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Developmental Psychology

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Developmental Psychology The study of YOU from womb to tomb. We are going to study how we change physically, socially, cognitively and morally over our lifetimes. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Developmental Psychology


1
Developmental Psychology
  • The study of YOU from womb to tomb.
  • We are going to study how we change physically,
    socially, cognitively and morally over our
    lifetimes.

2
Nature Versus Nurture
  • While going through this unit always been in the
    back of your head.
  • Are you who you are because of
  • The way you were born- Nature.
  • The way you were raised- Nurture.

3
KEY QUESTIONS
  • The Nature Versus Nurture Question
  • How much of human development occurs due to
    nature (biology, genetic inheritance)?
  • How much of human development occurs due to
    nurture (environment, experiences)?
  • Early view quite polarized
  • Current view nature and nurture both crucial
    one influences manifestation of the other
  • The Continuity Versus Discontinuity Question
  • In what pattern does development occur?
  • Continuity modelquantitative changes steady
    pattern of small, fairly regular steps
  • Discontinuity model (main proponent was Jean
    Piaget)qualitative changes, in stages fairly
    stable within a stage, then rather dramatic shift
    in abilities
  • Current view development involves both

4
KEY QUESTIONS
  • The Universality Question
  • Does developmental pattern occur universally, or
    are there cultural differences?
  • Basic pattern seems to occur universally
  • Cultural differences in what stages experienced
    and when
  • The Stability Questionhow consistent are
    personality features over the life span?

5
Methods of Study
  • Cross-sectional studies
  • Involve study of different age groups of people,
    at same time
  • Objective is same as with longitudinal, just
    easier and less expensive
  • Drawbacks
  • Cannot be certain of all comparisons, since age
    groups are different people as well
  • Cohort effectsfunction of being born at a
    particular time in history, among members of a
    particular generation
  • Longitudinal studies
  • Studies of same very large group of people over a
    long, or very long, period of time
  • Allow study of developmental changes (e.g.,
    personality, behavior) in the same people over
    time
  • Drawbacks expensive, very time-consuming, lose
    participants over time, may not be representative

6
Physical Development
  • Focus on our physical changes over time.

7
Prenatal Development
  • Conception begins with the drop of an egg and the
    release of about 200 million sperm.
  • The sperm seeks out the egg and attempts to
    penetrate the eggs surface.

8
  • Once the sperm penetrates the egg- we have a
    fertilized egg called..

The Zygote
The first stage of prenatal development. Lasts
about two weeks and consists of rapid cell
division.
9
The Zygote Stage
  • Less than half of all zygotes survive first two
    weeks.
  • About 10 days after conception, the zygote will
    attach itself to the uterine wall.
  • The outer part of the zygote becomes the placenta
    (which filters nutrients).

10
After two weeks, the zygote develops into a
Embryo
11
The Embryo Stage
  • Lasts about 6 weeks.
  • Heart begins to beat and the organs begin to
    develop.

12
By nine weeks we have something that looks
unmistakably human
A Fetus
13
The Fetus Stage
  • By about the 6th month, the stomach and other
    organs have formed enough to survive outside of
    mother.
  • At this time the baby can hear (and recognize)
    sounds and respond to light.

14
PRENATAL INFLUENCES
  • during embryonic and fetal stages, the developing
    organism is especially vulnerable to toxic agents
  • protected by the placenta
  • organ that connects the blood supply of the
    mother to that of the fetus
  • acts like a filter
  • allows oxygen and nutrients to pass through while
    keeping out some toxic or harmful substances

15
Teratogensharmful agents (viruses and drugs) to
the prenatal environment
Herpes
16
Viruses
  • Rubella (German measles)
  • can cause heart disease, deafness, mental
    retardation
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (HIV, syphilis,
    gonorrhea)
  • The biggest risk to the
    fetus is for transmission of
    the HIV
    virus to fetus, not
    for birth defects or mental
    retardation.  Treatment
    during pregnancy
    can greatly reduce the risk to the baby.
  • Symptoms of congenital syphilis infection include
    prematurity, enlarged liver and spleen, anemia,
    jaundice, skin rash, mental retardation,
    blindness, and deafness.

17
Drugs and prenatal development
  • Cocaine plus other drugs
  • pregnant women using crack cocaine along with
    other drugs, such as alcohol, tobacco, marijuana,
    or opiates had
  • lower birth weight
  • poor feeding habits
  • greater risk for developing other psychological
    problems
  • Smoking and nicotine
  • 13 (about) of pregnant women smoke
  • increase the risk of
  • low birth weight
  • pre-term deliveries
  • possible physical problems (cleft lip or palate)
  • SIDS
  • respiratory infections

18
Drugs and prenatal development
  • Lead
  • levels of lead in the blood system are associated
    with low IQ scores in children
  • likelihood of antisocial acts such as, assaults,
    truancy, and disorderly conduct
  • some lead sources, paint, gasoline, industry

Lead poisoning is on the increase in developing
nations who have not enforced strict pollution
controls.
19
Effects of Alcohol
  • moderate drinking - Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE)
  • FAS results from a mother having 7-14 drinks per
    week during pregnancy
  • FAE less severe than FAS
  • FAE results in
  • Deficiencies in cognitive tasks, academic skills,
    fine motor speed and coordination
  • heavy drinking - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
  • FAS results from a mother drinking heavily during
    pregnancy, especially in the first 12 weeks
  • FAS results in
  • short stature, flattened nose, short eye
    openings, neurological changes, hyperactivity,
    impulsive behavior, deficits in information
    processing, drug and alcohol abuse

20
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • small head, small jaw, and small, flat cheeks
  • malformed ears
  • small eyes, poor development of optic nerve,
    crossed-eyes
  • upturned nose, low bridge
  • small upper mouth structure and teeth
  • caved-in chest wall
  • umbilical or diaphragmatic hernia
  • limited movement of fingers and elbows
  • extra fingers, abnormal palm creases
  • excessive hair
  • under grown nails
  • incomplete or lack of development of brain
    structures
  • heart murmurs, heart defects, abnormalities of
    large vessels
  • incomplete development of genitalia
  • growth, motor, and mental retardation
  • irritability in infancy and hyperactivity in
    childhood
  • poor coordination

21
So what will a healthy newborn do?
  • Reflexes
  • Rooting Reflex- a babies tendency, when touched
    on the cheek, to open mouth and search for a
    nipple.
  • Preferences
  • Turn towards human voices.
  • Gaze at face like images longer
  • Smell and sound of mother preferred

22
Reflexes
  • Inborn automatic responses.
  • Rooting
  • Sucking
  • Grasping
  • Moro
  • Babinski

Click on pictures to see clips of reflexes.
23
Competent Newborn
  • Researchers can discover some of what preverbal
    infants sense and think by observing how they
    react to novel stimuli (such as colors, shapers,
    and forms) and grow bored with (habituate to)
    familiar stimuli.
  • To recognize a new stimulus as different, an
    infant must remember the old stimulus, which
    indicates a simple form of learning.

24
When presented a series of pictures of dogs and
cats, newborns would look at the hybrid pictures
of dogs and cats longerwhat a novel stimulus.
25
Habituation
  • Decreasing responsiveness with repeated
    stimulation
  • As infants gain familiarity with repeated
    exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest
    wanes and they look away sooner.

26
Habituation
Having habituated to the old stimulus, newborns
preferred gazing at a new one
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