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Introduction to Psychology

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Title: Introduction to Psychology Author: Preferred Customer Last modified by: Amy Created Date: 7/7/1998 3:26:24 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Psychology


1
Barrons Ch. 1 (Mods 145) History and Approaches
  • Trephination Stone age human remains found with
    holes in skull to release evil spirits
  • Max Werthheimer Gestalt psychologist who argued
    against dividing human thought into structures
  • Gestaltists believe the whole person is more
    than the sum of its parts
  • Evolutionary Perspective (sociobiology) Views
    behavior in terms of natural selection or
    Darwinism
  • Socio- Cultural Perspective Emphasize
    importance of culture on personality development
  • Biopsychology Perspective (neuroscience) study
    how thoughts are influenced by genes, hormones,
    neurotransmitters

2
Barrons Ch 2 (Part 1) (Mod 2) Research Methods
  • Stratified Sampling Process to better ensure
    representation of the population being studied.
    Ex. 50male/50 female, 60white/20 Hispanic/20
    Black
  • Confounding Variable any difference between the
    the experimental and control conditions except
    for the independent variable that might affect
    the dependent variable
  • Random assignment controls for Subject Relevant
    Confounding Variable (does not allow subjects to
    select their own group)
  • Situation-Relevant Confounding Variable occurs
    when the situation groups are placed in arent
    equivalent (except for independent variable)
  • Single Blind when only the subjects do not know
    if they are in experimental or control group
  • minimizes effects of demand characteristics,
    response/subject bias, and social desirability

3
Barrons Ch 2 (Part 2) (Mod 2) Research Methods
  • Hawthorne Effect Changes in experimental group
    attributed simply to the fact that they know they
    are in an experiment
  • Counterbalancing Using subjects as their own
    control group
  • Ex. Test group for IQ level under normal
    conditions then put group under stress and test
    again for changes
  • Counterbalancing controls for order effect
    (half the subjects test under stress first, other
    half does the opposite)
  • Z- Scores a statistical measure of the distance
    of a score from the mean in units of standard
    deviation. (.5 Std. Dev. of .5)
  • P-Value (Probability) determines extent to
    which experiment results could have occurred by
    chance. (P.05, is 5 probability)
  • Institutional Review Board (IRB) Reviews
    research proposals for possible ethical
    violations and/or procedural errors.

4
Barrons Ch 3 (Part 1) (Mods 34) Biological
Bases of Behavior
  • Acetylcholine (ACH) Motor movement, Too little
    Alzheimers
  • Dopamine Movement/Alertness, Too little ...
    Parkinsons Too Much ... Positive Schizophrenia
    symptoms
  • Endorphins Pain control ... involved in
    addictions
  • Serotonin Mood Control, Too little ...
    Depression
  • Afferent Neurons Sensory Efferent Neurons
    Motor
  • Hindbrain Top of spinal chord,(medulla, pons,
    cerebellum)
  • Midbrain Just above spinal chord, (between
    hindbrain and forebrain), integrates sensory and
    muscle movement, includes Reticular Formation
    that controls arousal and consciousness
  • Forebrain Main structures that control
    thoughts/reasoning, (thalamus, hypothalamus,
    hippocampus, amygdala cerebrum)
  • Limbic System Involved with memory/emotion
    (thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and
    amygdala)

5
Barrons Ch 3 (Part 2) (Mods 34) Biological
Bases of Behavior
  • Contralateral Control Left hemisphere of brain
    controls right side of body and vice versa
  • Auditory cortex is not contralateralized like
    visual cortex
  • Hemispheric Specialization (brain
    lateralization) Left side is more active during
    logic/sequential tasks/speech while right side
    may be more active during spatial/creative tasks
  • Top of the sensory/motor cortex receives/sends
    signals from the bottom of the body and
    progresses up the body as you move higher up on
    the cortex
  • Turners Syndrome Babies with only one X
    chromosome
  • Klinefelters Syndrome Babies with XXY
    chromosome
  • Downs Syndrome Extra chromosome on 21st pair
    round face, short fingers, slanted eyes, mentally
    retarded

6
Barrons Ch 4 (Mods 11-16) Sensation and
Perception
  • (review sensation/perception textbook slides)
  • Thalamus Brain part that routes incoming
    sensations to brain
  • Signal Detection Theory Depends on a persons
    motivation called Response Criteria or Receiver
    Operating Characteristics
  • False Positive/Negative erroneous
    sensations/perceptions
  • Muller-Lyer Illusion

