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Literary Terms

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Title: Literary Terms


1
Literary Terms
  • We will be using these literary terms throughout
    the school year.
  • You need to keep up with your notes. Dont lose
    your terms! You might be able to use them
  • be RESPONSIBLE!!

2
We will use the following terms
  • Character Antagonist Protagonist
  • Diction Denotation Connotation
  • Imagery Mood Poetry Devices
  • Exposition Rising Action Climax
  • Falling Action Resolution Conflict
  • Flashback Foreshadowing Suspense
  • Point of View Setting Mood
  • Theme Tone Personification
  • Metaphor Simile Oxymoron
  • Alliteration Onomatopoeia Hyperbole
  • Irony Inference

3
Character
  • A character is a person or an animal that takes
    part in the action of a literary work.

4
  • Edward Cullen from Twilight
    Shakespeares Queen of the faeries

  • in A Midsummer Nights Dream
  • Harry Potter
    Wilbur from Charlottes Web


5
Antagonist
  • The Antagonist is a character or force in
    conflict with a main character, or protagonist.

6
Do you know your Antagonists???
  • On your paper take a few minutes to write down
    some Antagonists that you can recall from movies,
    television shows, and video games
  • Remember the Antagonist is in conflict with the
    Protagonist, or main character!
  • Helpful hint you should now know why people use
    the saying Dont antagonize me!

7
NAME THAT ANTAGONIST
Antagonists can be anyone or anything that poses
as an obstacle for the protagonist
8
Protagonist
  • The Protagonist is the main character in a
    literary work
  • Can you name some famous Protagonists that are
    found in literature?

9
  • Protagonists also come in all shapes, sizes,
    species, etc.


Wilbur
Ponyboy Curtis and the Greasers
Catherine Garfield
Jonas
10
Diction
  • Diction is the manner in which we express words
    the wording used.
  • Diction enunciation
  • Some easy examples are
  • Dont say goin say going, Dont
    say wanna say want to
  • Now, its your turn to provide some
    enunciation errors or slurs

11
Denotation
  • The denotation of a word is its dictionary
    meaning, independent of other associations that
    the word may have.

12
Connotation
  • The connotation of a word is the set of ideas
    associated with it in addition to its explicit
    meaning.
  • The connotation of a word can be personal, based
    on individual experiences.
  • More often, cultural connotations those
    recognizable by most people in a group
    determine a writers word choices.

13
Denotation versus Connotation
  • Some examples
  • Cheap is low in cost (denotation) but stingy
    or poorly made are the connotations of cheap

14
  • Lets use the word HOT
  • The denotation (or dictionary definition
    remember d in denotation dictionary) of HOT is
    having a temperature higher than that of a human
    body.
  • However, when you say Man! He/She is hot!, are
    you saying Man! He is having a temperature
    higher than that of a human body!?
  • NO!!!!!!!!!
  • You are saying the CONNOTATION of HOT which
    could mean a variety of things man he/she is
    cute, attractive, beautiful, and many other
    meanings those come from personal experiences
    and cultural meanings, etc.

15
Imagery
  • Imagery is words or phrases that appeal to one or
    more of the five senses. Writers use imagery to
    describe how their subjects look, sound, feel,
    taste, and smell.

16
  • EXAMPLES OF IMAGERY
  • If you're tired and hopeless, how can you show
    someone this instead of just telling them?
  • I took a walk around the world toEase my
    troubled mindI left my body laying somewhereIn
    the sands of timeI watched the world float to
    the darkSide of the moonI feel there is nothing
    I can do
  • --"Kryptonite" by Three Doors Down
  •  
  • If you're a rapper, instead of telling someone to
    let your freestyles come naturally, how can you
    show them with your words?
  • From the family tree of old school hip hop Kick
    off your shoes and relax your socks The rhymes
    will spread just like a pox Cause the music is
    live like an electric shock
  • --Beastie Boys "Intergalactic" From Hello Nasty

17
IMAGERY IN THE OLDEN DAYSI Wandered Lonely As A
Cloud by William Wadsworth
  • I wandered lonely as a cloudThat floats on high
    o'er vales and hills,When all at once I saw a
    crowd,A host, of golden daffodilsBeside the
    lake, beneath the trees,Fluttering and dancing
    in the breeze.
  • Continuous as the stars that shineAnd twinkle on
    the milky way,They stretched in never-ending
    lineAlong the margin of a bayTen thousand saw
    I at a glance,Tossing their heads in sprightly
    dance.
  • The waves beside them danced but theyOut-did
    the sparkling waves in gleeA poet could not but
    be gay,In such a jocund companyI gazed---and
    gazed---but little thoughtWhat wealth the show
    to me had brought
  • For oft, when on my couch I lieIn vacant or in
    pensive mood,They flash upon that inward
    eyeWhich is the bliss of solitudeAnd then my
    heart with pleasure fills,And dances with the
    daffodils.

