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The Vietnam War

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The Vietnam War 1954-1975 Background France controlled Indochina since the late 19th century. Japan took control during WWII With US aid, France attempted to re ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Vietnam War


1
The Vietnam War
  • 1954-1975

2
Background
  • France controlled Indochina since the late 19th
    century.
  • Japan took control during WWII
  • With US aid, France attempted to re-colonize
    Indochina in the postwar period.

3
Background
  • Ho Chi Minh builds nationalist resistance
  • Vietnamese George Washington
  • France fights and US pays for French-Indochina
    War
  • Dien Bien Phu Disaster

4
Background
  • Geneva Peace Conference
  • Vietnam Divided at the 17th Parallel
  • Ho Chi Minhs nationalists controlled the North
  • Ngo Dinh Diem controlled the South

5
Background
  • Democratic elections set to reunify Vietnam
  • Diem backed out violence erupted

6
Background
  • Participants

North Vietnam
Soviet Union
China
South Vietnam
United States
Vietcong
7
US Involvement Begins
  • Repressive Diem Regime
  • French-educated Catholic leader
  • Diems family controlled government
  • Plutocracy developed
  • Buddhist majority repressed
  • Torture, intimidation and all kinds of fun things

8
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9
US Involvement Begins
  • Hes an SOB, but hes our SOB
  • Eisenhower sent financial and military aid
  • 675 military advisors sent by 1960

10
JFK Vietnam
  • Increases military advisors to 16,000
  • 1963 military coup d'état
  • Supported (instigated?) by JFK
  • Diem brother murdered
  • JFK assassinated weeks later

11
LBJ Vietnam
  • Remembers Trumans loss of China
  • Domino Theory revived
  • I am not going to be the president who saw
    Southeast Asia go the way China went.
  • Secretary of Defense
  • Robert McNamara
  • Primary architect of war
  • Gradual Escalation

12
LBJ Vietnam Crossing the Rubicon
  • Gulf of Tonkin Incident
  • USS Maddox attacked twice?
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  • Blank Check to LBJ to fight the war

13
LJB Vietnam
  • Troop Deployment

14
Vietnam Iraq
2008
2009
2007
2005
2004
2006
2003
15
1965-1968
  • No territorial goals
  • Body Counts on TV every night
  • 1st Living Room War
  • Vietcong receives supplies via the Ho Chi Minh
    Trail

16
1965-1968
  • The Air War
  • Operation Rolling Thunder - 1965
  • Sustained Bombing of North Vietnam
  • Hanoi bombed for 3 years
  • Downed pilots P.O.W.s
  • Carpet Bombing v. Strategic Bombing
  • Napalm

17
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18
1965-1968
  • The Ground War
  • General Westmoreland
  • We can see the light at the end of the tunnel.
    Westmoreland 1967

19
Who is the Enemy?
  • North Vietnam Regulars
  • Traditional military opponent
  • Vietcong
  • Citizen soldiers
  • Farm by day Fight by night
  • Patient and Strategic
  • US grossly underestimated their resolve
    resourcefulness

The guerilla wins if he does not lose, the
conventional army loses if it does not win. Mao
Zedong
20
Vietcong - Insurgents
21
Vietcong - Insurgents
22
Vietcong - Insurgents
23
Vietcong - Insurgents
24
The Tet Offensive
  • January 1968
  • NV Army Vietcong Offensive
  • 100 Cities Bases
  • Hue American Embassy in Saigon

25
The Tet Offensive
  • Perception of Victory
  • US Battlefield Victory Vietcong Disabled
  • US Intelligence Defeat
  • Impacts
  • US Public Disbelief, Anger, Distrust of LBJ
  • Hey, Hey LBJ! How many kids did you kill
    today?

26
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27
1968
  • LBJs approval rating drops from 48 to 36
  • Announces
  • I shall not seek, and I shall not accept, the
    nomination of my party for another term as
    President.

