
    for narrow strips along the coasts.
  • In most places, people could not grow crops, so
    the people in most of Arabia lived by herding
    sheep camels.
  • Bedouins-nomadic herders of Arabia, who lived in
    tribes.
  • There was frequent tribal warfare, often over
    water.
  • A bedouin tribal leader was called a sheik.

8
Arabia
  • Near the coasts the climate was milder, and there
    were towns
  • Townspeople were often traders
  • The N-S trade route to Damascus ran through Mecca
    (Makkah)
  • Mecca was also the location of a shrine called
    the Kaaba

9
Before Muhammad-Mecca the Kaaba
  • Kaaba cube shaped shrine in Mecca
  • Before Muhammad, it contained 360 idols (statues
    of pagan gods), as well as a black stone,
    probably a meteorite
  • Kaaba was holy to many Arabs, who at that time
    were mostly polytheistic.

10
The Kaaba in Mecca
11
Muhammad
  • Born about 570 A.D.
  • Raised by relatives
  • -father died before he was born mother died when
    he was six
  • -Taken in by his grandfather, who also soon died.
    Raised by his uncle.

12
Muhammad-Early Life
  • He couldnt read or write.
  • In his youth, he worked for a while as a
    shepherd, then as a caravan trader Employer
    wealthy widow named Khadijah
  • Supervised caravans from Mecca to Jerusalem and
    Damascus.
  • Had contact with both Jews and Christians, who
    believed in a single God, while most Arabs at
    this time were polytheistic.
  • Married Khadijah. They had several children, but
    only one daughter, Fatima, lived to adulthood.

13
MUHAMMADs REVELATIONS
  • When he was 40, he had was praying in a cave and
    had a revelation from the Angel Gabriel (Jibreel
    in Arabic), who spoke to him revealed verses
    that Muhammad was to recite
  • At first Muhammad was terrified told no one,
    but finally he told his wife Khadija she
    encouraged him
  • He soon began to teach others what had been
    revealed to him.

14
Muhammad began to teach
  • Continued to have revelations continued to
    teach in Mecca. A group of followers began to
    form
  • The central idea revealed to him was that there
    is only One God.
  • Allah is the Arabic word for God (Allah is not a
    name, but the Arabic word that means God. Allah
    is the same God worshipped by Jews, Christians
    others.)

15
Muhammad-Hijrah
  • Merchants of Mecca became hostile to his
    teaching, because they feared it would ruin their
    business from pilgrims coming to visit the many
    idols in the Kaaba. Also, it contradicted their
    polytheistic beliefs.
  • 622AD Muhammad his followers were persecuted
    by the merchants of Mecca, and they fled to
    Yathrib (later renamed Medina, city of the
    Prophet).
  • This flight from Mecca is called the Hijrah,
    and it became the year 1 in the Islamic Calendar.

16
Muhammad, Return to Mecca
  • Muhammad preached to the people of
    Yathrib/Medina, and became an important leader
    there. .
  • Many people in Yathrib/Medina, as well as many
    desert tribes, responded by accepting his
    message.
  • Then war broke out between Yathrib/Medina Mecca
  • After several battles, Yathrib/Medina began to
    win the war.
  • 630AD Muhammad led an army of his followers and
    took control of Mecca
  • Muhammad cleansed the Kaaba throwing out the
    idols and consecrating it to Allah, the One God.

17
  • 630-632AD More and more Arabs accepted
    Muhammads ideas
  • Religion became known as Islam, the followers of
    Islam were called Muslims
  • Muhammad died 2 years later, in 632, and was
    buried in Medina.
  • By the time he died, many people in Arabia had
    accepted Islam
  • In the years following Muhammads death, the
    religion spread over a wide area.
  • The central belief is that there is One God.

