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Night

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NIGHT Night 5: The impression of ... he nurses him after he is beaten by a guard; ... particularly of a topic as entrancing as the history of the Spanish Inquisition ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Night


1
Night
  • Review

2
Page 3
  • Moishe
  • Beadle caretaker of the synagogue
  • No surname no true identity, recognition as a
    man
  • jack of all trades (master of none) he knew a
    lot about many things, but no true religious
    education, uneducated- Eliezer goes to him for
    education
  • Why was he the exception to the rule regarding
    how the poor were treated by the majority of the
    Jewish community?

3
Continues
  • Anaphora
  • Repetition of a word, or phrase, for emphasis
  • List of what he did that gave him acceptance from
    the adult community.
  • He stayed out of peoples way. His presence
    bothered no one. He had mastered the art of
    rendering himself insignificant, invisible.
  • This is what the Nazis are counting on to
    destroy the Jewish people.
  • IRONY Later when Moishe returns.

4
Eliezers view of Moishe
  • Softness in his tone. Childlike images
  • Simile awkward as a clown circus
  • his waiflike shyness child who needs
    protection orphan sweet no conflict.
  • wide, dreamy eyes, gazing off into the distance
    childlike imagination (this will later
    influence Eliezer as to the credibility of
    Moishes claims)
  • He spoke little. He sang, or rather he chanted
  • Religious themes Shekhinah in Exile Kabbalah
  • Eleiser 13 years old deeply observant bar
    mitzvah age. Influential age
  • Following all the rules and laws of his faith.

5
Page 4
  • Influence to begin independent thoughts
    mysticism of the Kabbalah.
  • His father wants him to be more educated.
    Protective father.
  • You are too young for that. Maimonides tells us
    that one must be thirty before venturing into the
    world of mysticism, a world fraught with peril.
    First you must study the basic subjects, those
    you are able to comprehend. There are no
    Kabbalists in Sighet. He wanted to drive the
    idea of studying Kabbalah from my mind.
  • A little bit of knowledge is a dangerous thing.
    Important to know the basics before developing an
    intellectual understanding of religious practices
    and beliefs that may be flawed. Prevents
    confusion or at least is a step in the right
    direction.
  • (grandmother) (father bird)
  • Father well respected by the community however,
    no father/son discussion when questioned. Eliezer
    then goes on his own quest of his faith through
    Moishe. Parents often make this mistake. I am
    your father/mother, trust what I say without
    question. This oftentimes causes rebellion.
    good/bad.
  • Maimonides Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon first to
    write a code of Jewish law all must follow.
    Mishneh Torah

6
Page 4 5
  • Begins to ask questions. Why? Why? Why?
  • It is always good to ask questions. From that, we
    attain knowledge critical thinking skills
    ability to differentiate between what is truth
    and fallacy.
  • Is challenged by Moishe. Why? Why? Why?
  • Why do you cry when you pray? Challenges his
    faith. Does he do it out of rote? mechanical
    repetition, without real understanding of its
    meaning or significance.
  • Repetition of Why did I pray? Why did I live?
    Why did I breathe?
  • Eliezer accepts his ignorance. Hard thing to do
    for anyone. We dont like to admit that we are
    wrong. Then, we must admit that we are NOT
    PERFECT!
  • Moishe knows why he prays I pray to the God
    within me for the strength to ask Him the real
    questions.

7
Page 6
  • Moishe the Beadle was a foreigner.
  • Crammed into cattle cars.
  • Hungarian police
  • Influence of Germany over Hungary so far
  • cried silently - try to be insignificant
    invisible, dont fight back.acceptaccept.
  • Not happening to us..just the foreignersvalue?
  • What do you expect? Thats war.. too accepting
  • USA Japanese
  • Long Beach
  • For their safety
  • Paranoia

8
Hungarys Part
  • While anti-Jewish legislation was a common
    phenomenon in Hungary, the Holocaust itself did
    not reach Hungary until 1944.
  • In March of 1944, however, the German army
    occupied Hungary, installing a puppet government
    (a regime that depends not on the support of its
    citizenry but on the support of a foreign
    government) under Nazi control.
  • Adolf Eichmann, the executioner of the Final
    Solution, came to Hungary to oversee personally
    the destruction of Hungarys Jews. The Nazis
    operated with remarkable speed in the spring of
    1944, the Hungarian Jewish community, the only
    remaining large Jewish community in continental
    Europe, was deported to concentration camps in
    Germany and Poland. Eventually, the Nazis
    murdered 560,000 Hungarian Jews, the overwhelming
    majority of the prewar Jewish population in
    Hungary.