7
Barrons Ch 5 (Mods 171819 ) States of
Consciousness
  • Levels of Consciousness Conscious Fully
    Aware Nonconscious Autonomic N.S.
    Preconscious Info not currently in conscious
    mind but could easily be retrieved Subconscious
    Drives some behavior (primingmere exposure)
    but not on a conscious level Unconscious
    Freudian repression of unacceptable
    feelings/memories.
  • Paradoxical Sleep REM sleep brain waves
    similar to awake
  • Key Dream Theories Freudian manifest/latent
    content Activation Synthesis Information
    Processing (memory builder)
  • Hypnosis Theories Role play hypnotically
    suggestible State theory Become more/less
    aware of environment Hilgards
    DissociationTheory Divide our consciousness
  • Drug Blood Brain Barrier Thicker walls surround
    blood vessels in brain to protect it from harmful
    chemicals in blood
  • Reverse Tolerance May occur with psychedelics
    when second dose is less than the first but has
    greater effect

8
Barrons Ch 6 (Part 1) (Mods 212223) Principles
of Learning
  • Types of Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian)
  • Delayed Conditioning Present the CS first then
    present the US while the CS is still evident
    (most effective method)
  • Trace Conditioning Present CS short break,,,
    then US
  • Simultaneous Conditioning CS/US presented
    together
  • Backward Conditioning US first... then CS
    (ineffective)
  • Second (Higher) Order Conditioning (Ex.)
    Condition dog to salivate to a light, then pair
    light with a bell (no food) and dog will
    eventually salivate to the bell (never paired
    with food)
  • Garcia/Koelling illustrated Biological
    Preparedness in classical conditioning of rats.
    Rats easily associated noise with shock and
    unusual tasting water with nausea but not the
    reverse
  • Token Economy Used in prisons/mental
    hospitals/schools
  • Premack Principle preferred activity can be
    used to reinforce an activity that is not
    preferred. (Ex. Eat Apple Vs. Play Piano)

9
Barrons Ch 6 (Part 2) (Mods 212223) Principles
of Learning
  • Instinctive Drift Tendency for animals to
    refuse rewards for new behaviors in order to
    pursue their natural behaviors
  • Contingency Vs. Contiguity Model of Classical
    Conditioning
  • Contiguity model (Pavlov) argues that the more
    times two things are paired the greater the
    learning that occurs
  • Contingency model (Robert Rescorla) revises
    Pavlovs model to include cognitions impact on
    conditioning
  • Ex. A dog gets 10 consecutive pairings, another
    gets 10 pairings mixed with 5 non-pairings (both
    get 10)
  • Latent Learning Tolman demonstrated that even
    if rats are not reinforced while wandering
    through a maze they were able to learn maze
    quicker than other rats (once reinforcement
    began)
  • Abstract Learning Animals have demonstrated
    ability to learn concepts (tree, chair) rather
    than simply securing a reward
  • Insight Learning Chimpanzees suddenly able to
    learn how to solve problem without gradual
    reinforcement (banana on string)

10
Barrons Ch 7 (Mods 23-27) Cognition
  • 3 Box Info. Processing Model Sensory/Short
    term/Long term
  • Levels of Processing Model memory ability based
    on how deeply (elaboratively) or shallowly
    (maintenance) its processed
  • Tip-of-the-Tongue phenomenon Temp inability to
    remember
  • Semantic Network Theory Memories connected by
    context
  • Constructed Memory (Loftus) False
    memory...Confabulation
  • Anterograde Amnesia Caused by damage to
    Hippocampus, person may learn new skills but not
    remember when, indicates procedural (skill)
    memory may be stored in cerebrum vs hippo
  • Nativist Theory of Language Acquisition
    Chomskys theory that humans have a Language
    Acquisition Device making it easier for children
    to learn language at younger ages
  • Linguistic Relativity (Determinism) Hypothesis
    B. Whorfs theory that language controls/limits
    thinking/intelligence
  • Convergent Thinking Search for one solution
    (use logic)
  • Divergent Thinking Search for multiple
    solutions (creative)

