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Global History

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Title: Global History India and Hinduism Author: Greece Last modified by: Floreen Created Date: 1/7/2010 3:52:50 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global History


1
(No Transcript)
2
Hinduism Indias 1 religion
  • The Aryans were a group of Indo-European people
    that moved from the dry grasslands of western
    Asia (the steppes), into what is now India
    starting about 1700 BCE and captured the land and
    people of the Indus Valley. Archaeology tells
    almost nothing about the Aryans. But their
    sacred literature, the Vedas, tells a lot about
    them.
  • The Aryans were divided into classes of people.
    Over time, they made many rules for how people in
    these classes, or castes, could interact with one
    another. People were born into their caste for
    life. These castes were initially determined by
    varna literally, color. The Aryans were light
    skinned, and comprised the upper castes, while
    the native peoples found in India were darker
    skinned, and made up the lowest caste

3
Caste System
The upper three classes consisted of Aryan people
while the bottom two were the local native Indian
people.
4
The Aryans were a group of Indo-European people
that moved from the steppes into what is now
India.
5
Untouchables
  • Some impure people lived in a group outside
    this class system. (ie. They were out-castes.)
    They were butchers, grave diggers, and trash
    collectors. Because they did work that was
    thought unclean, they were called untouchables.

6
The Caste System social class system
  • 1. The caste system is the traditional hereditary
    social class system that affected every aspect of
    their life their job, their status, who they
    could marry, and even who they could talk to.
  • 2. Hindus are born into their caste and could not
    get out until their death
  • 3. There was no SOCIAL MOBILITY could not move
    up in social class!

7
Basic Hindu Beliefs
1. The Gods a. Brahman the Creator b.
Vishnu the Preserver c. Shiva the
Destroyer 2. Reincarnation the soul never
dies, it is re-born and goes through many lives
until it can unite with Brahma
8
Hindu Beliefs continued
  • 3. Karma a persons behavior in life determines
    their caste in the next life
  • 4. Dharma Your DUTIES in life to family and
    caste, do your job well!

9
END OF PART 1
10
Sacred Objects
  • Cows Hindus refuse to eat beef, they roam
    freely and are respected
  • Ganges River Holy river believed to wash away
    evil
  • Today 85 of all Indian people are Hindu

11
From Hinduism Comes Buddhism
Around 528 BCE another new religion, Buddhism,
arose in India. It was started by Siddhartha
Gautama, a prince. The founder, Siddhartha
Gautama, has many legends and stories that have
surrounded his life. While we can't be certain
which of these stories and legends are true, we
do know that the basic historical outlines of his
life are accurate.
12
Beginnings of Buddhism
  • He was the chief's son of a tribal group, so he
    was born a Kshatriya (Warrior class) around 566
    BC.
  • At the age of 29, he left his royal family in
    order to lead a simple life.
  • A few years later he returned with a number of
    followers followers that devoted their lives to
    "The Middle Way, a lifestyle that is midway
    between a completely simple lifestyle and one
    that is full of materialistic goods.
  • Siddhartha searched for a way that would allow
    him to escape the suffering of human life. He
    spent many years searching for this answer. He
    was looking for enlightenment, or wisdom.
  • Finally, he sat down and meditated under a tree.
    After 49 days, he had his answer. He was now
    called the Buddha, which means enlightened one.
    The Buddha began to teach others how to attain
    enlightenment.

13
Buddhist Beliefs
  • The Four Noble Truths
  • Suffering is universal everyone suffers
  • Cause of suffering is DESIRE
  • If you end your desires, your suffering will end,
    which is necessary to reach NIRVANA (a release
    from selfishness and pain).
  • Follow the EIGHTFOLD PATH

14
How to become enlightened
  • Buddhists were to follow a plan of behavior
    called the Eightfold Path
  • right views,
  • right resolve (intentions),
  • right speech,
  • right conduct,
  • right livelihood,
  • right effort,
  • right mindfulness, and
  • right concentration.
  • This would lead to nirvana, or a release from
    selfishness and pain.

15
Following the path led to Nirvana
16
Other Buddhist Beliefs
  • 1. Believed in KARMA and DHARMA and REINCARNATION
  • 2. REJECTED THE CASTE SYSTEM felt it was not
    fair, unjust!!
  • Not by birth does one become an outcast, not by
    birth does one become a Brahmin. By DEEDS one
    becomes an outcast, by DEEDS one becomes a
    Brahmin Buddha

17
Spread of Buddhism
  • Buddhism spread from India to China and other
    parts of the world along the SILK ROAD
  • The sharing of religion is an excellent example
    of cultural diffusion.

18
End of Part 2
19
India first Empires
  • Maurya Gupta

20
The Mauryan Empire
  • In 321 BCE, the founder and eventual King of the
    Maurya Empire, Chandragupta Maurya used his army
    to defeat powerful kings in eastern and northern
    India.
  • By 305 BCE, he began to challenge for Alexander
    the Greats western territories in India, and by
    300 BCE, for the first time, northeastern and
    northwestern India were joined under the rule of
    one person.
  • Chandragupta was a harsh ruler. He charged a
    heavy tax on farmers one-half of the crop they
    grew each year. He used this wealth to build a
    huge army. He controlled his government by
    carefully choosing officials and watching them
    closely.

21
The Mauryan Empire
  • In 269 BCE, Chandraguptas grandson, Ashoka,
    took the throne. He brought the Mauryan Empire
    to its greatest height. At first he was a
    warlike king but then he decided to accept the
    teachings of the Buddha.
  • Asoka promised to rule in a fair and just way.
  • He issued laws that urged his subjects to avoid
    violence.
  • He urged religious toleration. This is
    acceptance of peoples rights to differing
    religious beliefs.
  • He made great roads so that people could travel
    easily.
  • Asoka is also known as the lawgiver because he
    carved the laws into stone pillars which were
    placed in the center of towns.

22
Some of the Pillars of Asoka
Sanskrit Language
23
The Gupta Empire
  • Soon after Ashoka died, however, his empire
    collapsed.
  • Around 320 AD, Chandra Gupta I came to power in
    the north. He was not related to the first
    emperor Chandragupta Maurya of the Mauryan Empire
    , but he, too, took the title of king and began
    to conquer other areas in the name of the Gupta
    Empire.

24
The Gupta Golden Age
  • Added western coast to empire
  • religion
  • science
  • Flourishing of arts

25
Gupta Achievements
1000 diseasesclassified
500 healingplants identified
Printedmedicinal guides
Kalidasa
Literature
Medicine
PlasticSurgery
GuptaIndia
Inoculations
C-sectionsperformed
SolarCalendar
Astronomy
Mathematics
DecimalSystem
The earthis round
PI 3.1416
Conceptof Zero
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