18
Five Pillars of Islam
  • 1) Faith (Shahadah)
  • There is no God but God, and Muhammad is his
    messenger
  • 2) Prayer (Salat) five times a day, facing Mecca
  • 3) Fasting (Sawm) from food and drink from sun-up
    to sun-down during the month of Ramadan
  • 4) Charity (Zakat) to the poor-a minimum of 2.5
    of your wealth.
  • 5) Pilgrimage (Hajj)to Mecca, if you can afford
    it, once in your life

19
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20
Holy Books
  • The Quran-
  • Most holy book of Islam
  • Muslims believe
  • The Quran is the word of God as revealed to
    Muhammad
  • The authentic Quran is always in the Arabic
    language, because it was revealed to Muhammad in
    Arabic, and if it is translated, Gods words
    could be distorted or changed.
  • Includes many of the same people and stories that
    are found in the Christian Jewish scriptures.

21
Lesser Holy books
  • Books that are important and respected, but are
    not as holy as the Quran. They are not directly
    the word of God.
  • 1)Hadith-Traditions of Muhammads life
  • 2)Sharia-Book of Islamic law based on teaching in
    the Quran Hadith
  • 3)Some parts of the Jewish Christian
    Scriptures particularly the Torah, the Psalms,
    and the Gospel (story of the life of Jesus).
    Muslims believe that in their original form these
    were true, but over time some parts were changed
    and some inaccuracies came in.

22
People of the Book
  • Jews Christians are called People of the Book
    because they have holy books that are similar to
    the Quran. These religions are recognized as
    having a closer connection to Islam than other
    religions.

23
Articles of Faith
  • 1) One God, who is supreme, eternal, infinite,
    merciful (Allah is the word for God), the same
    God worshiped by Christians Jews. However,
    Muslims do not believe in a Trinity.
  • 2) Angels beings of light who serve God.
  • 3) Scriptures primarily the Quran, and to a
    lesser extent, Hadith, Sharia, parts of the
    Jewish and Christian Scriptures.

24
Articles of Faith
  • 4) Prophets Muhammad was the last most
    important. Other prophets include Ibrahim
    (Abraham), Moses and Jesus.
  • 5) Resurrection At the end of the world, every
    human will be resurrected judged for whatever
    they have done. The innocent will stay in heaven,
    the guilty will go to hell.
  • 6) Divine Will (Predestination) God knows
    everything, including what will happen. God has
    given humans free choice. However, He knows what
    they will choose.

25
Islam-Worship other practices
  • Mosque-Muslim place of worship
  • Very little furniture people kneel on rugs
  • A niche showing the direction toward Mecca
  • No pictures of people or animals
  • Prayer leader called an Imam, but no priests.

26
Prayer
  • Prayer can be at any time, in any place, using
    our own words and in any language, but there are
    formal prayers 5 times a day. The formal prayers
    are traditionally in Arabic.
  • Traditionally the call to prayer was issued by a
    muezzin from a tall tower called a minaret
  • The traditional way to pray is on a special
    prayer rug, after a ceremonial washing, facing
    Mecca.

27
Dietary rules food and Drink
  • Dietary rules
  • Muslims do not eat pork or drink alcohol

28
Other practices
  • Modesty in dress
  • Muslims are expected to be modest in their dress.
  • Different individual Muslims interpret this
    differently.
  • Some women wear the whole burqa, some wear the
    hijab (head scarf). Some dont wear the hijab,
    but they are still expected to be modest.
  • Men are also expected to be modest

29
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30
Worship
  • Worship on Friday at noon (Fri-Islam
    Sat-Judaism Sun-Christianity)
  • Women at a Mosque usually pray in a separate
    area, often behind a screen
  • People take off their shoes. They kneel on a rug
    for prayers. Traditionally they line up for
    prayers. Prayers involve kneeling and a sequence
    of motions.

31
Jihad
  • Means struggle against evil
  • Greater Jihad-struggle with evil within oneself
  • Lesser Jihad-struggle with evil in the world
  • Often translated holy war, but this is a
    misunderstanding
  • Corresponds to the word crusade in English

32
Rightly Guided Caliphs the 1st 4 Caliphs-
632-661AD
  • Muhammad died in 632AD
  • Caliph successor of Muhammad, both political
    and religious leader.
  • Caliphate-land ruled by a Caliph