9
Page 6
  • Time gives way to forgetting what happened.
  • Rumors Galicia, working, content..yes. Went to
    GaliciaBUT.
  • Weather is pleasant back to normal
  • Moishe returns
  • Tells them the truth
  • forced to dig huge trenches..took place in
    Galicia.
  • Character of the German soldiers
  • Jews animals, cattle, dogs, target practice

10
Page 7-8
  • Moishe
  • Joy in his eyes gone
  • No longer sang
  • No longer quiet
  • Jews, listen to me! Thats all I ask of you.
  • They think Im mad, .tears, like drops of wax
  • Simile candle melting moving from the light
    into the darkness of Hell to come
  • Christ-figure Anaphora I was
    saved.IIIonly no one is listening to me
    Light of the World warning of the evils of
    Satan. Do we listen? They refuse to see the light
    of truth. They ostracize him reject him totally
    as a member of their community.
  • Becomes silent.
  • Beaten
  • Eyes cast down avoiding peoples gaze

11
Page 8- 1944
  • False hope Germany would be defeated only a
    matter of time.
  • Anaphora The trees were in bloom. It was a year
    like so many others, with its spring, its
    engagements, its weddings, and its births. A
    sense of normalcy. Trying to convince themselves
    that all is ok.
  • The Red Army.Hitler will not be able to harm
    us. They refuse to see the truth. What about
    all the millions who have already died?
  • so many millions of people.in the middle of the
    20th century? Not possible.difficult to accept
    the possibility of something so evil.do we then
    doubt Satans existence?

12
Page 9
  • Fascist party takes over Hungary
  • They did not understand what that meant.
  • Begin to hear stories. Worriedfor a moment. the
    Jews of Budapest live in an atmosphere of fear
    and terror. Anti-Semitic acts take place every
    day
  • Simile news spread like wildfire
  • Flames fast and furiousbut unlike most
    wildfires, this one burns out quickly..Rationalize
  • No worry..wont come to ustoo faragain with
    rationalizationsnot ustherefore, no concern..

13
Page 9
  • Jewish people refuse to see the signs
  • German soldiers enter their town.
  • Officers stayed in Jewish homes.
  • Attitude distant but politewolf in sheeps
    clothing.Satan hides wellkeep those
    rose-colored glasses on as long as possiblethen,
    it is too late
  • death helmets bringing death to all Jews

14
Deaths-head emblem on German helmet- SS guards
15
Page 10
  • Germans are waiting for the right moment. Keep
    the Jewish people calm and unsuspecting. Three
    days after he moved in, he brought Mrs. Kahn a
    box of chocolates..There they are, your Germans.
    What do you say now? Where is their famous
    cruelty? Refuse to see the reality of what is
    going to happen.
  • The Germans were already in our townthe
    Fasciststhe verdict - (DEATH)the Jews were
    still smiling.
  • Very naive

16
10
  • Passover 8-day celebration
  • The Jews celebrated their Passover Feast in
    remembrance of God's deliverance from death
    during the time of Moses. Origination of
    Passover
  • Moses had been instructed to lead God's people
    out of Egypt and save them from the evil and
    ungodly Pharaoh. Because of Pharaoh's disbelief
    in the power of the One True God, Yahweh sent a
    series of ten plagues upon the Egyptians the
    Nile turned to blood and at various times the
    land was filled with frogs, gnats, flies, hail,
    locusts, and darkness. In one awesome act of
    God's ultimate authority, He sent one final
    devastating plague every firstborn of every
    household would be annihilated.
  • In His mercy towards His people, God would shield
    the Israelites from such unmerciful judgment if
    they would follow the instructions He gave to
    Moses and Aaron. The specific instructions are
    outlined in Exodus 121-11. In sum, each family
    was to take a lamb and all households were to
    slaughter their lambs at the same time at
    twilight after a certain number of days. Then
    they were commanded to paint the sides and top of
    their doorways with some of this blood. Once this
    was done and all the meat of the lamb was eaten
    in accordance with God's instructions, God would
    spare the Israelites from death.
  • Sighet -
  • Weather perfect however, synagogues closed.
    Acceptance? Dont want to cause conflictdont
    complain. Maybe they will go away.
  • Celebrate during this time but they are
    pretending. Deep down they are concerned, but
    they dont want to admit it. Want the
    celebrations to be over so they have no reason to
    celebrate.

