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Greece

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Greece Unit 6 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Greece


1
Greece
  • Unit 6

2
Geography
  • In southeastern Europe.
  • It is a peninsula.
  • Contains mountains, with many gulfs and bays.
  • Forests also fill some areas of Greece.
  • Much of Greece is rocky.
  • Some areas are suitable for growing wheat,
    barley, citrus, and olives.

3
3 Geographic Regions
  • Northern Greece Contains the largest plains area
    in Greece. It is almost surrounded by mountains.
  • Central Greece Has more mountains than northern
    Greece. had a poor soil, but a long coastline
    favoring trade.
  • Peloponnesus Contains a plateau over mountain
    ranges.
  • Plus various Islands.

4
Relative Isolation
  • Various famous city-states are separated by water
    and mountains.
  • This allows various different cultures to
    flourish and grow.
  • It also affects the types of economy each
    city-state would have.

5
The First Greeks
  • 1st people were the Minoans and the Myceneans.
  • Advanced civilizations based on trade in the
    Aegean sea.
  • They built huge palaces and temples.

6
Minoans of Crete
  • Lasted nearly 2000 B.C.E.
  • Great sailors.
  • Created many colonies.
  • Basic plumbing
  • Women had major roles, depict many priestesses.
  • Linear A- writing system we can not decipher.
  • Fell- Volcanic Eruption.

7
Mycenaean
  • Conquered Minoans.
  • Built small kingdom that fought often with each
    other.
  • Considered 1st because they spoke a form of Greek
    Language.
  • Traded with and copied Minoan writing to develop
    their own (we have deciphered their writing).
  • Intense competition, warfare, powerful kings.
  • Taxed trade and farming to build.
  • Believed to be the ones responsible for the fall
    of Troy.
  • Droughts, famines, invasion, and war between
    selves.

8
City-State
  • City-state A self-governing state consisting of
    a city and its surrounding territory.
  • Developed because Greeces rugged terrain made
    travel and communication difficult.
  • Built around area called the acropolis.
  • Included an agora, a marketplace.
  • Sparta and Athens were one of the mightiest
    City-States.

9
Athens
  • Athens was ruled by kings at first.
  • Over time Aristocrats took their place who had
    both money and power.
  • Most people in Athens were poor.
  • Rich and poor gap grew leading to conflict.

10
Athens
  • Draco a ruler of Athens tried to solve this with
    harsh punishments but this failed.
  • Solon revised laws again, overturning Draco.
  • Outlawed debt slavery, reduced poverty with
    trade.
  • Allowed all men to take part in the assembly that
    governed the city and serve on juries.
  • Only wealthy could run for or hold political
    office.

11
Governrment
  • Peisistratus (py-sis-truht-uhs) was a tyrant and
    ruled with force but was popular by pushing the
    aristocrats out of office and increased trade.
  • Cleisthenes (klys-thuh-neez) took over and set
    reforms that brought democracy. Broke into 10
    tribes of where they lived for election basis.
  • Tribes elect 50 to serve on council of 500.
  • Proposed laws and elected generals.

12
Democracy
  • Athens now ruled by the people
  • Only free males over the age of 20 who completed
    military training.
  • Women, children, and immigrants cannot.
  • They
  • Vote in all elections
  • Serve office if elected
  • Serve on juries
  • Serve in the military during war

13
Three main bodies
  • Assembly all eligible made all laws and
    decisions. (direct democracy)
  • Council of 500 had to write the laws which
    assembly voted for.
  • Complex series of courts.
  • Some special office like generals, chief of state
    (archons) and had 1 term but elected as many
    times as it wants.

14
Sparta
  • Once surrounded by small towns but they were
    conquered by Sparta.
  • Made some into helots or state slaves.
  • Slaves given to work on farms so citizens can
    train for war.
  • War was seen as the only way to keep order.
  • Helots outnumbered them and were always ready to
    rebel.

15
Spartan Government
  • Led by two kings who served as military
    commanders.
  • Decisions fell increasingly to and elected
    council of elders.
  • Felt on honor to serve on the council.
  • A few families run everything, is called an
    oligarchy.
  • kept very tight control on its people.

16
Athens Culture
  • Athens was a very creative city state.
  • They believed in a good education. (for boys)
  • You could go into the army or navy if you wanted
    to. (if you were a boy)

17
Spartan Culture
  • Sparta was very focused on obedience and war and
    the people did not have any luxuries.
  • Boys did not have to work or be educated but
    trained to be warriors from a young age.
  • Boys had to join the Spartan army.

18
Athens Girls
  • Girls were not regarded as important by the
    Athenians.
  • Girls could be taught at home. (if they had rich
    parents)
  • Girls were not allowed to take part in anything
    to do with war, business or education.

19
Spartan Girls
  • Girls in Sparta were to grow up to be the mothers
    of warriors.
  • Although they were not allowed to fight, girls
    took part in all the training because fit ladies
    produced fit babies, who would fight!

20
Greek Philosophy
  • Three great philosophers.
  • Socrates first of them, what we know come from
    the writings of his students. Concepts of truth,
    justice, and virtue. What made good people and
    societies. (What is Truth?)
  • Plato student of Socrates. Truth, the ideal form
    of government. Only the best could lead.
  • Aristotle use of reason and logic to study the
    natural world. Rational thought, and helped
    develop science and biology.

21
Greek Medicine
  • The Greeks believed that illness was a punishment
    sent by the gods they prayed for cures.
  • Asclepius-(As-KLEE-pi-us) the god of medicine
  • Herbal remedies, special diets exercise were
    used for treatment
  • Sophisticated medical treatments for all kinds of
    diseases were created
  • Hippocrates-(HIP-POH-CRAH TIS) remembered as
    father of modern medicine

22
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23
literature
  • Homers Epics two epic poems the Iliad and the
    Odyssey, telling the stories and heroes of the
    Trojan war.
  • Poems descriptive poetry that describes peasants
    and Gods. Lyric poetry dealing with emotions and
    desires.

24
History
  • Herodotus first major Greek writer of History.
    He described major events.
  • Thucydides more critical of his sources
  • Xenophon described famous men.

25
Plays
  • Drama roots in Athens and developed playwriting
    from religious festivals.
  • Explored basic questions about people.
  • They tell us all about Greek culture and beliefs.
  • Aeschylus
  • Sophocles Oedipus
  • Euripides
  • They also created the comedy.

26
Architecture and Art
  • Built temples, theaters, and added fine works of
    art to enhance.
  • Marble temples and bronze statues.
  • Parthenon took 14 years to build.
  • Sculpted the human form and were life like. And
    made sure all were of beautiful people without
    imperfections.

27
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28
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29
Alexander
  • Taught by Aristotle.
  • Warrior at 14
  • A general at 18
  • King at 20
  • Died at 32

30
Hellenistic culture
  • Alexander believed in cultures mixing.
  • He had the city of Alexandria built.
  • When he died, his generals split up his lands.
  • Ptolemy (TAHL-uh-mee) took control of Egypt.
  • He started a dynasty of Pharaohs in Egypt who
    were not really Egyptian.
  • This line included Cleopatra and was in the
    control of Greece and eventually Rome.

31
Hellenistic World
  • Greek philosophy and ideas spread throughout the
    world.
  • Art conveyed more emotion and used women more.
  • Archimedes one of the great science and
    technology achievements like compound pullies,
    mechanical screw for drawing water.
  • Appointed people from various cultures to help
    rule.
  • Government changes from democracy back to
    monarchies.
  • Women now allowed some rights to women for
    education and property (but still not equal)

32
Persian Wars.
33
Peloponnesian War
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