33
Abu Bakr-1st Caliph
  • Upon the death of Muhammad in 632AD, the Muslim
    community chose Muhammads close friend Abu Bakr
    as their leader, or Caliph.
  • A Caliph was a successor of Muhammad as the
    leader of the Muslim community.
  • In his 2 years as Caliph, Abu Bakr spread Islam
    throughout Arabia
  • Abu Bakr died in 634AD.
  • Abu Bakr was the first of 4 Caliphs called the
    Rightly Guided Caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman,
    Ali

34
Umar 634AD-644AD
  • Chosen as 2nd Caliph.
  • Led Muslim armies to quickly conquer more land,
    including Egypt, Palestine Syria, which had
    been part of the Byzantine Empire, and Iraq,
    which had been part of the Persian Empire.
  • Reasons for success of the conquering Muslim
    armies
  • Common faith
  • Fast horse camel cavalry
  • Old Empires, the Byzantine Empire Persian
    Empire, were weakening.

35
Spread of Islam
36
Rule of Conquered people
  • Many people in the conquered lands chose to
    convert because of the simple message of one God
    (Allah) and the belief in the equality of all
    believers, regardless of race

37
PEOPLE OF THE BOOK
  • Jews and Christians are called People of the
    Book, because they have holy books similar to
    the Quran
  • Judaism and Christianity were respected, and as
    Islam spread and became the official religion of
    many countries, they were not forced to convert.
  • However, Jews and Christians were required to pay
    a special tax called the Jizrah.

38
UTHMAN 644-656
  • Chosen as 3rd Caliph
  • Continued the conquests, conquering lands that
    had been part of the Byzantine Persian Empires
  • Uthman was assassinated by rebels who believed he
    favored his own clan.
  • .
  •  

39
ALI 656-661
  • Ali was the son-in-law of Muhammad, the husband
    of Muhammads daughter Fatimah.
  • Chosen as the 4th Caliph after the assassination
    of Uthman
  • Muawiyah (a relative of Uthman) and his
    supporters were angry, because he believed that
    Ali and his supporters were involved in the
    assassination of Uthman. A civil war broke out.
  • Ali was assassinated, and later Alis son Husayn
    was also assassinated

40
SPLIT IN ISLAM
  • Some Muslims wanted Muawiyah as the next Caliph
    and some did not. There was a civil war and a
    split in Islam
  • Sunni
  • Muslims who supported Muawiyah, Majority of
    Muslims
  • they said any devout Muslim man was qualified to
    be Caliph, no preference to relatives of Muhammad
  • Shiites (Shia)
  • minority group that refused to acknowledge
    Muawiyah
  • said the Caliph should be a relative of Muhammad
  • .

41
SPLIT IN ISLAM-continued
  • Sufi-
  • a 3rd sect of Islam that formed later.
  • Sought union with God (Allah) through mystical
    practices such as meditation and dance. The Sufi
    dancing features spinning
  • Rabiah al Adawiyah was a famous Sufi poet
    (female)

42
UMAYYAD DYNASTY 661AD-750AD
  • Muawiyah, of the Umayya clan, was recognized as
    Caliph by the Sunni (majority of Muslims)
  • Muawiya established the Umayyad dynasty, and
    leadership of the Muslim Empire became inherited
  • Umayyad family moved the capital of the Muslim
    Empire from Medina to Damascus in Syria.

43
Dome of the Rock, Temple Mount Jerusalem
44
Umayyad Dynasty, continued
  • Umayyad dynasty continued to spread Islam across
    North Africa, to the people called the Berbers.
  • In 711AD, a Berber leader named Tariq led armies
    from North Africa into Spain, at the great rock
    that overlooks the strait between Africa
    Europe( strait-strait of Gibraltar the strait
    rock are named for him Jabal Tariq.
  • Muslims conquered ruled Spain for several
    hundred years.
  • There was a brilliant culture, centered at a city
    called Cordoba.
  • Muslims of North Africa and Spain were sometimes
    called Moors.

45
Expansion into Spain
  • Muslims conquered ruled Spain for several
    hundred years.
  • There was a brilliant culture, centered at a city
    called Cordoba.
  • Muslims of North Africa and Spain were sometimes
    called Moors

46
Jabal Tariq-Rock of Gibraltar
47
Umayyad Dynasty-Europe strikes back!!
  • Muslim armies attempted to advance north into
    France, They crossed the Pyrenees mountains into
    France.
  • In 732AD , the invading Muslim army was defeated
    by the Frankish leader Charles Martel at the
    Battle of Tours.
  • Thus Muslims ruled Spain but advanced no farther
    into Western Europe.