17
10 still
  • 7th day the curtain finally rose
  • The play is about to beginHORROR is behind the
    curtain.
  • Arrested the leaders of the Jewish community
  • Gold and all valuables taken forbidden help
    from the Hungarian police.
  • Metaphor The race toward death had begun
  • Nazis want this done ASAP!
  • Moishe confronts them

18
Page 11
  • Mom tries to keep things together job as mom.
    Suffer in silence. Nurturer worry about her
    children.
  • Yellow star BRANDED LIKE CATTLE
  • Reaction no big deal its just a patch its
    not lethal. IRONY they have been marked for
    slaughter.
  • Ghetto
  • Nazis are slowly killing the Jewish peoples
    being. 1st step has been easy to accept the
    painless things being done to them. Baby steps.

19
11-12
  • Ghetto enclosed within barbed wire. Cattle.
  • Comfort zone. Away from the Germans. Safenot
    reallybut lets pretend in fact, we felt this
    was not a bad thing.
  • Anaphora We would no longer have to look at
    all those hostile faces, endue those hate-filled
    statesNo more fear.No more anguishWe would
    live among Jews, among brothers.
    NO..NO..NOthis cannot be our reality.
  • Euphemism Nice way of saying something
    uncomfortable, bad, etc Of course, there still
    were unpleasant moments. JEWS BEING TAKEN
    AWAY.
  • Personification The ghetto was ruled
    by.delusion.

20
Step 2
  • Page 13
  • German Officers different mood mother feels
    the change
  • News Transports The ghetto was to be
    liquidated entirely. Irony The Final Solution
    Liquidate the Jewish people
  • Now they are worried and want to know everything.
    Secret on threat of death.
  • Page 15
  • Irony Our backyard looked like a
    marketplace.All this under a magnificent blue
    sky. Irony total chaos blue(peace and
    tranquility)

21
Page 16-17
  • Pain of waiting there was joy, yes, joy.
    Ironythey think that this was hell..they have no
    idea of the hell they are entering.
  • Imagery juxtaposition of Blazing sunny day vs
    dead, empty houses (personification) darkness
    within the hearts of the people- fear-despair
  • Walk like molten lead slowly, heavily, the
    procession advanced toward the gate of the ghetto.

22
Page 17-18
  • There they went, defeated, their bundlesThey
    passed me by, like beaten dogs.
  • Juxtaposition of good vs. evil
  • A summer sun vs. an open tomb
  • Life vs death
  • Personification
  • gaping doors and windows looked out into the
    void.
  • Simile surreal image like a small summer
    cloud, like a dream in the first hours of dawn.
  • The verdict had been delivered.death..

23
Page 19
  • My mind was empty.
  • I felt little sadness.
  • numb
  • Father emotion now
  • cries
  • Mother- strong, no emotion
  • Hungarian police
  • First oppressors
  • Hatred remains to this day
  • Non-Jews
  • Ignore the reality- hide their guilt for doing
    nothing
  • Refuse to fight for their neighbors condone ?

24
Page 20 - 21
  • Move to small ghetto
  • Still have faith
  • Oh god, Master of the Universe, in your infinite
    compassion, have mercy on us..
  • Still have hope
  • ..we were beginning to get used to the
    situationmiserable little lives until the end of
    the war.
  • Verbal irony
  • a big farcejust want to steal our
    valuableseasier to do when the owners are on
    vacation
  • Free will taken away
  • we were all people condemned to the same
    fate-still unknown.

