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Regents%20Review%20-%20Ancient%20Greece

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Title: Regents%20Review%20-%20Ancient%20Greece


1
GREECE
2
Background Information
  • Mediterranean Empire
  • Mountainous terrain, Coastal plains
  • Isolated and Protected
  • Mild climate with rainy winters
  • Sea trade was the prevalent occupation

3
The Geography of Greece
4
Archaic Greece 1650 BCE - 700 BCE
5
Bronze Age Greece
6
Crete Minoan Civilization (Palace at Knossos)
7
  • Located on Crete
  • A.D. 1900 Sir Arthur Evans unearthed Minoan
    remains
  • King Minos palace was discovered
  • Hallways formed a labyrinth (maze)
  • Minoan information
  • Minoan women had a higher status than others
  • Minoans earned a living from the sea
  • By 2000 B.C. controlled the Eastern Med. Sea
  • Civilization peaked _at_ 1600 B.C.
  • Destroyed by tidal waves or the Mycenaeans

8
Knossos Minoan Civilization
9
Minoan Civilization
10
The Mycenaean Civilization
11
  • Originated in C. Asia moved _at_ 2000 B.C
  • Intermarried with the Hellenes
  • Built hilltop fortresses surrounded by walls
  • Served as administrative and business centers
  • Minoans began to trade with the Mycenaeans
  • Resulted in cultural diffusion
  • 1450s B.C. conquered the Minoans
  • 1100s B.C. turmoil led to self-destruction
  • Invaded by the Dorian's (the Dark Ages)
  • Thousands fled to Ionia (the coast of Asia Minor)

12
Homer The Heroic Age
13
A New Start for Hellenic Greece
  • 750 B.C. Ionians reintroduced culture, crafts,
    and skills (Phoenician alphabet)
  • The new civilization flourished between 750-300
    B.C.
  • Bards (story-tellers) kept culture alive
  • The Greeks began to record epic poems that had
    been passed down by bards
  • The Odyssey and Iliad taught in Greek schools
  • Be proud of Greek heritage
  • A love of nature
  • Importance of husband-wife relationship
  • Meet fate with dignity

14
The Mask of Agamemnon
15
"Hellenic" (Classical) Greece 700 BCE - 324 BCE
16
Athens
  • Descendants of the Mycenaeans (Attica)
  • Named in honor of Athena
  • Forced to reform government in (600s B.C.)
  • Metics non-enslaved foreigners in Athens
  • Expanded citizenship to include more men
  • 507 B.C constitution stated that all free
    Athenian-born men were citizens
  • Athenian Education
  • Citizens educated their sons (Odyssey/Iliad)
  • Studied Math, Art, Music, Gymnastics
  • Served in the military for 2 years (age 18)

17
Early Athenian Lawgivers
  • Draco
  • 612 B.C. Issued a code of harsh laws (draconian)
  • Solon
  • Cancelled land debts
  • Extended citizenship to foreign artisans
  • Peisistratus
  • Divided estates among landless
  • Cleisthenes
  • Est. a democracy for Athens
  • The Assembly increased its power
  • Ostracism was established

18
Persian Wars 499 BCE 480 BCE
19
Persian Wars Famous Battles
  • Marathon (490 BCE)
  • 26 miles from Athens
  • Surprise attack
  • 6400 Persians died to 190 Greeks
  • Thermopylae (480 BCE)
  • 300 Spartans at the Mountain pass
  • led by Leonidas
  • Salamis (480 BCE)
  • Athenian navy victorious

20
Golden Age of Pericles 460 BCE 429 BCE
21
  • 461-429 B.C art/science achievements
  • Led by Pericles rebuilt Athens
  • Built the Parthenon as a temple to Athena
  • Athenian Daily Life
  • Public buildings were lavish
  • Men worked in the morning afternoon activities
  • Exercise, the Assembly, Symposiums
  • Athenian Women
  • Stayed close to the home few privileges
  • Aspasia, a metic, gave advice to women
  • Was prosecuted for impiety (disloyalty to the
    gods)

22
Great Athenian Philosophers
  • Socrates
  • Know thyself!
  • question everything (absolute truth)
  • only the pursuit of goodness brings happiness.
  • Plato
  • The Academy
  • The Republic ? philosopher-king

23
Great Athenian Philosophers
  • Aristotle
  • The Lyceum
  • Golden Mean everything in moderation.
  • Logic.
  • Scientific method.

24
Athens The Arts Sciences
  • DRAMA (tragedians)
  • Aeschylus - Oresteia
  • Sophocles Oedipus Rex
  • Euripides Trojan Women
  • THE SCIENCES
  • Pythagoras ? a² b² c²
  • Democritus ? all matter made up of
    small atoms.
  • Hippocrates ? Father of Medicine

25
Athens Greek Historians
  • Herodotus The Father of History
  • Used the Persian Wars as his subject
  • Recorded his discoveries in Historia
  • Offered supernatural explanations
  • Wrote about outstanding individuals/events
  • Thucydides first scientific historian
  • Wrote about the Peloponnesian War
  • Was as accurate and impartial as possible
  • Visited battle sites firsthand accounts
  • Believed future generations could learn from the
    past

26
SPARTA
27
  • Descendents of the Dorians (Peloponnesus)
  • Invaded neighboring city-states
  • Helots (slaves) were acquired through invasion
  • Perioecis worked for the Spartans
  • Combined the helots/perioecis outnumbered the
    Spartans 201
  • 650 B.C. helots revolted against their masters
  • Military Society only way to maintain power
  • Life revolved around the military
  • Newborns were examined by officials
  • Began military training at the age of 7