18
MOOD
  • Mood, or atmosphere, is the feeling created in
    the reader by a literary work or passage.
  • Writers use many devices to create mood,
    including images, dialogue, setting, and plot.
  • Often, a writer creates a mood at the beginning
    of a work and then sustains the mood throughout.
  • Sometimes, however, the mood of the work changes
    dramatically.
  • Edgar Alan Poes The Tell-Tale Heart emits a
    mood of terror based on the insanity of the
    murderous protagonist

19
Plot
  • Plot is the sequence of events. The first event
    causes the second, the second causes the third,
    and so forth.
  • In most novels, dramas, short stories, and
    narrative poems, the plot involves both
    characters and a central conflict.
  • The plot usually begins with an exposition that
    introduces the setting, the characters, and the
    basic situation. This is introduced and
    developed. The conflict then increases until it
    reaches a high point of interest or suspense, the
    climax. The climax is followed by the falling
    action, or end, of the central conflict. Any
    events that occur during the falling action make
    up the resolution.

20
PLOTLINE
Climax
Rising Action
Falling Action
Resolution
Exposition
Conflict Introduced
21
Exposition
  • The Exposition is the introduction. It is the
    part of the work that introduces the characters,
    setting, and basic situation.
  • In Harry Potter the Sorcerer Stone, we
    quickly learn that Harry was turning 11, had a
    mysterious scar on his forehead, was living with
    his very disgruntled and burdened aunt, uncle,
    and bullying cousin due to the death of his
    parents when he was a baby. At the end of the
    exposition, we learn that he was the product of
    two wizard parents and on his way to entering
    Hogwarts.

22
Rising Action
  • Rising Action is the part of the plot that begins
    to occur as soon as the primary conflict is
    introduced. The rising action adds complications
    to the conflict and increases reader interest.

23
Climax
  • The Climax is the point of greatest emotional
    intensity, interest, or suspense in the plot of a
    narrative.
  • On a plot diagram, it is the highest point due to
    how intense it is and immediately after the
    climax, there is a drastic drop in events leading
    to the resolution.
  • The climax typically comes at the turning point
    in a story or drama.

24
Falling Action
  • Falling Action is the action that typically
    follows the climax and reveals its results.

25
Resolution
  • The Resolution is the part of the plot that
    concludes the falling action by revealing or
    suggesting the outcome of the conflict.

26
Conflict
  • Conflict is the struggle between opposing forces
    in a story or play. There are two types of
    conflict that exist in literature.

27
External Conflict
  • External conflict exists when a character
    struggles against some outside force, such as
    another character, nature, society, or fate.
  • Person vs. Person
  • Person vs. Society
  • Person vs. Nature (environment)
  • Person vs. Time
  • Person vs. Supernatural
  • Person vs. Technology (machine)

28
NAME THAT CONFLICT
29
Internal Conflict
  • Internal conflict exists within the mind of a
    character who is torn between different courses
    of action.
  • Questioning Having a Dilemma
  • In a predicament What to Do?
  • Example Person vs. Self

30
Man Versus Self
31
Flashback
  • A flashback is a literary device in which an
    earlier episode, conversation, or event is
    inserted into the sequence of events.
  • Often flashbacks are presented as a memory of
    the narrator or of another character.

32
Flashback continued
  • The movie Titanic is told almost entirely in a
    flashback.
  • What are some other films that contain flashback
    to help tell stories?
  • Holes
  • Willy Wonka
  • Think of some more

33
Foreshadowing
  • Foreshadowing is the authors use of clues to
    hint at what might happen later in the story.
    Writers use foreshadowing to build their readers
    expectations and to create suspense. This is
    used to help readers prepare for what is to come.

34
Can you think of an element of foreshadowing?
35
Suspense
  • Suspense is the growing interest and excitement
    readers experience while awaiting a climax or
    resolution in a work of literature. It is a
    feeling of anxious uncertainty about the outcome
    of events. Writers create suspense by raising
    questions in the minds of their readers.

36
Point of View
  • Point of View is the perspective, or vantage
    point, from which a story is told. It is the
    relationship of the narrator to the story.
  • First-person is told by a character who uses the
    first-person pronoun I.
  • Third-person limited point of view is the point
    of view where the narrator uses third-person
    pronouns such as he and she to refer to the
    characters.