25
Page 22
  • Change of control irony worse
  • It had been agreed that the Jewish Council would
    handle everything by itself.
  • Jews have been conditioned to go along with the
    program. Comfort zone to have friends organize
    the march toward death.
  • Non-Jews
  • Again no one stands up for humanity
  • ..behind the shutters, our friends of yesterday
    were probably waiting for the moment when they
    could loot our homes.
  • Plan has been successful
  • cattle cars were waitingcars were sealedone
    person...in charge...someone escapesperson
    shot.
  • Two Gestapo officersall smiles all things
    considered, it had gone very smoothly.

26
Page 23
  • Juxtaposition of beauty vs evil
  • The lucky ones could watch the blooming
    countryside flit by.
  • Loss of sense of modesty, humanity
  • Freed of normal constraints.let go of their
    inhibitionscaressed one another.
  • Human contactlovenecessary for survival of
    humanity.
  • Metaphor
  • Our eyes opened. Too late.
  • Reality of their delusions of safety. No escape
    from Hell.

27
Page 24
  • Inhumanity to humanity
  • shot like dogs.
  • The world had become a hermetically sealed
    cattle car.
  • Air-tight
  • Seal off the contamination of the Jews
  • Smothering
  • No one from the outside can help

28
Page 25 - 28
  • Mrs. Schachter
  • Irony of sanity vs insanity
  • Insane sees the truth prophetess
  • Sane refuse to see the truth
  • Fire! I see a fire! I see a fire! pity
  • Simile she looked like a withered tree in a
    field of wheat.
  • Fear we felt the abyss opening beneath us.
    (abyss- immeasurable chasm/void total darkness)
  • Like Moishe, Jews, listen to me!... warning
    rejection
  • Rationalization She is hallucinatingthirstyfla
    mes devouring her (personification)
  • Cruelty breeds cruelty
  • bound and gagged her
  • received several blows to the head that could
    have been lethal.
  • Approval of the rest to beat her
  • Keep her quiet! Make that madwoman shut up.
    Shes not the only one here
  • Struck again
  • Jews, look! Look at the fire! Look at the
    flames! And as the train stopped this time we
    saw flames rising from a tall chimney into a
    black sky.

29
Fair and Balanced
  • It is important to understand that the majority
    of Germans were not Nazis.
  • Most of the concentration camps were not in
    Germany this gave the Nazi government the
    ability to convince the German people that the
    camps that they did have were only work camps or
    training camps. The idea of the reality of what
    was happening is something so heinous, that the
    normal person could not comprehend the truth of
    what was happening to the Jewish people.
  • The camps in Germany were work camps. Why would
    anyone think differently?
  • March 22, 1933 - Nazis open Dachau concentration
    camp near Munich, to be followed by Buchenwald
    near Weimar in central Germany, Sachsenhausen
    near Berlin in northern Germany, and Ravensbrück
    for women. These were the work camps.
  • This era was not a time of television, internet,
    cable, 24-hour news. The people only had radio
    and newspaper. These two media have the ability
    to propagandize without question.
  • The most of the free world was ignorant as well.
  • Ex. We do not know what horrors may be happening
    50 miles away from our own homes, except for
    internet, 24-hour cable, the ability to move
    about freely and quickly.

30
German Jews
  • At Wuerzburg, Germany, Jewish deportees carrying
    bundles and suitcases march through town in
    columns behind Nazi officials riding in an open
    car.
  • The Jews of Wuerzburg were taken by police
    officials into the Platzscher Garten hotel. In
    one room of the hotel, their luggage was
    inspected by Gestapo officials and all valuables
    were confiscated. The luggage was then taken to a
    collecting area, from where it would supposedly
    be taken to the deportation train. However, the
    deportees never saw their luggage again.
  • In a second room, the deportees surrendered all
    their personal papers showing ownership of
    securities and property. They were left only with
    their identification cards, watches and wedding
    rings. In the next room the deportees underwent
    body searches for concealed valuables. Even gold
    fillings were removed from their teeth. Next,
    their identification cards were stamped
    "evakuiert" deported.
  • They were then surrendered to an SS detachment
    until ready to leave for the railway station. To
    facilitate the march through the city and the
    boarding of the trains, the deportees were
    organized into groups led by Jewish ordners. The
    transport traveled to Nuremberg, where it was
    attached to a larger Judentransport departing for
    ghettos and concentration camps in the East,
    outside of Germany