28
  • Spartan Women
  • Wanted women to be healthy and strong
  • Married later than other Greek women
  • Had more freedoms than other women
  • Spartan Government
  • Set up by Lycurgus in the 800s B.C.
  • Two kings ruled jointly an Assembly passed laws
  • Results of Militarism
  • Maintained control for 250 years
  • Lagged behind other city-states in economically
  • Were exceptional Olympic athletes
  • Played key roles in defending Greece against
    invaders and prevented helots from revolt

29
SPARTA
Helots ? Messenians enslaved by the
Spartans.
30
Greek Religion
  • Polytheistic more than one god
  • Able to approach gods with dignity
  • Humanized the Gods
  • Jealous of one another
  • Quarreled and played tricks on each other
  • Gods lived on Mt. Olympus
  • Festivals to honor gods (Olympic Games)
  • Gods and Goddesses (over 50 total gods)
  • Mythography Olympians - Greek Gods and
    Goddesses in Myth and Art

31
Greek Polis
  • City-state basic political unit of Hellenic
    society
  • Typical polis (city-state)
  • City and surrounding fields
  • Acropolis (center of polis) at the top of a hill
  • Agora at the bottom of the hill (public square)
  • Citizens were native born, landholding, freeman
  • Greek women had no political rights

32
  • Greek colonies and Trade
  • 700 B.C.E. not enough crop production
  • Colonies were set up in coastal regions (support)
  • Economic Growth trade throughout the region
  • 600s B.C.E money system replaced barter system
  • Political and Social Change
  • 700s B.C.E kings lost power to landholding
    nobles
  • Aristocrats gave loans to farmers
  • Tyrants took control due to political unrest
  • Seized power single-handedly ruled
  • After 500 B.C.E city-states became either
  • Oligarchy (Sparta) ruled by a few wealthy people
  • Democracy (Athens) government by the people

33
The Acropolis Today
34
The Parthenon
35
The Agora
36
  • Greek Art (emphasized the individual)
  • Murals were painted (nonexistent today)
  • Pottery artifacts (red and black)
  • Scenes from everyday life
  • Sculptors
  • Myron idealized (Discus Thrower)
  • Phidias in charge of the Parthenons sculptures
  • Praxiteles after the Golden Age
  • Favored life-like opposed to idealized
  • Emphasized grace rather than power

37
The Classical Greek Ideal
38
(No Transcript)
39
Olympia
40
The Ancient Olympics Athletes Trainers
41
The 2004 Olympics
42
Peloponnesian Wars
43
  • Delian League formed to protect city-states
  • Started by Athens (treasury was at Delos)
  • Athens dominated other city-states
  • The Anti-Athens Alliance led by Sparta
  • Spartans deal with Persians
  • Return Ionia in exchange for a fleet of warships
  • 430 B.C.E plague strikes Athens
  • Athenian allies switch sides
  • 404 B.C.E Athens surrendered to Sparta
  • Effects of the War
  • Decline in population rise in unemployment
  • 371 B.C.E an alliance led by Thebes overthrew the
    Spartans
  • 350s B.C.E Greeks were defeated by the Macedonians

44
"Hellenistic" Greece 334 BCE - 100 BCE
45
Macedonia Under Philip II
46
Alexander the Great
47
  • Tutored by Aristotle
  • Imperial Goals
  • Punish Persia for its invasion of Greece
  • Unite Asia and Europe and combine cultures
  • 334 B.C.E led 35,000 men into Persia
  • Expanded his empire (Asia Minor Egypt)
  • Was declared a pharaoh
  • Established Alexandria
  • Defeated Darius at Gaugamela
  • Declared himself ruler of the Persian Empire
  • 327 B.C.E reached the Indus River
  • Was forced by his men to turn back
  • 323 B.C.E died of malaria

48
Alexander the Greats Empire
49
The Hellenization of Asia
50
Pergamum A Hellenistic City
51
The Economy of the Hellenistic World
52
Hellenistic Philosophers
  • Cynics
  • ignore social conventions avoid luxuries.
  • citizens of the world.
  • live a humble, simple life.
  • Epicurians
  • avoid pain seek pleasure.
  • all excess leads to pain!
  • politics should be avoided.

53
Hellenistic Philosophers
  • Stoics
  • nature is the expansion of divine will.
  • concept of natural law.
  • get involved in politics, not for personal
    gain, but to perform virtuous acts for the good
    of all.
  • true happiness is found in great achievements.

54
Hellenism The Arts Sciences
  • Scientists / Mathematicians
  • Euclid - geometry
  • Archimedes - pulley
  • Hellenistic Art
  • More realistic less ideal than Hellenic art.
  • Showed individual emotions, wrinkles, and age!

55
Breakup of Alexanders Empire
  • Empire divided between 3 Generals
  • Ptolemy ruled Egypt, Libya, and Syria
  • The most prestigious domain
  • Later ruled by Cleopatra
  • Seleucus ruled part of Syria, Mesopotamia, Iran,
    and Afghanistan
  • Forced to withdraw to Syria
  • Antigonous ruled Macedonia and Greece
  • City-states declared independence
  • Conquered by the Romans in the 100s B.C.E

56
The Breakup of Alexanders Empire
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