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Human Learning

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Human Learning Lisa Holmes Learning Theory A learning theory is a concept that describes how learning occurs. It takes into consideration how the information ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Learning


1
Human Learning
  • Lisa Holmes

2
Learning Theory
  • A learning theory is a concept that describes how
    learning occurs. It takes into consideration how
    the information presented is absorbed,
    processed, and retained, all of which are
    determined by both internal and external
    influences. These influences can include
    environmental, personal experience, emotional
    state and mental abilities. Different learning
    theories offer different explanations of what
    happens during the learning process.

3
Learning Theory Categories
  • Behaviorism
  • Cognitivism
  • Constructivism

4
Learning Styles
  • Controversy Regarding Learning Styles
  • The concept of learning style is controversial
    because, oftentimes, the focus on learning styles
    does not take into consideration other factors of
    learning such as ability, background knowledge
    and interest. Also, evidence shows that learning
    style is a student preference, not necessarily
    the only way the student can learn the material.
    In addition, not all learning styles are
    appropriate for all content so presenting
    materials in a students preferred style for all
    content is not necessarily helpful to the
    student.
  • Definition of Learning Styles
  • A learning style is a preferred mode of learning
    such as auditory, visual or kinesthetic.
    Different students have different preferred modes
    of learning, or learning styles.

5
Learning Styles and Instructional Design
  • Although learning styles may only be an
    individuals preference and not necessary to
    consider when instructing, instructional
    designers should consider these styles when
    deciding the best way to present specific
    content. Instructional designers should design
    components in a style that fits the content while
    also focusing on the abilities, background
    knowledge and interests of the learners.

6
Motivation
  • Motivation is as the process that initiates,
    guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors.
    It is what drives people to take some sort of
    action, big or small, and to see that action
    through to the end goal.

7
ARCS Model of Motivation
  • An instructional designer can incorporate the
    ARCS motivation model in several ways the
    following offers a few examples of how to
    incorporate each of the four steps in the model.
  • To get the attention of the student the designer
    can offer different ways to keep students
    interested and involved, for example, by
    incorporating group discussions, problem solving
    and even humor.
  • Designers can help demonstrate content relevance
    by linking the material to real-life experiences
    and explaining its usefulness.
  • Designers can help with confidence by providing
    up front expectations and including communication
    tools for support.
  • Designers can help the students with their level
    of satisfaction by incorporating mechanisms that
    allow instructors to offer rewards and positive
    feedback.

8
Blooms Taxonomy
9
Blooms Taxonomy
  • Remember Include exercises and/or assessments
    that require a student to recall material such as
    matching terms to their definitions.
  • Understand Include questions that require
    students to explain a concept in their own words.
  • Apply Include assignments that require students
    to demonstrate what they have learned.
  • Analyze Include questions that require students
    to compare and contrast two separate concepts.
  • Evaluate Include questions that require
    students to explain how they would apply a
    concept and have them justify their answer.
  • Create Include a final presentation component
    that requires the student to design a slideshow
    that demonstrates all of the different concepts
    learned and how they relate to one another.

10
Conclusion
  • Understanding learning theory is important for an
    instructional designer so that he or she is aware
    of how learning occurs. It provides foundational
    knowledge in order to create an effective design.
  • Although learning styles may only be a preference
    of how individuals want to learn, instructional
    designers should keep learning styles in mind
    when deciding which style best suits the content
    being delivered.
  • Instructional design is more effective if it
    includes ways to keep the students motivated.
    Designers should consider ways to keep students
    interested and involved, explain content
    relevance, build students confidence and ensure
    student satisfaction.
  • Instructional designers should incorporate the
    different levels of Blooms Taxonomy to create
    appropriate objectives and tasks in order to
    promote different levels of thinking skills.
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