31
DEATH
  • Death 1 (page 7) One day, Moshe the Beadle, who
    had been deported, comes back to Sighet to tell
    the story of the extermination of the Jews by the
    Gestapo. Although Moshe begs desperately to be
    heard, no one believes him. He tells Elie, "'I
    wanted to come back to Sighet to tell you the
    story of my death.'" Moshe the Beadle considers
    himself as already having gone through death. As
    someone who has experienced death and
    miraculously lives, he wants to save others from
    having to go through that same death.
  • Death 2 (pages 9- 17) Elie identifies the
    German soldiers by their steel helmets with the
    emblem, the death's head. It is the first
    impression Elie has of the German soldiers.
  • The Jews are not allowed to leave their houses
    for three days-on pain of death. The term, "on
    pain of death" is used several times in the
    narrative to emphasize the harsh reality of the
    German's threats.
  • As the Jews are forced to wear the yellow star,
    Elie's father replies, "'The yellow star? Oh
    well, what of it? You don't die of it....'" Elie
    responds, "Poor Father! Of what then did you
    die?" The yellow star symbolizes the mark of
    distinction that sends many Jews to their deaths.
    In retrospect, Wiesel feels that his father and
    the Jews of Sighet conceded to their deaths by
    submitting to every German decree. With each
    submission, they die a bit more.
  • As the ghettos are emptied by the deportation of
    the Jews, rooms that were once bustling with
    activity, lay open with the people's belongings
    still remaining. It is like an "open tomb" in
    that there is no longer any sign of life.

32
DEATH
  • Death 3 (p. 33)The crematories serve as
    factories of death. The big, fiery furnace is
    where those who do not make the selection are
    sent. The threat of being sent to the crematory
    is likened to being sent to the grave.
  • As the prisoners witness the burning of babies,
    they begin to recite the Kaddish, the prayer for
    the dead. It is a prayer that the living offer up
    on behalf of the dead. "Someone began to recite
    the Kaddish, the prayer for the dead. I do not
    know if it has ever happened before, in the long
    history of the Jews, that people have ever
    recited the prayer for the dead for themselves."
    The threat of death is so imminent that the Jews
    recite the prayer for their own souls.
  • Death 4 (p. 38)
  • The SS officer who introduces them to Auschwitz
    is described as having the odor of the Angel of
    Death. He tells the Jews that if they do not
    work, they will be sent to the crematory. The
    idea of being sent to the furnace becomes a firm
    reality.
  • Elie realizes, as he settles in during the first
    night of camp, that he has changed the child in
    him is dead. It is the death of his old
    identity-the death of his innocence.
  • On the electric wires at Auschwitz, there is a
    sign with a caption "Warning. Danger of death."
    Elie considers it a mockery because everywhere in
    the camp, there is constant danger of death.

33
MEMORY
  • Memory 1 Although the whole of Night is a series
    of memories, there are many cases where either
    "forgetting" or "remembering" plays a significant
    role in the narrative. In the first chapter,
    Moshe the Beadle and all the foreign Jews of
    Sighet are expelled by the Hungarian Police. The
    Jews of Sighet are troubled but soon after the
    deportation, the deportees are forgotten and town
    life returns to normal.
  • Moshe returns to Sighet and recounts the horror
    stories of the Gestapo's extermination of the
    Jews. He tries to recall from memory, the stories
    of the victims' deaths "He went from one Jewish
    house to another, telling the story of Malka, the
    young girl who had taken three days to die, and
    of Tobias, the tailor, who had begged to be
    killed before his sons....
  • The German army sets up two ghettos in Sighet.
    The Jews of the "little ghetto" are deported
    first and just three days later, even as they
    move into the previous occupants' homes, the Jews
    of the big ghetto forget about them.