28
Vietnam Strains American Society
  • Disproportionate representation of racial
    minorities and poor in enlisted ranks
  • Discipline problems
  • Racial Tension
  • Drug Abuse
  • Insubordination
  • Fragging

29
Vietnam Strains American Society
  • Officer versus Enlisted
  • Combat Rotation
  • Officers 6 month front line 6 months rear
    support
  • Enlisted 12 month font line varied rear support

30
America Divided
  • My Lai Massacre - 1968

31
America Divided
  • My Lai

32
America Divided
  • Lt. William Calley
  • Helicopter Attack Following Orders
  • War Criminal 1st Degree Murder Conviction
  • Life Sentence House Arrest Released
  • Post My Lai

33
America Divided
  • Anti-War Demonstrations

Columbia University 1968
34
America Divided
  • Anti-War Demonstrations

University of California Berkeley 1968
35
America Divided
  • Anti-War Demonstrations

Kent State University 1970
36
America Divided
  • Anti-War Demonstrations

Jackson State University 1970
37
America Divided
  • Anti-War Demonstrations

Democratic National Convention - Chicago 1968
38
America Divided
  • Anti-War Demonstrations

Washington, DC 1967
39
America Divided
  • Counterculture
  • Jane Fonda

40
Nixon Vietnam
  • 1968 Presidential Campaign
  • Peace with Honor End the War with Victory
  • Appealed to the Silent Majority

41
Nixon Vietnam
  • Vietnamization

42
Nixon Vietnam
  • Pentagon Papers, 1971
  • LBJ Assigned Research Paper to the Pentagon
  • Daniel Ellsberg leaked documents to New York
    Times
  • Government misled Congress American people
    through the 1960s
  • New York Times v. United States (1971)

43
Nixon Vietnam
  • Expansion of War
  • Cambodia Laos Hit the Trail
  • 1972 Christmas Bombing Campaign
  • Anti-War Demonstrations Increase

44
Nixon Vietnam
  • Expansion of the War
  • Agent Orange Chemical Defoliant
  • Bombing Hanoi
  • Mining Haiphong

45
Nixon Vietnam
  • 1972 Peace is at Hand Henry Kissinger
  • North Vietnam attacks South Vietnam
  • US Bombing of North Vietnam more bombs than all
    of WWII

46
1973 Ceasefire
  • Negotiations to be covered later
  • Conditions
  • US remove all troops
  • NV leave troops in SV
  • NV resumes war
  • No POW or MIA provisions

47
1973 Ceasefire
  • Last US troops leave SV 3/29/73
  • 1975 NV defeats SV
  • Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City

48
South Vietnamese Flee country prior to fall of
Saigon
49
North Vietnamese at the SV Presidential Palace
50
America Abandons Its Embassy April 30, 1975
51
Vietnam
52
The Price
  • 58,000 US Killed
  • 300,00 US Wounded
  • 3,000,000 Vietnamese Killed
  • 150,000,000,000
  • Great Society LBJ Presidency
  • US Morale, Self-confidence, Trust

53
The Impact
  • 26th Amendment
  • Suffrage for 18-year-olds
  • Watergate
  • War Powers Act
  • Troop Deployment
  • 48 Hour Notification of Congress
  • 90 Day Approval by Congress

54
The Impact
  • Veterans Experiences
  • POW MIA
  • Some POWs retured from Hanoi Hilton
  • 2583 Still unaccounted

Senator John McCain (R-AZ)
55
  • If we have to fight, we will fight. You will
    kill ten of our men and we will kill one of
    yours, and in the end it will be you who tires of
    it.
  • Ho Chi Minh

56
Lessons Learned (?)
  • Duration
  • Casualties
  • Media Access
  • Congressional Support
  • Public Support
  • Clear Goals
  • Deadlines

57
Vietnam War Memorial
58
Vietnam War Memorial
59
Vietnam War Memorial
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