11
Barrons Ch 8 (Mods 33-34-35-36-37-38) Motivation
Emotion
  • Primary Drive Biological need Secondary
    Learned Drive
  • Yerkes-Dodson Law High level arousal best for
    easy task etc
  • Garcia Effect Nausea paired with food causes
    food aversion
  • Theory X People work for reward or to avoid
    punishment
  • Theory Y People are internally motivated to
    do good work
  • Approach-Approach Conflict Choose between 2
    desired things
  • Avoidance- Avoidance Choose between 2
    undesirable things
  • Approach- Avoidance Goal has attractive/unattrac
    tive features
  • Multiple Approach- Avoidance Many good/bad
    features
  • Holmes/Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale
    Stress Test
  • Masters/Johnson Sex Excitement/Plateau/Orgasm/Re
    solution
  • General Adaptation Syndrome Hans Seyles theory
    of how animals/humans respond to stressful events
  • 1. Alarm Reaction Sympathetic N.S. 2.
    Resistance Physical readiness to meet threat 3.
    Exhaustion Parasympathetic N.S.

12
Barrons Ch 9 (Mods 7-8-9-10) Developmental
Psychology
  • Babies only see about 12 inches out at birth
    full range by 12 mo.
  • Harlows monkey preferred soft surrogate mom vs.
    wire/food
  • Mary Ainsworth studied secure/avoidant/anxious
    attachments
  • Stage Theories Critics argue about continuity
    vs. stage Dev.
  • Eric Erickson(Neo-Freudian) Trust/Mistrust
    Autonomy/Shame Initiative/Guilt
    Industry/Inferiority Identity/Role Confusion
    Intimacy/Isolation Generativity/Stagnation
    Integrity/Despair
  • Jean Piaget Sensorimotor (0-2) Preoperational
    (2-7) Concrete Operational (8-12) Formal
    Operational (12- thru adulthood)
  • Concept of Conservation object properties
    remain the same
  • Information Processing Model Continuous
    alternative to Piaget
  • Reflexes Rooting (Cheek) Sucking (mouth)
    Grasping (Hand) Moro (Startle) Babinski (Foot)
    All these reflexes lost with age
  • Kohlberg/Morals Preconventional/Conventional/Pos
    t Conven
  • Carol Gilligan Argued against Kohlberg,
    believed M/F morality is different.

13
Barrons Ch 10 (Mods 41-42-43-44 ) Personality
Theories
  • Type A Personality Rushed easily angered,
    competitive
  • Type B Personality Relaxedeasygoinglower
    risk heart attack
  • Defense Mechanisms Repression Displacement
    Projection Reaction Formation Regression
    Rationalization Sublimation
  • Denial Not accepting the truth
  • Intellectualization Taking academic,
    unemotional approach
  • Carl Jung Collective Unconscious Complexes in
    unconscious
  • Alfred Adler Ego psych- focused on
    inferiority/superiority
  • Trait Theories Nomothetic Approach believes a
    basic set of traits can describe someones
    personality (Ideographic does not)
  • Hans Eyensenck used intro/extroversion and
    stable/unstable
  • Big Five traits (OCEAN) Extraversion,
    Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness,
    Emotional Stability (Neurotic)
  • Factor Analysis Correlates clusters of traits
    (Extraversion)
  • George Kelly Past personality predicts future
    personality

14
Barrons Ch 11 (Mods 30-31-32) Testing
Individual Differences
  • Reliability Consistency of measurement (Split
    half, test-retest)
  • Validity Measures what it is supposed to
    (accuracy of a test)
  • Concurrent Validity Measures current
    characteristics (Now)
  • Predictive Validity Measures qualities of
    future performance
  • Speed Test Lots of questions with little time
    to complete
  • Power Test Items of increasing difficulty
    levels (SAT, AP)
  • Fluid (Youth) Vs. Crystallized (Adults)
    Intelligence
  • Spearmens G Factor Underlies all other types
    of intelligence
  • Thurstone/Guilford/Gardner Postulate many(7-100)
    intelligences
  • Goleman EQ, Emotional Intelligence (Social
    Skills)
  • Sternbergs Triarchic Theory Analytic/
    Experiential(Creative) /Practical
  • IQ Tests Stanford-Binet/Weschler(WAIS/WISC) (Z
    Score15)
  • Testing Bias Statistically NO, Politically
    Yes
  • Within group difference greater than between
    group difference