34
MEMORY
  • Memory 2 During the train ride, the Jews try
    desperately to silence the maddening screams of
    Madame Schachter. They even go so far as to hit
    her. Just as the Jews are able to block Madame
    Schachter out of their minds, they see the flames
    of the furnace and smell the odor of burning
    flesh at Birkenau. There, they are reminded of
    Madame Schachter's visions. (P 28)
  • Memory 3 The first night of camp is forever
    etched into Elie's memory. Repeatedly, he uses
    the phrase "never shall I forget." Elie does not
    have to try to remember anything because even if
    he tries to forget, the memories are eternal,
    forever.
  • Upon arrival of Auschwitz, the SS officer in
    charge gives the new prisoners an introduction to
    the camp. He says, "'Remember it forever. Engrave
    it into your minds. You are at Auschwitz.'" (p38)
  • As the prisoners talk about God and wonder about
    their fate, Elie finds that only occasionally
    does he think about the fates of his mother and
    younger sister. The rigors of concentration camp
    life have dulled his sense of memory.

35
TITLE NIGHT
  • Wiesel's experiences during the holocaust, one of
    the darkest periods in human history, are like a
    journey into a night of total blackness. During
    his stay in the various concentration camps,
    Wiesel witnesses and endures the worst kind of
    man's inhumanity to his fellow men, as prisoners
    are beaten, tortured, starved, and murdered.
    Darkness and evil reigned.
  • When Wiesel was awarded the Nobel Prize for
    Peace, he condemned the silence and apathy of
    those who did not cry out and condemn the
    criminal atrocities of Hitler and his dark
    forces.
  • As a symbol, night does not merely represent
    physical darkness it also stands for the
    darkness of the soul. It was obvious that the
    Nazis were dark and evil but Wiesel also felt
    that his heart was darkened by the evil around
    him. In the book, he says about himself, "There
    remained only a shape that looked like man. A
    dark flame had entered into my soul and devoured
    it.
  • Throughout the holocaust, Wiesel was living
    through a long "night" of terror and torture,
    where he could see no light at the end of the
    tunnel, only perpetual darkness.

36
NIGHT
  • Night 1 Before the Germans arrive at Sighet,
    nighttime is for Elie a time of spiritual and
    physical renewal. It is a time of studying
    religious texts, of prayer, and of restful sleep.
    This comforting sense of night is forever lost as
    Elie experiences the horrible, dreadful nights of
    the concentration camps.
  • Night 2 Elie describes how in the ghetto, as his
    father was telling stories, "Night fell,"
    foreshadowing the news of their deportation. The
    notion of "night" falling on the Jews becomes a
    running theme throughout the book. There are
    several instances where the phrase precedes some
    dreadful event. (p 12)
  • Night 3 Darkness characterizes the cattle train
    ride to Birkenau-Auschwitz. In the darkness,
    Madame Schachter goes out of her mind and yells
    incessantly about the fire, flames, and furnace.
    When she points and screams about the fire and
    flames, the other Jews see only darkness.
    Darkness is also a character of night that allows
    the young to flirt and people to relieve
    themselves without being seen. (p 27-28)

37
NIGHT
  • Night 4 The overwhelming sense of Elie's
    experiences during the first day of camp is that
    it is like a nightmare. As Elie and the other
    prisoners walk past the chimneys at Birkenau,
    they stand motionless, unable to comprehend the
    sights "We stayed motionless, petrified. Surely
    it was all a nightmare? An unimaginable
    nightmare?" Elie thinks he's dreaming. After
    pinching his face, in disbelief he utters, "How
    could it be possible for them to burn people,
    children, and for the world to keep silent? No,
    none of this could be true. It was a
    nightmare...." (32-33)

38
Night
  • That first night of camp is forever etched into
    Elie's mind. His entire narrative story seems
    like an account of one long, endless night "So
    much had happened within such a few hours that I
    had lost all sense of time. When had we left our
    houses? And the ghetto? And the train? Was it
    only a week? One night-one single night?" (p 37)

39
NeverPage 35
  • Psalm 150 final prayer ecstatic celebration of
    God. Each line begins Hallelujah, or Praise
    God. Wiesel gives an inverse version, with the
    repetition of Never- negative vs. affirmative.
  • Psalm 150 praises God Never questions His
    justice.
  • Faith and morality turned upside down.
  • Eliezer accuses God of being corrupt.
  • Eliezer claims that his faith is destroyed yet
    refers to God in the last line.
  • Eliezer is struggling with his faith and his God.
  • Never able to forget the horror, he is never able
    to reject completely his heritage and religion.

