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The Unification of Italy


The Unification of Italy Italian unification (Italian: Risorgimento meaning the Resurgence) was the political and social movement that agglomerated different states ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Unification of Italy

The Unification of Italy
  • Italian unification (Italian Risorgimento
    meaning the Resurgence) was the political and
    social movement that agglomerated different
    states of the Italian peninsula into the single
    state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.

  • What is nationalism?
  • The belief that the greatest loyalty should be to
    a nation of people who share a common culture
  • Two Types of Nationalism
  • Nationalism that unifies culturally similar lands
    and people
  • Nationalism that separates culturally different
    lands and people

History of Italy
  • The Italian Peninsula is fragmented politically
    until the 1860s. Remained essentially as it was
    during the Renaissance a series of expanded
  • Why  
  • -Individual rulers of city-states did not want to
    lose their autonomy
  • -Napoleonic Wars had divided the loyalties of the
    Italians and the Congress of Vienna had not
    addressed the Peninsula
  • -Austrian government held influence in Northern
    Italy (Economic and Political)
  • -Papacys desire not to see a united Italy as a
    secular state

The Congress of Vienna had left the Italian
peninsula divided into many countries. Austria
ruled in the north, Hapsburg Monarchs ruled in
the center, and Bourbon Kings ruled in Naples and
Sicily. The Pope even had his own country in
the area around Rome.
Barriers to Italian UnificationItaly, a mere
geographic expression.
  • Regional differences
  • Cultural
  • Economic
  • Political
  • Great power politics
  • Papacy
  • Political ideologies

Forces Pushing for Unification
  • Common cultural elements
  • Catholicism
  • Written Italian
  • Nationalism
  • Resentment of great power interference
  • Ascendance of Piedmont-Sardinia
  • Modern state
  • Constitutional monarchy
  • Efficient bureaucracy

King Victor-Emmanuel II of Piedmont-Sardinia,
and later of Italy
Plans for Italian Unification
  • Plan 1 - unite behind Pope (1848/9) - Austria
    and France defeat the Roman Republic
  • Plan 2 - unite behind only independent state,
    Piedmont (Sardinia) - made independent by
    Congress of Europe as a buffer between France and
  • Piedmont Prime Minister Cavour aids France in
    Crimean War with 10,000 troops - thrusts Piedmont
    onto world stage

Push towards Unification
-Originated in a radical student group known as
Young Italy in the 1831. -Organization was led by
Giuseppe Mazzini -Mazzini pictured a liberal
republican government, like Frances 1st
Republic -The power base of Young Italy came from
southern Italy (Sicily) -The Sicilians viewed
unification as a step towards economic prosperity
  • One of Mazzinis most devoted followers is
    Giuseppe Garibaldi
  • -Garibaldi is trained as a military officer and
    devoted to the cause of unification

  • 1848-Following the continental wide revolts, a
    unification movement begins in the northwest
    section of Italy known as the Piedmont or the
    Kingdom of Sardinia

  • 1852 Count Camillio Cavour becomes the Prime
    Minister of Sardinia.
  • Believed in a unification movement led by
  • Favored unification of the north to enhance the
    region economically
  • Rationale was that unification could only be
    achieved by war with Austria

  • 1855 Sardinia supplies troops to a
    British/French war against Russia (Crimean War)
  • Sardinia gains an ally in France under the
    government of Napoleon III
  • 1859 Prime Minister Cavour Napoleon III scheme
    to provoke war to drive Austria out of Italy
  • France gets provinces of Nice Savoy for help
    and Sardinia gains Lombardy
  • Piedmont/France drives Austria - Napoleon III
    fears Piedmont - signs own treaty with Austria

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In the South
  •  The movement in the north toward unification
    causes massive demonstrations in the south
    calling for a truly united peninsula

Issues in the South
  • -Southern Italy was more politically unstable
    than the north
  • -The south lacked the accomplished political
    leadership of the north
  • -The south lacked the economic advantages of the

Impact of Garibaldi
  • -Garibaldi returns after serving as a mercenary
    in the Latin American wars for independence
  • -Garibaldi is regarded as a mythic figure
  • -Speculation that he is being financed by
    northern politicians
  • -Garibaldis army (1000 Red shirts) march through
    Sicily, uncontested
  • -The army stops at the Papal States
  • -By 1861, Garibaldi effectively controls Sicily
    (Italian Peninsula, south of Rome)

Garibaldi now realized he would need the support
of the Sardinian monarchy, teaming up with king
Victor Emmannuel II and Prime Minister Camilo
Cavour to fight the Austrians who controlled
northern Italy. Cavour gave Garibaldis home
city, Nice, to France in return for an alliance.
Garibaldi was enraged, but continued to support
  • March 1861 _at_ Turin The Kingdom of Italy is
    organized with a constitutional monarchy as the
    government. The Sardinians assume the key
    leadership roles in the new nation-state. The
    Constitution is supported by plebiscite.
  • 1866 Venetia is added
  • 1870 The Roman Papal states are added except
    the Vatican City

Italian Unification Timeline
1860 Garibaldi and the Red Shirt Land in
1859 War With Austria, Italy gets Lombardy
with help of Napoleon III
1866 7 Weeks War, Italy sides with Prussia
receives Venice
  • 1861- Victor Emmanuel II
  • Proclaimed King of Italy
  • Cavour dies

1870 - Franco-Prussian War, Italy takes
1871 Rome proclaimed capital of unified Italy
Revolution of 1848
1852 Cavour becomes Prime Minister of Sardinia
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