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Conservation Biology BISC 309

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Conservation Biology BISC 309 Lecture 5 Conservation Genetics wrap-up Course assessment - details – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Conservation Biology BISC 309


1
Conservation Biology BISC 309 Lecture
5 Conservation Genetics wrap-up Course
assessment - details
2
  • Do small populations have higher levels of
    inbreeding, reduced heterozygosity and lower
    levels of genetic variation? YES
  • Does inbreeding/loss of heterozygosity reduce a
    populations ability to adapt?
  • YES
  • What is the unresolved issue?

Evolution requires h2 VA/VP Geneticists
typically measure H and A using neutral
markers We dont know if H predicts h2
3
How closely correlated are molecular and
quantitative measures of genetic
variation? Reed and Frankham meta-analysis -
71 datasets mean corr r 0.22 H and life
history traits r -0.11 ns H and morph traits
r 0.30 Molecular measures of variation provide
a very imprecise measure of evolutionary potential
4
Next Q How big do populations have to be to
avoid losing genetic variation and the ability to
adapt?
5
How big is big enough?
Franklin (1982) Argued VA determines
evolutionary potential VA at eqm depends on
the balance between gain (mutation) and
loss (drift) Change VA
Vm - VA/2Ne Require Ne when there is no change
so 0 Vm - VA/2Ne NeVA/2Vm
6
How big is big enough?
Franklin (1982) used Vm10-3VE Drosophila
Ne VA/2(10-3.VE) 500 VA/VE
since h2 VA/VP VA/(VAVE) Ne 500 h2/(1-
h2) if heritability 0.5 Need Ne 500
-----gt N 5000 to avoid losing evolutionary
potential

Q.why?
7
How big is big enough?
Retaining genetic diversity in perpetuity
requires Effective sizes of at least 500
Census population sizes of 5000
But how large are threatened populations?
8
IUCN
Critically Endangered Threatened Endangered
Criterion Reduction in population size 10
yrs 3 generations
gt80 gt50 gt30 lt100 km2
lt5000 km2 lt20,000 km2 lt50
lt250 lt1000 gt50 gt20
gt10 10 yrs 20 yrs 100 yrs Or 3 gen or 5 gen
Small range
Very Small population
Quantitative analysis Eg PVA
9
High profile threatened taxa
Giant panda 1000
Mauna Kea silversword 500
Whooping crane 340
10
Recovery targets for delisting
Black-footed ferret 1500 adults in 10
popns Sea otter 2650 California condor 150
in 2 popns 150 captive Peregrine falcon 900
DELISTED in US Red cockaded woodpecker 500 in 5
populations Lakeside daisy 1000 plants
Target sizes are rarely based on genetic concerns

11
Summary Population size influences evolutionary
potential by reducing S, and reducing
heritability (via loss of heterozygosity) To
retain evolutionary potential effective
population sizes of 500 have been recommended ie
5000 Current popn sizes for most threatened spp
in the wild or captivity are too small to avoid
genetic deterioration
12
At this point you should now be able to
Calculate Ne, H, F Understand how/why Ne
influences heterozygosity, inbreeding and
evolutionary potential Explain why it is
important to conserve genetic variation Discuss
whether current recovery targets for endangered
species are sufficient.
13
Genetics (basics) - alleles, heterozygosity,
genetic drift, inbreeding, quantitative
traits Evolutionary Analysis Fourth
Edition Conservation Genetics Ch 11.
Principles of Conservation Biology (3rd Ed) Chs
in Introduction to Conservation
Genetics Papers on Conservation Genetics Week 2
readings Week 3 readings ----- on course webpage
14
Assessment Exams Midterm 20 or 15? Feb
18 Final 20 and 25? April 16 Tutorial Particip
ation 5 Presentation 15 Writing Newspaper
article 15 Recovery Plan 25
15
Goals of Presentation/Mini-lecture
  • 1 to allow independent research relating to a
    current issue in conservation biology
  • 2 to provide an opportunity for you to give a
    presentation in an informal setting
  • to increase the breadth of topics discussed
    during this course
  • to illustrate how scientific research is
    addressing conservation questions

16
Format of Presentation/Mini-lecture
2-3 presenters 10-12 minute presentation -
powerpoint 3 minute discussion period
17
Content of Presentation/Mini-lecture
Topic - any conservation oriented issue
(local, national, global) TALK - introduce
issue - identify key question or argument -
give background - describe recent
research ie one or two studies - what do new
results mean DISCUSSION- lead/prompt input
from class - NOT a Q/Ans session
18
Goals of newspaper article
  • 1 to allow independent research relating to a
    current issue in conservation biology
  • to develop the ability to communicate the
    importance and relevance of scientific research
    to a general audience
  • to increase awareness of conservation issues on
    campus