48
End of Umayyad Dynasty
  • Some Muslims began to think the Umayyad Caliphs
    were living in too much luxury
  • 750AD There was a revolt led by Abu al Abbas, a
    member of the Abbasid clan. The Umayyad dynasty
    was overthrown
  • All the remaining Umayyads were invited to a
    banquet, and slaughtered. One escaped and fled to
    Spain, where he set up a Umayyad dynasty in
    Spain.

49
ABBASID DYNASTY 750AD-1258AD-Golden Age
  • A new Muslim dynasty took control, called the
    Abbasid dynasty.
  • Abbasid Caliphs ruled the Muslim Empire for
    several hundred years.
  • 764AD Caliph al Mansur moved the capital to a
    new city, Baghdad, which became a city of great
    beauty and the center of brilliant Muslim
    culture. Golden Age of Islamic Culture.

50
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51
700s-800sAD-High point of Abbasid Dynasty-Golden
Age
  • The high point of the Abbasid dynasty was from
    the 700sAD-800sAD, under Caliph Harun al Rashid,
    who was known for wealth and generosity, and his
    son, Caliph al Mamun.
  • Baghdad was the center of trade and a brilliant
    culture

52
Baghdad-Al Mamum-House of Wisdom
  • Baghdad was the center of trade and a brilliant
    culture
  • Science and mathematics flourished. A great
    center of learning, called the House of Wisdom,
    was established in Baghdad by Caliph al Mamun

53
Abbasid Dynasty, continued
  • Pieces began to break off from the main Muslim
    Empire ruled by the Abbasid Caliphate
  • A Caliphate is a country ruled by a Caliph..
  • Spain broke off, and a separate Caliphate was
    established there. Later Egypt broke off and
    established a separate Caliphate. Soon other
    pieces broke off.
  • The main Muslim Empire continued to be ruled from
    Baghdad.

54
WHO WERE THE TURKS?
  • 900sAD-Nomadic people called the Turks from the
    steppes of central Asia moved into the Middle
    East. They converted to Islam
  • Turks settled near Baghdad, and became soldiers
    for the Abbasid Caliph.
  • Gradually, the Turks became more powerful, and
    the leader of the Turks, called the Sultan, had
    the real power and the position of Caliph became
    symbolic, but the Caliphate continued.

55
The Crusades-A SUMMARY
  • The Turks started taking over land in what is now
    Asia Minor, and the Byz. Emperor asked the Pope
    for help
  • From 1095AD-1295AD, Christian knights fought a
    series of wars against the Turks other Muslims
    of the Middle East.
  • Goals protect Byz. Empire gain control of the
    Holy land.
  • The Christians won some victories, and
    temporarily gained control the Holy Land
    (including Palestine the city of Jerusalem
  • 1100s A great Muslim leader named Saladin led
    Muslim forces in regaining Jerusalem.
  • By 1295, all of the Holy Land (including
    Palestine Jerusalem) was again under Muslim
    control.

56
CRUSADES-A LITTLE MORE DETAIL
  • There were 8 main Crusades.
  • In the 1st Crusade, the Christian Crusaders
    succeeded in capturing the Holy Land, including
    Jerusalem.
  • They set up 4 kingdoms where Christians and
    Muslims lived side by side in uneasy peace for a
    time.

57
Crusades-a little more detail
  • Between the 2nd and 3rd Crusades, a Muslim leader
    named Saladin arose, rallied the Muslim forces,
    and took back Jerusalem.
  • The 3rd Crusade was launched to try to get
    Jerusalem and the surrounding land back in
    Christian hands.
  • Leader of the Crusaders King Richard of England
    Leader of the Muslims Saladin

58
A little more about the Crusades
  • The 3rd Crusade ended in a treaty. Jerusalem
    would remain in Muslim hands, and several other
    cities would remain in Christian hands.
    Christians would be allowed to visit holy places
    in Jerusalem.
  • Unfortunately, the Crusades didnt end here.
    After the deaths of Saladin and Richard, both
    sides broke the treaty and they were fighting
    again.

