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Offenders with Learning Disabilities and Learning Difficulties

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Offenders with Learning Disabilities and Learning Difficulties Awareness Training for Staff in the Criminal Justice System – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Offenders with Learning Disabilities and Learning Difficulties


1
Offenders with Learning Disabilities and Learning
Difficulties
Awareness Training for Staff in the Criminal
Justice System
2
Course Content
  • Module 1 What is a Learning Disability?
  • Related conditions and issues
  • Key legislation
  • General help and support
  • Module 2 Communication
  • Problems and solutions
  • Module 3 Learning Disability in the Criminal
    Justice System
  • Extra things to know and consider
  • Actions and resources for the workplace
  • DVD Clips throughout Stories from offenders
    with learning disabilities

3
Learning Outcomes
  • To have an increased awareness of the key issues.
  • To be able to identify offenders who might have a
    learning disability or learning difficulty and to
    provide the appropriate support.
  • To gain a better understanding of how to
    communicate effectively.
  • To understand the legal rights of offenders with
    learning disabilities and to help enable fair and
    equal treatment.
  • To have a list of actions or changes to take back
    to the workplace.

4
Learning Disability
  • A significantly reduced ability to understand
    complex information or learn new skills (impaired
    intelligence),
  • A reduced ability to cope independently (impaired
    social functioning),
  • A condition which started before adulthood (18
    years of age), and has a lasting effect.
  • (Department of Health, 'Valuing People' White
    Paper (2001))
  • People with a learning disability
  • are people first.

Module 1
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
5
Offenders with Learning Disabilities
  • How much of a problem is this in the CJS?
  • What is the role of criminal justice staff?

Module 1
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
6
Valuing People Values
  • The 2001 Valuing People White Paper is based on
    people with learning disabilities having
  • their rights as citizens
  • inclusion in local communities
  • choice in daily life
  • real chances to be independent
  • How would these be upheld for offenders ?

Module 1
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
7
Some of the things that people may need support
with

Managing money Travelling independently Perso
nal hygiene and looking after themselves
Reading and Writing Telling the time Daily
living skills, like cooking
Module 1
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
8
Typical Behaviour (in the CJS)
  • Offenders with a learning disability may...
  • also have mental health problems
  • be very impressionable and keen to fit in
  • be a loner, or struggle to socialise and
    communicate
  • have aggressive outbursts when frustrated or
    confused
  • have difficulty filling out forms and accessing
    information
  • hide problems they are having and appear more
    able initially
  • struggle to understand orders, instructions,
    rules and procedures
  • possibly be bullied or abused by others (i.e. are
    more vulnerable)

Module 1
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
9
What should you do if you think someone might
have a learning disability?
Module 1
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
10
Learning disability and mental health
  • A learning disability is a life-long condition.
    There is no cure or periods of non-disability.
  • Mental health conditions can develop at any age
    (a learning disability
    starts in early life).
  • Mental health symptoms can be treated
    through therapy
    and drugs.
  • Adults with a learning disability are more likely
    to have schizophrenia, depression, anxiety and
    phobias.


Module 1
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
11
Learning disability and health
  • Higher rates of
  • epilepsy
  • hypertension
  • obesity
  • thyroid problems
  • diabetes
  • poor dental hygiene
  • poor sight
  • hearing problems
  • heart problems
  • cerebral palsy
  • gastro-intestinal problems
  • autism/Aspergers Syndrome


Module 1
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
12
Learning Difficulties
  • The term is often used to describe specific
    problems with comprehension such as Dyslexia but
    their overall IQ is not affected.

  • This term is also used for some people with poor
    reading, writing and general comprehension
    abilities, a lower than average IQ, poor
    educational achievements etc.

Module 1
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
13
Autism
  • Lifelong condition
  • Problems communicating
  • Difficulty in using their imagination
  • Repetitive and obsessive behaviour
  • Trouble making eye contact with other people
  • Problems forming relationships with other people
  • Maybe over-sensitive to strong smells, sounds,
    touch or lighting


Module 1
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
14
Aspergers Syndrome
  • A form of autism, similar problems. Usually
    higher IQ.
  • Typically fewer problems with language than
    people with autism.
  • Unlikely to also have a learning disability, but
    possible.
  • Often like to have a regular routines everyday
    and can find changes to this upsetting (as do
    people with autism).

Module 1
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
15
Attention Deficit Hyper-Activity Disorder (ADHD)
  • 3-5 of the (school age) population
  • 60 of children with ADHD have it as an adult
  • A persistent pattern of inattention and/or
    hyperactivity
  • Being forgetful and impulsive
  • Being easily distracted

Module 1
16
'Screening' tools for possible Learning
Disabilities

Module 1
17
Recent Developments and Reports
  • Positive Practice Positive Outcomes A Handbook
    for Professionals in the Criminal Justice System
    working with Offenders with Learning
    Disabilities (2011)
  • The Bradley Report Lord Bradleys Review of
    people with Mental Health problems or Learning
    Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System
    (2009)
  • No One Knows Learning disabilities and learning
    difficulties in the criminal justice system. The
    Prison Reform Trust (2009)
  • Valuing People Now A new three-year strategy
    for people with learning disabilities. Making it
    happen for everyone (2009)

Module 1
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
18
Key Legislation
  • The Equalities Act (2010) / Disability
    Discrimination Act (previously)
  • The Mental Health Act (1983) (2007)
  • The Mental Capacity Act (2005)

