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Universal Access on Mac OS X


Universal Access on Mac OS X Computer Access for Individuals with Disabilities The user must follow the instructions on the screen to calibrate his/her microphone. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Universal Access on Mac OS X

Universal Access on Mac OS X
  • Computer Access for Individuals with Disabilities

First, click here
Then, click here
  • To find the Universal Access options on a Mac,
    click the apple in the upper left corner of the
    screen, and select System Preferences from the

Click here
  • In the System Preferences window, select
    Universal Access. This option is pointed out

Seeing tab
  • Universal Access window

Click here for zoom options
  • VoiceOver This screen reading technology can be
    turned on for users who wish to have the contents
    of the screen read to them. It has many different
    options and settings, as will be described on
    later slides.
  • Zoom This full-screen magnifier can magnify the
    items on the screen up to 40 times. Turn this
    feature on for users who require larger text and
    images. Click as shown above to access zoom
    options, which are described on the next slide.
  • Display Here, choose between text showing as
    black on white (the default setting) and text
    showing as white on black, which may be easier
    for some users to read. Users may also like to
    use grayscale, to eliminate colors from the
    display. Finally, the contrast can be adjusted.
    Increasing contrast will make text and images
    easier to identify.

Zoom Options
  • Set range for rapid zooming in and out This
    feature allows the user to specify a maximum and
    minimum magnification value for instant zooming
    to a particular magnification. This prevents the
    magnification from going too high or low.
  • Show preview rectangle when zoomed in Check
    this to make a rectangle appear on the screen to
    indicate the center point of the zoom. The user
    can, then, choose the area to zoom in on by
    moving the rectangle.
  • Smooth images Check this to keep images from
    becoming distorted when zoom is used.
  • Zoom follows the keyboard focus Check this so
    that, when you zoom the screen in and type, the
    zoomed screen will to allow you to see what you
    are typing without having to move the screen.
  • When zoomed in, the screen image moves (choose
    only one)
  • Continuously with pointer Moves the image to
    the right as you move your cursor to the right.
  • Only when the pointer reaches an edge moves the
    image to the right when your cursor is on the
    right edge of the screen.
  • So the pointer is at or near the center of the
    image This option is helpful for users who have
    a limited field of vision.
  • Use scroll wheel with modifier keys to zoom
  • Set the modifier keys you want to hold down to
    access this feature.
  • When this box is checked, the user need only hold
    the specified keys while scrolling the mouse
    wheel to adjust zoom.

  • Users may create a VoiceOver portable preferences
    file on a USB flash drive using VoiceOver
    Utility. When the drive is plugged into another
    computer running Mac OS X, VoiceOver
    automatically detects the users saved
    preferences. This allows VoiceOver to work on
    any Mac the same way it does on the users home
    Mac, using the users custom keystrokes,
    pronunciations, and more. Additionally, changes
    the user makes to VoiceOver settings are
    continually saved to the portable preferences
    file, so any changes made on the road sync back
    to the users home Mac when the flash drive is
    plugged in.
  • VoiceOver gives users the options to have the
  • Use portable preferences when they are detected
  • ask before using portable preferences when they
    are detected
  • do nothing when portable preferences are detected

  • Adjusting verbosity levels in VoiceOver allows
    the user to customize how much information he/she
    hears. VoiceOver begins with high verbosity to
    provide new users with as much information as
    possible. When the user is more comfortable with
    the computer, he/she may prefer to use a lower

  • Announcements help to prevent unintentional
    actions on the keyboard and to update the user
    concerning changes in status messages.
  • They can also be useful in reading charts and

  • Here, the voice and the rate, pitch and volume of
    that voice can be specified to make it most
    appealing to the user.

  • Here, the user can define his/her preferred
    pronunciations of various symbols that may need
    to be read from the screen.

  • For individuals with low vision, the cursor can
    be used in a magnified form.
  • If the users vision is such that a cursor would
    not be useful, the cursor can be set to be hidden.