40
Psychological Moral Tragedy
  • Death of faith in god
  • Death of faith in humankind
  • God fails to act justly and save the Jews from
    the Nazis
  • Nazis drive the Jews to cruelty to each other
  • Morality is upside down

41
Shaving of Head/TatooingPage 35 42
  • Jewish law contains strict regulations about
    cutting ones hair and facial hair. Razors are
    not permitted, and beards and earlocks are often
    considered sources of pride and commitment to
    tradition. Nazi used this as a means of
    humiliation and denigration of Jewish tradition.
  • Tatooing is a strict ban by Jewish law. Nazis
    did this to dehumanize, demoralize, and strip
    them of their religious traditions.

42
Angel of Death
  • A prominent character in Jewish folk tradition.
  • Fearsome angel who would stand at the bedside of
    the sick, and using his knife, take his/her life.
  • Change ones name during extreme illness in an
    attempt to fool the angel discard all water in
    the room after the death, because the angel
    supposedly washed his knife in the water.

43
1st Selection
  • Page 29
  • Men to the left! Women to the right!
  • Never sees his mother and sisters again
  • 18 and 40
  • Weak vs strong
  • Truth
  • Auschwitz/crematoria
  • Revolt
  • The wind of revolt died down. Metaphor
  • Simile like cattle in the slaughterhouse
  • Too little too late
  • Dr. Mengele
  • Dr. Death
  • Conductor of orchestra in this play of horror
  • Selection of weak and strong
  • Useful for a time, or not

44
Rejection of GodPage 33
  • Reality of the horror and no one is crying out to
    the world.
  • World does not care.
  • God does not care.
  • Why should I sanctify His name? The Almighty,
    the eternal and terrible Master of the Universe,
    chose to be silent. What was there to thank Him
    for?

45
Death March
  • We continued our march.closer and closer to the
    pit. (33)
  • Simile We were walking slowly, as one follows a
    hearse, our own funeral procession.
  • Still faith, angry, but May His name be exalted
    and sanctified..

46
Neverpage 34
  • Never shall I forget that night, the first night
    in camp, that turned my life into one long night
    seven times sealed.Never shall I forget that
    smoke.Never shall I forget the small faces of
    the children whose bodies I saw transformed into
    smoke under a silent sky.Never shall I forget
    those flames that consumed my faith for
    ever.Never shall I forget the nocturnal silence
    that deprived me for all eternity of the desire
    to live.Never shall I forget those moments that
    murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams
    to ashes.Never shall I forget those things, even
    were I condemned to live as long as God
    Himself.Never.

47
Disinfection
  • Page 36
  • Gasoline completely soaked in it
  • fuel fire
  • Exterminate bugs
  • Showers get used to this for a purpose later

48
Imagery
  • Page 37
  • The student of Talmud, the child I was, had been
    consumed by the flames.
  • My soul had been invaded and devoured by a
    black flame. (evil of Hell)
  • We were withered trees in the heart of the
    desert. (metaphor) (nothing lives) Living dead
  • herded continual image of cattle

49
Reality
  • Page 39
  • Work or crematoriumthe choice is yours.
  • Gypsy chance to be cruel to someone
  • Father beaten son does nothing
  • Guilt
  • Forgiven by father

50
Irony
  • Page 41
  • It was spring. The sun was shining.
  • Warning of Death
  • The fragrances of spring were in the air
  • Work makes you free.
  • These were the showers, a compulsory routine.

