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History

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Title: History


1
History
  • What is history?

2
What is History?
  • Historical study is not the study of the past but
    the study of present traces of the past. If
    people have said, thought, done or suffered
    anything of which nothing no longer exists, those
    things are as though they had never been
  • - G R Elton

3
Herodotus
4
Historical Sources
  • primary
  • secondary

5
Primary Sources
  • Problems-
  • - individual fallibility/ bias
  • - social bias
  • - deliberate manipulation

6
Primary Sources
7
Primary Sources
  • Who controls the past controls the future, who
    controls the present controls the past
  • - George Orwell

8
Secondary Sources
  • historiography- the study of the writings of
    history

9
Historical Causes
  • The annalist is content to say that one thing
    followed another what distinguishes the
    historian is the proposition that one thing led
    to another
  • - Isaiah Berlin

10
Historical Causes
  • Causes of the First World War
  • M. militarism A. alliances divide Europe into
    competing camps N. nationalistic feelings (desire
    for war) I. imperialism A. alliances cause
    diplomatic failures C. competition over colonies
    in Africa/Asia S. Serbian assassination of
    Archduke Ferdinand

11
Historical Causes
  • The human universe is so enormously complicated
    that to speak of the cause of any event is an
    absurdity
  • - H A L Fisher

12
Historical Causes
  • individual motives
  • chance occurences
  • social and economic conditions
  • geographical conditions

13
Historical Causes individual motives
  • The history of the world is but the biography of
    great men
  • - Thomas Carlyle

14
Historical Causes individual motives
  • The cause of the event means the thought in the
    mind of the person by whose agency the event came
    about...All history is then the history of
    thought
  • - R G Collingwood

15
Historical Causes chance occurences
  • Had Cleopatras nose been shorter, the whole
    history of the world would have been different
  • - Blaise Pascal

16
Historical Causes social and economic conditions
  • The history of all hitherto existing society is
    the history of class struggles
  • - Karl Marx

17
Historical Causes geographical conditions
18
History and Narrative
  • Deteriorationist
  • Positivist
  • Circular

19
History and Narrative
  • Of course, if History were nothing but a
    succession of extraneous accidents, it could
    not be a serious study at all.
  • - E H Carr

20
History and Narrative
  • Men wiser and more learned than I have discerned
    in history a plot, a rhythm, a predetermined
    pattern. These harmonies are concealed from me. I
    can see only one emergency following another as
    wave follows upon wave, only one great fact with
    respect to which, since it is unique, there can
    be no generalizations, only one safe rule for the
    historian that he should recognize in the
    development of human destinies the play of the
    contingent and the unforeseen
  • - H A L Fisher

21
The role of the historian
  • There is a two-way traffic between past and
    present, the present being moulded out of the
    past, yet constantly recreating the past
  • - E H Carr

22
Historical Bias
  • topic choice bias
  • confirmation bias
  • national bias

23
Historical Bias
  • The awkward thing about history is that bias
    seems an essential element in it- even in the
    best of history. The fact is that the facts do
    not, as is sometimes said, speak for themselves
  • - E H Carr

24
Historical Objectivity
25
Historical Perspective
26
Can we learn the lessons of history?
  • Those who dont study the past are condemned to
    repeat it
  • - George Satayana
  • History repeats itself, the first time as
    tragedy, the second time as farce
  • - Karl Marx

27
History and Prediction
28
History and Truth
29
Linking Questions
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