59
END RESULT OF THE CRUSADES
  • By 1295, at the end of the Crusades, all the Holy
    Land was back in Muslim hands.

60
MORE TROUBLE-THE MONGOLS
  • In 1258, Mongols under Hulagu Khan, a grandson of
    Genghiz Khan, invaded and destroyed much of
    Baghdad. This ended the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • .

61
Ottoman Turks
  • The Ottoman Turks were a later group of Turks
    that gained power and established an empire. The
    Ottoman Turks expelled the Mongols, and took
    control of the Middle East.
  • The Empire of the Ottoman Turks became the
    dominant power in the Middle East
  • The Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople in
    1453, renamed it Istanbul, and it became the
    capital of the Ottoman Empire.

62
TRADE in the Muslim Empire
  • Trade was very important in the Muslim world
    Arabs had been traders for centuries. Muhammad
    had been a trader.
  • Muslim Empire located between Europe, Africa
    Asia.
  • Goods produced and sold included woven tapestries
    and carpets, steel swords (from Damascus Toledo
    in Spain), Jewelry, perfume, spices fine leather
    goods

63
EXCHANGE OF IDEAS
  • Muslims exchanged ideas with other cultures, as
    well as trading with them.
  • Many Europeans of the Middle Ages regarded the
    Muslim world as more advanced in science in
    areas like banking commerce.
  • Muslim ideas came into Europe from Spain and
    Sicily, which were the parts of the Muslim world
    with which Europeans had the most contact.
  • Often Jewish scholars, who had contact with both,
    carried the ideas of Muslim scholars into Europe.

64
GOVERNMENT
  • At first, there was one Muslim Empire, with one
    Caliph
  • During the Abbasid Dynasty, Spain and later Egypt
    North Africa broke off. So there were 3
    Caliphates, with 3 Caliphs, one in Baghdad, one
    in Cordoba (Spain) and one in Cairo (Egypt)
  • There was no separation of government and
    religion. All Muslims followed the Quran and
    the Sharia, which was the book of laws based on
    the teachings of Islam

65
Government, Society Daily life
  • There was no separation of government and
    religion. All Muslims followed the Quran and
    the Sharia, which was the book of laws based on
    the teachings of Islam
  • The Quran Sharia gave detailed instructions on
    how society should be organized, and how people
    should live their daily lives.

66
Society
  • Slavery was common, but followed rules A Muslim
    could not take another Muslim as a slave.
  • However, if a slave converted to Islam after
    he/she had been made a slave, he/she was not set
    free, but his/her children would be free.
    children of the master with a female slave were
    free
  • Quran encouraged but did not require Muslims to
    free slaves, and required them to treat slaves
    humanely

67
Society-family
  • Family was the core of Muslim daily life
  • Respected the elderly
  • Everyone in the family had roles duties
    father- to support the family mother to care for
    the home and children
  • Marriages were usually arranged, but both the man
    and woman had the right to refuse.
  • The husband was required to give the wife a
    marriage gift of property or money.
  • Men could have up to 4 wives, but had to support
    them all equally

68
Society-Women
  • Quran improved the status of women gave them
    more rights than under traditional Arabic law
  • Rights of women right to an education to
    inherit and own property if she was divorced,
    she kept her property and could remarry.
  • Later, in some Muslim cultures, women began to be
    secluded and lost some rights, but this was
    because of culture, not religion.

69
Society-Education
  • The family and the mosque usually took
    responsibility for education
  • The ability to speak well was important
  • The ability to read was encouraged, so one could
    read the Quran
  • Many people memorized large portions, or all, of
    the Quran
  • Some governments supported schools libraries,
    including advanced schools for science, medicine,
    math law

70
Sciences
  • As they conquered lands and traded, Muslims got
    ideas from many places, including
  • India-Mathematics Astronomy
  • China-paper making
  • Greece (Byzantine Empire)-Ancient Greek
    Philosophy science. Also architecture (domes,
    etc).
  • Muslims built on these ideas, added many new
    ones, and excelled at science, medicine and math

71
Medicine
  • Built on the work of Greek Byzantine physicians
  • Muslim physicians
  • Developed and prepared medical drugs, developed
    techniques, such as distillation
  • Used dissection to study anatomy
  • Learned to correctly diagnose many diseases
  • Muslim medical practices were much more advanced
    than in Europe at the time.