Module 1
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
19
Getting Help and Support
Module 1
20
Getting Help and Support
  • Community LD Teams / Adult Social Services
  • Liaison and Diversion Teams
  • Child Adolescent Mental Health (CAMHS)
  • LD Partnership Boards
  • Independent, Private and 3rd sector providers

Module 1
21
Communication
  • How and Why we communicate
  • Spoken communication
  • Written communication
  • Making things memorable
  • Checking people understand

Module 2
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
22
How and Why do we Communicate?
Module 2
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
23
Spoken Communication
  • Are you being clear or are you being
    condescending?
  • They may have a shorter attention span
  • Possibly use less eye contact
  • Need more processing time
  • Need to hear every word clearly

Module 2
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
24
Conducting an Interview or one-to-one
Module 2
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
25
Written Communication
  • Simple and clear communication of the main
    points.
  • Checking for understanding.
  • Providing support if necessary.

Module 2
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
26
How to do Easy Read
  • Overall layout
  • Font size, font type and line-spacing

Use Arial or Comic Sans as these have a
simple letter shape. Avoid Fancy Fonts,
underlining and italics which change the shape of
the word.
Module 2
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
27
Easy Read wording
Please sign your name on this form to show that
you understand the information written on the
main letter. This is to show that you agree
with the information and will do the 5 things
explained in the letter. This is a legal
document. This means it is illegal to not do the
things you have agreed to do.

Please sign this pro-forma to demonstrate that
you agree to the terms as stated previously.
You will hereby be accepting responsibility for
the five actions and conditions outlined in the
accompanying document.
Module 2
28
Use pictures to support words and concepts
Module 2
29
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
30
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
31
Making things easy to remember
  • Say or write the most important point first
  • Make your message stand out
  • Repeat your message
  • Remind them at the end what has been said
  • Use an object of reference as a reminder

Module 2
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
32
Checking that they understand the following
?
  • all spoken and written communication,
  • what is happening to them and why,
  • what is expected of them.

Module 2
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
33
Learning Disabilities the Criminal Justice
System Police
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
34
In the Community and on arrival at the Police
station
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
35
Effective Communication with Suspects
Explain everything!
Always check for understanding.
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
36
Appropriate Adults Schemes
I support the detainee to fully understand
what is happening and I often have to explain to
them the seriousness of the situation.
AA (Walsall AA Scheme)
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
37
Legislation and guidance suspects with a
learning disability
  • PACE Guidance
  • ('Mentally disordered' / 'Mentally vulnerable')
  • The Mental Health Act
  • (and its use for learning disabilities)
  • NPIA Guidance
  • (Mental health and learning disabilities)

Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
38
Examples of Positive Practice
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
39
Actions to take back to the workplace
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
40
Learning Disabilities the Criminal Justice
System Courts
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
41
The initial stages of the process
  • Early Identification
  • Communication with other services
  • Assessing and meeting all support needs

Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
42
Communicating effectively at all stages of the
Court process
  • Consider all forms of communication, at all
    stages
  • Initial notices sent out
  • Phone messages left
  • Requests for meetings
  • 1-2-1 discussions
  • Court-room questioning
  • Instructions/Bail conditions
  • Always check for understanding
  • Moderating how others communicate with the person
    also

Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
43
During the hearing the court environment and
procedures
  • Appropriate methods of communication
  • Changes to the court-room environment
  • Additional things to consider when sentencing

Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
44
Court Legislation and Guidance (regarding
defendants with a learning disability)
  • Human Rights Act
  • Mental Health Act
  • 'Fit to Plead'
  • Various guidance documents

Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
45
Examples of Positive Practice
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
46
Actions to take back to the workplace
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
47
Learning Disabilities the Criminal Justice
System Prisons
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
48
The First Stages
  • Reception
  • Induction

Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
49
Prison Life
Placing Prisoners
Once settled
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
50
Resettlement
  • Allow extra time to organise
  • May be stressful for them
  • Work with internal and external staff involved
    with the prisoner

Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
51
Prison Rules and Legislation for prisoners with
a learning disability
PSI 32/2011 'Ensuring Equality'
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
52
Examples of Positive Practice
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
53
Actions to take back to the workplace
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
54
LD the Criminal Justice System Probation
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
55
Assessment of needs and abilities
  • Early identification of learning disabilities
  • Meeting the person's specific support needs

Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
56
Community life
Accommodation Benefits Education Work Fitting-in
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
57
Probation Standards and Legislation
  • National Probation Service Standards (2005)
  • Probation Instructions
  • PI 07/2011 (Licence Conditions)

Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
58
Examples of Positive Practice
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
59
Actions to take back to the workplace
Module 3
Positive Practice Positive Outcomes
60
Useful Local Contacts to find out
  • On-Call Psychiatrist and/or Duty Social Worker
  • Local Authority
  • Community Learning Disabilities Team (CLDT)
  • Learning Disability Partnership Board (LDPB)
  • Local healthcare provider
  • Mental Health Trust (MHT)

Module 3
61
Useful Local Contacts (continued)
  • Local Children and Adolescents Mental Health
    Services (CAMHS)
  • Local Criminal Justice Liaison and Diversion Team
    or other forensic support service
  • Lead person for the Disability Discrimination
    (Equalities) Act /Disability Equality Scheme
  • Local Day Services and Employment Schemes for
    people with learning disabilities
  • Local Specialist Schools for people with learning
    disabilities and similar needs
  • Local Appropriate Adult Scheme (Police only)

Module 3
62
Resources
Module 3
63
(No Transcript)
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