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Hebrews

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Hebrews & Judaism HEBREWS Small group of people who had a great influence on world history Their religion became known as Judaism, and is the parent religion of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hebrews


1
Hebrews Judaism
2
HEBREWS
  • Small group of people who had a great influence
    on world history
  • Their religion became known as Judaism, and is
    the parent religion of Christianity and Islam,
    which (together) are well over ½ of the worlds
    people!!
  • The early part of this story can be viewed as
    fact or myth. Viewed as either, it is very
    important.

3
c. 2000BC ABRAHAM/ IBRAHIM-1st Patriarch
  • Abraham came to believe in one God, with no
    physical form
  • At Gods command, he wife Sarah left Sumer
    settled in Canaan
  • CanaanPalestine Israel
  • God made a covenant with Abraham Abraham
    would obey God, and God would make him the father
    of many people who would be a blessing to the
    world.

4
ABRAHAM/ IBRAHIM
  • Had two sons
  • Ishmael became ancestor of Arabs
  • Isaac became ancestor of the Hebrews. Isaac had
    a son Jacob who had 12 sons. Their descendants
    became the 12 Tribes of Israel.

5
Slavery in Egypt
  • c. 1700BC There is a famine, so the Hebrews
    leave Canaan go to Egypt. (story of Joseph)
  • At first the pharaoh treats them well lets them
    settle in Egypt. A later pharaoh turns against
    them and makes them slaves.
  • c. 1200BC Moses/Moshe/Musa frees the Hebrews
    from slavery leads them out of Egypt, and into
    the desert of the Sinai peninsula. The journey
    out of
  • Egypt is called the exodus. Egypt is the

6
RETURN TO CANAAN
  • c. 1200 Moses climbs Mt. Sinai, gets the Ten
    Commandments, laws revealed by God, setting out
    the moral duty to God and other people.
  • God renewed the covenant (sacred agreement) with
    the Hebrews they would obey Him, and He would
    give them the land of Canaan as their home.
  • Hebrews put the Ten Commandments in a special box
    called the Ark of the Covenant

7
RETURN TO CANAAN
  • Hebrews returned to Canaan. Fought with the
    Canaanites and other local people.
  • Defeated the Canaanites settled.
  • They were a loose confederation of tribes, but
    gradually became more united.
  • The nation was called Israel. Their with
    leaders were called Judges.
  • Prophets tried to warn the people when they did
    not keep the law.

8
1000 BC KINGS
  • Hebrews eventually chose kings
  • Saul-war leader
  • David-most famous king war leader, who
    established Jerusalem as the capital
  • Solomon-known for wealth wisdom ( many wives).
    Built the 1st Temple in Jerusalem

9
DIVISION
  • The leaders after Solomon could not agree, and
    the original nation of Israel split into 2 parts
  • 10 northern tribes kept the name Israel, and
    established a capital at Samaria
  • 2 southern tribes took the name Judah, and kept
    the old capital at Jerusalem. They became known
    as the Jews.

10
DEFEAT
  • 722BC- The fierce Assyrians attacked Israel
    (northern tribes), conquered them and annihilated
    most of their people
  • Miraculously, the Assyrians did not attack
    conquer Judah
  • Later, 587BC The Chaldeans (who had meanwhile
    defeated the Assyrians) attacked conquered
    Judah.
  • The Chaldeans destroyed the temple and took the
    people of Judah to Babylon as captives.

11
CYRUS TO THE RESCUE
  • 539BC Cyrus the Great of Persia defeated the
    Chaldeans.
  • Cyrus proclaimed freedom to the people captured
    by the Chaldeans, including the Jews, allowed
    them to return home, and gave them assistance in
    rebuilding their temple.

12
DEVELOPMENT OF JUDAISM
  • Hebrew Scriptures (Called the Old Testament by
    Christians)
  • Torah (1st five books of the Old Testament)
  • History of Jewish people
  • Writings that include poetry and prophesy

13
LAW
  • Mosaic laws include the 10 Commandments
  • Similar to Hammurabis code, but place a higher
    value on human life and include laws requiring
    charity to the poor.
  • Ethical monotheism (main contribution)
  • Belief in a single God
  • Belief that God wants people to behave ethically.

14
Evolving view of God
  • At first, the Hebrews regarded God as a force to
    be obeyed feared.
  • Began to believe in free will, that God gives a
    choice between good and evil. People have free
    will to choose.
  • Gradually, they began to believe that people
    should love God and obey him out of love, not
    just fear.

15
  • The Hebrews viewed God as a spirit, not as having
    a human or animal form.
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