72
Medicine In Baghdad
  • Baghdad
  • Doctors had to pass an examination.
  • Worlds first school of pharmacy
  • One of the worlds first public hospitals

73
Al Qasim
  • Abu al-Qasim
  • Practiced in Cordoba, Spain
  • Developed surgical techniques
  • Invented about 200 surgical instruments,
    including scalpels, forceps, a better needle, use
    of catgut for stitching.
  • Wrote illustrated one of the most important
    books on surgical techniques.

74
Medicine famous doctors.
  • Al Razi
  • chief physician at hospital in Baghdad in 900s
    first to study and clearly describe smallpox and
    measles

75
IBN SINA
  • Ibn Sina
  • Persian. wrote Canon of Medicine , the most
    important medical book used for hundreds of years
  • Called Avicena by Europeans.

76
Geography
  • Studied Greek Byzantine maps improved them
  • Al-Idrisi sent people to other countries, had
    them draw maps, and then combined them to make
    larger, more accurate maps
  • Adopted and improved a Greek invention called the
    astrolabe which allowed observers to determine
    the angle of the sun or stars above the horizon,
    and then this information was used to determine
    latitude.

77
Map of Al Idrisi (Europe, North Africa, Asia)
78
http//www.astrolabes.org/mariner.htm
79
MATH
  • Arabic numerals
  • About 800AD, Muslim traders learned a new number
    system from India, in which any number could be
    expressed using the digits 0-9. The numbers also
    had place value. This was the ancestor of our
    number system.
  • When Europeans learned this system from Muslims,
    they called this number system Arabic numerals

80
Math, continued
  • Al-Khwarizmi developed algebra as we know it. He
    called it al-jabralgebra--which means restoring
    an unknown.

81
Islamic Art
  • The Quran forbids using images to show God.
  • Islamic teaching also discourages pictures of
    humans or animals in religious art (they were
    permitted in purely non-religious art).
  • Muslim artists developed forms of art that did
    not involve people or animals
  • Calligraphy-beautiful writing of Arabic verses
    from the Quran
  • Arabesque-geometric floral designs for
    decoration

82
Calligraphy- beautiful writing, usually arabic
writing from the Quran
83
Calligraphy
84
Calligraphy
85
Calligraphy
86
Arabesque
87
Arabesque
88
Arabesque
89
Rugs, including Prayer Rugs
  • Prayer Rugs are used for kneeling in prayer 5
    times a day
  • Placed on the floor so the arch in the design
    points toward Mecca
  • Also elaborate rugs and carpets were woven and
    used for non-religious purposes.

90
Architecture-Mosques
  • Architecture became one of the greates forms of
    Islamic Art
  • Inspired by Byzantine Architecture
  • Included mosques, palaces, libraries, but the
    most famous examples were mosques

91
Mosques
  • The first mosques were modeled after Muhammads
    private courtyard in Medina, where he led
    community prayer
  • The early mosques were simple, open courtyards,
    but gradually became more elaborate
  • Often mosques were used not only as religious
    centers, but also as community centers and
    schools.

92
Mosques
  • Interior
  • Large space for prayer-very little furniture
  • Niche that faces Mecca
  • Exterior
  • Minarets towers
  • Dome on top (often, but not always)

g
93
Literature
  • Quran itself is beautiful literature
  • Islamic writers also produced beautiful poetry
  • Most famous collection of stories 1001 Nights

94
The Thousand and One Nights
  • Main story-Scheherazade uses talent for telling
    to avoid being executed by the cruel Sultan
  • Stories within the story include Aladdin,
    Sinbad, Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves

95
Mosques-Great Mosque of Cordoba, Spain
96
Blue Mosque - Istanbul
97
Blue Mosque - Istanbul
98
Blue Mosque
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