  • The NumPad Commander allows users to enter the
    VoiceOver commands they use most often through
    the numeric keypad on a full-size keyboard. Using
    modifier keys, the user can access up to six
    layers of key commands.
  • Five of the six NumPad Commander layers are
    preprogrammed. These layer control web, tables,
    size and positioning of objects, general
    navigation, and search (practically the entire
    VoiceOver command set). This enables users to
    operate VoiceOver using fewer keystrokes and just
    one hand. Users can either use these predefined
    keys or change them to suit their needs.

Hearing tab
  • Universal Access window

  • When a Mac application needs the users
    attention, it can either play a beep sound, or it
    can flash the entire screen, like a camera flash,
  • Using the screen flash, the user will get the
    message no matter where his/her attention is
    focused on the screen.
  • Screen flash works with every application that
    uses the system beep.

keyboard tab
  • Universal Access window

  • For difficulties pressing more than one key at a
  • Sticky Keys Turn on to remove the necessity of
    pressing two keys at once. For instance, to
    capitalize a letter, you normally must hold down
    shift and strike the letter simultaneously. With
    Sticky Keys, the user can strike the SHIFT key,
    and the next key that he/she strikes will have
    the SHIFT function applied to it. Sticky Keys
    can be turned on or off with five strikes of the
    Shift key, and the user can choose to have a
    sound player to let him/her know that a modifier
    key has been hit.
  • For difficulties with initial or repeated
  • Slow Keys Turn on to change the sensitivity of
    the keyboard to filter out unintended multiple
    keystrokes. This feature adds a delay between
    when a key is pressed and when it is entered,
    giving the user more time to press it and more
    time to remove his/her finger to avoid mistakes.
    The delay is adjustable, and the user can choose
    to have a sound played to let him/her know when a
    key is entered.

mouse tab
  • Universal Access window

  • For difficulties using the mouse
  • Mouse Keys Turn on to control the mouse pointer
    using keys on a numeric keypad. This feature can
    be turned on and off with five strikes of the
    Option key.
  • To control mouse pointer movement
  • Initial Delay Adjust the time between the user
    pressing a key and the cursor moving using the
  • Maximum speed Adjust the cursors maximum speed
    using the slider.
  • For difficulties seeing the mouse
  • Adjust the size of the cursor, from normal to
    large, using the slider.

  • The Apple Mouse features a Scroll Ball for
    360-degree scrolling, a touch-sensitive area on
    each side, and a user-assignable button on each
    edge. The Scroll Ball can also be used for
    instant access to screen magnification. Users can
    zoom the entire screen up to 20x by simply
    pressing the Control key and scrolling.
  • Users can turn all the buttons off and use the
    entire mouse for simple clicks, or they can
    assign a button to access commonly used Mac
    features, or to open their favorite applications
    and utilities.

  • Using keyboard shortcuts, users can quickly
    perform a variety of tasks.
  • Users are able to customize existing shortcuts
    to create their own, or to remove shortcuts that
    they dont use.
  • Shortcuts can be system-wide or made to work only
    in specific applications.
  • Keyboard Shortcuts can be added or modified using
    the Keyboard Shortcuts tab in the Keyboard pane
    of System Preferences.

Dock magnification
  • Other Accessibility Features

First, click here
Then, click here
  • To find the Dock options on a Mac, click the
    apple in the upper left corner of the screen, and
    select System Preferences from the menu.

Click here
  • In the System Preferences window, select Dock.
    This option is pointed out above.

  • Dock Magnification allows users to set the
    default size of Dock icons so that they are
    easier to see, and it automatically enlarges the
    icon the user is pointing to.
  • Minimize using
  • Genie effect window gets sucked down into the
    dock, like a Genie going into a bottle, when
  • Scale effect window shrinks down as it moves to
    the bottom of the screen when minimized.