37
Types of Third Person
  • Limited storyteller lets us know thoughts and
    feelings of main character (protagonist) only
  • Omniscent storyteller lets us know thoughts and
    feeling of all characters

38
Setting
  • The setting of a literary work is the time and
    place of the action.
  • The setting includes all the details of a place
    and time the year, the time of day, even the
    weather. The place may be a specific country,
    state, region, community, neighborhood, building,
    institution, or home.
  • Details such as dialect, clothing, customs, and
    modes of transportation are often used to
    establish setting.
  • In most stories, the setting serves as a backdrop
    a context in which the characters interact.
    The setting of a story often helps to create a
    particular mood, or feeling.

39
Style
  • Style is the distinctive way in which an author
    uses language.
  • Word choice, phrasing, sentence length, tone,
    dialogue, purpose, and attitude toward the
    audience and subject can all contribute to an
    authors writing style.

40
Theme
  • The theme of a literary work is its central
    message, concern, or purpose. A theme can
    usually be expressed as a generalization, or
    general statement, about people or life. The
    theme may be stated directly by the writer
    although it is more often presented indirectly.
    When the theme is stated indirectly, the reader
    must figure out the theme by looking carefully at
    what the work reveals about the people or about
    life.

41
Tone
  • Tone is a reflection of a writers or speakers
    attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or
    other literary work. Tone may be communicated
    through words and details that express particular
    emotions and that evoke and emotional response
    from the reader.
  • For example, word choice or phrasing may seem to
    convey respect, anger, lightheartedness, or
    sarcasm.

42
Figures of Speech
  • A figure of speech is a specific device or kind
    of figurative language, such as hyperbole,
    metaphor, personification, simile, or
    understatement.
  • Figurative language is used for descriptive
    effect, often to imply ideas indirectly. It is
    not meant to be taken literally. Figurative
    language is used to state ideas in vivid and
    imaginative ways.

43
Metaphor
  • A Metaphor is a type of speech that compares or
    equates two or more things that have something in
    common. A metaphor does NOT use like or as.
  • Example Life is a bowl
  • of cherries.

44
Simile
  • A Simile is another figure of speech that
    compares seemingly unlike things. Similes DO
    use the words like, as, than, or resembles.
  • Example Her voice was like nails on a
    chalkboard.

45
Oxymoron
  • An Oxymoron is a figure of speech that is a
    combination of seemingly contradictory words.
  • Examples Same difference
  • Pretty ugly
  • Roaring silence

46
Personification
  • Personification is a figure of speech in which an
    animal, object, force of nature, or idea is given
    human qualities or characteristics.
  • Example Tears began to fall from the dark
    clouds.

47
Alliteration
  • Alliteration is the repetition of sounds, most
    often consonant sounds, at the beginning of
    words. Alliteration gives emphasis to words.
  • Example Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled
    peppers

48
Alliterative Fun
  • Caring Cats
    Rain
  • Caring cats cascade off Rain
    races,
  • Laughing llamas
    Ripping like wind.
  • Lounging.
    Its restless rage
  • Underneath yelling yaks
    Rattles like
  • Yelling at roaming
    Rocks ripping through
  • Rats
    The air.

49
Irony
  • Special contrast between reality and appearance
  • Usually one in which reality is the opposite
    from what it seems

50
Irony
  • Situational-contrast between what would seem
    appropriate and what really happens or what we
    expect to happen is in fact quite opposite to
    what really does take place
  • This is like a surprise ending or a twist in the
    plot that you didnt expect.

51
Irony
  • Verbal-someone knowingly exaggerates or says one
    thing and means another
  • Sarcasm is often verbal ironyWe use this in our
    every day lives
  • Example We try to be civilized here, said
    General Zaroff. The Most Dangerous Game

52
Irony
  • Dramatic-When the reader or viewer knows
    something that a character does not know.
  • Romeo and Juliet example

53
Hyperbole
  • An exaggeration
  • Example enough food to feed a whole army

54
Fiction
  • Imaginary elements
  • Can be based on real people and events
  • Realistic fiction/historical fiction

55
Nonfiction
  • Real events, people, and places
  • Autobiography/biography
  • Personal narrative/memoirs
  • Newspapers
  • Informative articles

56
Inference
  • A conclusion derived from facts/evidence
  • Making an educated guess based on what you have
    read, learned, or know
  • While reading a story, you may be able to infer
    something about the character based on what you
    have read in regards to his action, thoughts,
    viewpoints of others, etc.
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