19
Format/content of Newspaper article
The article is to be written independently Word
limit 1000 words (minimum 500) The article
should be entertaining introduce why an
issue is important describe the importance of
recent research be critical and evaluate
competing points of view identify the key
sources of information
20
Getting started with the presentation/article
Finding a topic Sources of ideas your personal
experience newspaper or magazine articles the
internet scientific journals
21
Finding a topic - example 1 Cruising the
scientific journals
Hunter 2007 Climate change and moving species
furthering the debate on assisted colonization.
Conservation Biology 21 1356-58
Issue Climate change is likely to drive
extinctions Possible Actions Increase
connectivity to enhance movement Increase efforts
to minimise climate change or Assisted
colonization
22
Florida torreya
1000 trees left Decline linked to climate change
- few new seeds are found
Proposed - assisted colonization Move spp. 500 km
Northwards --gt southern Appalachians Not found
there for 65 million years!
23
Finding a topic - example 2 Cruising the
scientific journals
Garcia VB and others 2008 The importance of
habitat and life history characters to extinction
risk in sharks skates rays and chimaeras.
Proc. R Soc Lond 27583-89
Issue Deep water fisheries are seen as an
alternative to depleted shallow water fisheries
40 Mediterranean sharks and rays threatened with
extinction
24
Finding a topic - example 2 Cruising the
scientific journals
Garcia VB and others 2008 The importance of
habitat and life history characters to extinction
risk in sharks skates rays and chimaeras.
Proc. R Soc Lond 27583-89
Question Do slow life histories of deep water
species make them even more vulnerable to
extinction?
25
Finding a topic - example 3 Cruising the internet
Science Daily Jan 14 2008 Greenhouse oceans may
downsize fish, risking one of most productive
fisheries
Bering Sea diatoms --gt large zooplankton ---gt
large fish Produces 1/2 fish ct in US waters 1/3
fish ct worldwide ISSUE Greenhouse conditions
favour small phytoplankton ---gt change in food
chain ---gt reduced ability to soak up
atmospheric CO2
26
Finding a topic - example 4 Cruising the internet
National Geographic News Jan 11 2008 Ants,
Acacias drop truce when wildlife threat drops
Acacias provide home Ants protect against
herbivores
What happens when large herbivores are lost from
the system?
27
Finding a topic Reading the Newspaper - example 5
Guardian weekly - Too many elephants in the room
Jan 4 2008
ISSUE - Elephants in SA 12,500 elephants in
Kruger National Park QUESTION Is the
large/growing population threatening the habitat
of other species
28
Finding a topic Reading the Newspaper - example 5
Guardian weekly - Too many elephants in the room
Jan 4 2008
Options Resume culling Translocations Allow
movement Sterilization program
Q. How does sterilization influence male behavior
and female fecundity?
29
Finding a topic - do this SOON Developing your
topic Read up on the basics Search for
scientific articles by author or by topic Talk
to people Writing DUE FEB 27 5 pm Be
engaging but provide context and more content
and critical evaluation than in shorter media
articles Get comments from friends/siblings/someon
e
30
Goals for the Recovery Strategy assignment
  • To help understand the listing and recovery
    planning process in BC and Canada
  • To practise using your scientific training to
  • collect data on a threatened spp
  • assess evidence for population declines
  • identify key threats to the species
  • identify critical habitat areas
  • suggest actions that will halt population
    declines and aid recovery

31
Format for the Recovery Strategy assignment
4 sections Summary 250 words Background and
Status 650 words Recovery Plan 1100 words Action
Plan 1000 words Plus references Figures
32
Format for the Recovery Strategy assignment
Summary - the bottom line in 250 words Background
and Status Recovery Plan Action Plan
33
Format for the Recovery Strategy assignment
Summary Background and Status - distribution
- biology - population , sizes -
trends - significance - status Recovery
Plan Action Plan
34
Format for the Recovery Strategy assignment
Summary Background and Status Recovery Plan -
scientific knowledge (gaps) declining?
Why? measurable objectives critical
habitat (what/where) how could declines be
halted rationale for approach Action Plan
35
Format for the Recovery Strategy assignment
Summary Background and Status Recovery
Plan Action Plan - who are the stakeholders
- does critical habitat need
protection - what legislation may be
useful - socio-economic cost of
spp loss of conservation actions
36
The Recovery strategy assignment Getting
started Finding a species BC Ecosystem Species
Explorer www.env.gov.bc.ca/atrisk/toolintro.html
COSEWIC/SAR webpages
Your species may be listed or may be a
candidate for assessment but can not have a
published recovery plan
37
The Recovery strategy assignment Further info on
webpage Me - Guidelines for assignment CWS -
Templates for Recovery Plans Examples Real
recovery strategies are on the SAR website
38
Questions about assignments in general Your
Input on assessment on workload on course
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