Safari accessibility
  • Other Accessibility Options

First, click here
Then, click here
  • With Safari open, go to the Safari menu in the
    upper left corner of the screen, and select

Click here
  • In Safaris Advanced Settings, the user can set
    accessibility options under the heading
    Universal Access.
  • Never use font sizes smaller than __ Check here
    to set a minimum font size for webpage text, and
    select an appropriate font size from the
    drop-down menu.
  • Press Tab to highlight each item on a webpage
    Check here to make it easier to navigate links
    and form elements on the web.

Speech recognition
  • Other Accessibility Features

First, click here
Then, click here
  • To find the speech recognition options on a Mac,
    click the apple in the upper left corner of the
    screen, and select System Preferences from the

Click here
  • In the System Preferences window, select
    Speech. This option is pointed out above.

  • Speech Recognition allows the user to control the
    computer using his/her voice instead of the
    keyboard and/or mouse. With Speech Recognition,
    the user can use Speakable Items to navigate
    menus and to open, close, control, and switch
    between applications, among other functions.
  • This feature does not perform dictation.

Click here to calibrate the microphone
  • Select the type of microphone that will be used
    for input.
  • A line in describes any microphone that must
    be plugged in to the computer, such as a
    microphone headset or a desktop microphone.
  • An internal microphone is one that is built-in
    to the computer.
  • When the microphone has been selected and
    connected (if necessary), click the Calibrate
    button to calibrate that microphone.

When finished, click Done
  • The user must follow the instructions on the
    screen to calibrate his/her microphone.
  • Click done when calibration is complete.

  • Listening Key
  • Listening Method
  • Listen only while key is pressed If selected,
    the user must hold down the listening key (Esc in
    the example above) the entire time he/she is
    speaking. This is a good option if the computer
    is being used in a noisy environment, as it helps
    to control how much the computer is taking in.
  • Listen continuously with keyword If selected,
    the user can set the keyword to be
  • Keyword is
  • Requested before each command This will also
    allow for more control of what the computer takes
    in when the user is in a noisy environment.
  • Optional before commands This allows for
    hands-free use of Speech Recognition, with the
    downside being that the computer takes in all
    noises in the environment.
  • Upon Recognition
  • Speak command acknowledgement Check here to be
    certain that the computer has acknowledged the
    users command.
  • Choose a sound for acknowledgement of recognition.

Click here
  • Select from the menu at the left which items are
    likely to be included in the users commands
    (these may be items that the user cannot access
    using a mouse or keyboard, but is likely to
    require access to).

  • Refer to the tips provided for performing spoken
    commands in the Speech Recognition feature.

Text to speech
  • Other Accessibility Options

First, click here
Then, click here
  • To find the text to speech options on a Mac,
    click the apple in the upper left corner of the
    screen, and select System Preferences from the

Click here
  • In the System Preferences window, select
    Speech. This option is pointed out above.

  • To Open the Text to Speech feature, select the
    Text to Speech tab, as is highlighted above in

First, enter keyboard shortcut here
Then, click OK
  • Create a keyboard shortcut that the user can
    enter to turn the Text to Speech feature on and
    off, and type it into the space provided. Then,
    click OK.

Click here
  • To have the clock announce the time for a user
    with a visual impairment click the Open Date
    Time Preferences button in the Text to Speech
    tab of the Speech window.

First, click here
Then, check here
  • To have the time announced for a user with a
    visual impairment, go to the Clock tab, and
    check the Announce the time box.
  • Then, select the frequency of the announcements
  • One the hour
  • On the half hour
  • On the quarter hour

Word completion
  • Other Accessibility Features

Double-click to select word
  • In the Pages application, users can access an
    automatic word completion feature by striking the
    Escape key after typing in the first few letters
    of a word (Cambr in the example above). Doing
    this will result in a menu of suggested words
    beginning with the characters the user has typed.
    The user can double-click any word on this menu
    to have the system complete the word for him/her
    (the selected word was Cambridge in the example

Mac Resource
  • To read about accessibility options offered by
    Mac, including a more detailed description of
    VoiceOver, go to
  • http//www.apple.com/accessibility/macosx/vision.h
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