15
Barrons Ch 12 (Mods 45-46-47-48-49) Abnormal
Psychology
  • DSM-IV_TR Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
    Mental Disorders
  • Types Anxiety Mood(Affective) Dissociative
    Schizophrenia
  • Somatoform Show psych. problems with physical
    symptoms
  • Hypochondriac Conversion Disorder paralysis,
    blind, deaf, (not real)
  • Becks Cognitive Triad Theory Depression
    from negative ideas about Themselves, Their
    World, Their Future. (External)
  • Schizophrenias Origin Biological or
    Environmental?
  • Dopamine Hypothesis High levels
    linked-gtpositive symptoms
  • Low dopamine may cause tardive
    dyskinesia(Parkinsons)
  • Double Binds Schizos experienced contradictory
    messages
  • Personality Disorders O-C, Dependent,
    Narcissistic, Histronic etc
  • Paraphilias Sexually based psychological
    Disorders ... pedophile, zoophilia, fetishism,
    voyeur, masochist, sadist
  • Rosenhan Study (Labels) Confederates fake
    Schizo, were admitted to mental hospitals, then
    no symptoms. All diagnosed as Schizo

16
Barrons Ch 13 (Mods 50-51-52) Treatment of
Disorders
  • Psychoanalytic Treatments Insight into
    unconscious causes
  • Free Assoc, Hypnosis, TAT, Rorschach, Dream
    analysis,
  • Humanistic Free will, Client centered,
    Unconditional Positive Regard
  • Gestalt Therapy Get in touch with the present
    whole body/self (Perls)
  • Existential Therapy Help clients get in touch
    with purpose of life
  • Behavioral Counterconditioning, Systematic
    Desensitization (relax)
  • Implosive Therapy Client imagines most fearful
    scenario first
  • Flooding Client actually experiences most
    fearful situation first
  • Cognitive Therapies Seek to change unhealthy
    thinking patterns
  • Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)(A.
    Ellis) Teach client that failure is unlikely,
    and not a big deal if they fail
  • Becks Cognitive Triad explains depression as
    a persons negative perception of 1) Themselves,
    2) Their world, 3) Their future
  • Somatic Therapies Psychopharmacology/Chemothera
    py/ECT
  • Schizo Thorazine / Haldol Anxiety
    Barbituates (Valium / Zanax)
  • Depression MAOIs, SSRIs, (Prozac/Zoloft)
    Bipolar Lithium

17
Barrons Ch 14 (Mods 53-54-55 ) Social Psychology
  • Attitudes Say Vs. Do Stereotype Prejudice
    Discrimination.
  • Ethnocentrism viewing others from your personal
    ethnic viewpoint
  • Compliance StrategiesFoot-in-Door
    Door-in-Face Reciprocity Norms
  • Person Stable/Unstable Attribution Is the
    behavior routine or an exception?
  • Situation Stable/Unstable Attribution Is
    situation routine or an exception?
  • Fundamental Attribution Error Less likely
    collectivist cultures
  • (False ConsensusJust World BiasSelf-Serving
    Bias Self Fulfilling)
  • Out-Group Homogeneity Out-group less-diverse
    than in-group
  • Contact TheoryHostile groups work at
    Super-ordinate Goal
  • Frustration-Aggression HypothesisFrustration
    sparks aggression
  • Instrumental Aggression Intended to secure a
    particular goal
  • Hostile Aggression Has no clear purpose other
    than expression
  • Prosocial Behavior Helping others (Bystander
    Intervention)
  • Genovese (NYC) Diffusion of Responsibility
    Pluralistic Ignorance
  • Attraction to others is based on similarity -
    proximity - reciprocal liking
  • Aschs conformity study - Milgrams
    controversial obedience study

18
Barrons Ch 15 AP Multiple Choice Tips
  • Try to answer question before looking at choices
  • Read All Choices before choosing
  • Cross out definitely incorrect choices
  • Guess only if you can eliminate (2) choice(s)
  • Make Intelligent Guesses
  • Use common sense
  • Use your general knowledge of psychology to
    guess
  • Avoid extreme choices (Always, Never, All,
    Everyone)
  • Be wary of choices that are too similar to each
    other
  • Mark questions you absolutely dont know and
    dont return
  • Mark those you wish to double check, time
    permitting
  • Remember Yerkes-Dodson Effect (Arousal)

19
Barrons Ch 16 AP Essay Writing Hints
  • Underline/circle critical parts of the question
  • Use 2-3 minutes to create a short outline on
    scrap paper
  • Use short paras to answer each point (Dont
    number/letter)
  • Answer question in order asked (Leave space
    between points)
  • Write clearly (penmanship) and clearly label
    inserts
  • Be thorough but keep it simple using
    psychological terms
  • Use all allotted time by adding to what you have
    written
  • Keep an eye on the clock Answer points you
    know first
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