51
Page 42-45
  • Spoiled child
  • Branding
  • Lied to protect relative from pain
  • Humanity does not get reward
  • God is testing us.
  • March to Buna

52
Vocabulary
  • Lagerkapo - head of camp
  • Oberkapo - overseer
  • Pipel - young apprentice or assistant
  • Kaddish - in Judaism, an Aramaic prayer that
    glorifies God and asks for the speedy
    coming of His kingdom on Earth.
  • Crucible - a vessel of a very refractory
    material (as porcelain) used for melting a
    substance that requires a high degree of
    heat.
  • Din disagreeable music tones
  • Dysentery bacterial disease from malnutrition
  • Dregs most undesirable part of wine left over
    unwanted

53
Vocabulary
  • Rosh Hashanah - (Hebrew, beginning of the
    year), Jewish New Year. Usually celebrated in
    September.
  • Zionism - Movement to unite the Jewish people of
    the Diaspora (exile) and settle them in
    Palestine
  • Nyilas - Hungarian for Arrow Cross, a fascist
    anti- semitic party which assumed power in late
    1944 and assisted the SS in deportations of
    Jews
  • Shavuot - Jewish holiday. It is celebrated in
    the late spring
  • Phylacteries - called tefillin in Hebrew, consist
    of two black leather boxes that are attached
    to leather ties the boxes contain passages
    from Scripture written on parchment
  • Kapo - director leader of the group
  • Blockalteste - Block leader
  • Appelplatz - the place for roll call
  • Lageralteste - a prisoner who was in charge of
    the other prisoners

54
Vocabulary
  • Shtibl - a house changed into synagogue
  • Penury - severe poverty
  • Kabbalah - body of mystical teachings of
    rabbinical origin, often based on an obscure
    interpretation of the Hebrew Scriptures.
  • Maimonides - Jewish philosopher and physician,
    born in Córdoba, Spain
  • Zohar - Jewish mystical text commenting on
    Torah a 13th-century Jewish mystical text
    that is the primary text of Kabbalistic
    writings
  • Glaicia - region of central Europe in southeast
    Poland and western Ukraine
  • Gestapo - Secret State Police, common
    designation of the terrorist political police
    of the Nazi regime in Germany
  • Kolomay City in Glaicia

55
Buna
  • Shoes
  • Gold tooth trip to the dentist pretends to be
    ill dentist hanged
  • youyouyou choosing cattle at a marketplace
  • Juliek violinist beauty of music illegal
  • SURVIVAL p 52 a famished stomach loss of
    humanity
  • Idek Kapo mad cruel p 54 his father
    simile angry at his father (upside down
    morality break down of humanity )
  • Franek Pole - greedy- Father is the way to the
    tooth.
  • Idek publicly whips Elie into unconsiousness

56
Page 59
  • Two cauldrons of soup!
  • Desire overcomes fear of death
  • Irony shepherd ss
  • Soup lambs wolves inmates
  • Irony inmate snakelike

57
Page 61
  • Gallows
  • Young boy from Warsaw
  • Stands in defiance
  • Lack of humanity
  • Im hungry
  • Appreciation for food
  • Page 63 different
  • Metaphor p. 64 three black ravens
  • Pipel hated not this one angelic
  • To hang a child was a problem (ironic)
  • Page 65 where is God?
  • Food tastes like corpses

58
Loss of Faith through the hanging of the Pipel
  • God has been murdered
  • A just God must not exist in a world where a
    young child is hanged.
  • Lowest point of Elies faith
  • Death of his innocence with death of the child
  • Loses his faith, morals, values
  • Fear lose connection with his father in order
    to survive (p.63)

59
Elie as the Accuser
  • P. 66 67
  • What are You, my God?...
  • Benediction
  • Anaphora cynical
  • the melody was stifled in his throat.
    difficulty keeping the faith
  • Accuser vs accused
  • Anaphora You.. God is the betrayer
  • Powerful stranger observer no longer believed

60
Yom Kippur
  • Fast?
  • Metaphor locked in hell
  • Open defiance of Gods laws
  • Falls into the abyss of despair

61
Selection
  • Rosh Hashanah
  • Pass before God for judgment
  • Irony
  • Nazis God
  • They decide who lives and who dies
  • RUN!!! Do not show weakness

62
Pavlovs Theory
  • Page 73
  • The bell.The bell.a universe without a bell.
  • Selection father gives him his knife and spoon.
  • Page 76-77 Akiba Drumer lost his faith, will
    to fight, to live no hopetotal despair death
    of the soul
  • Forgot to say Kaddish loss of faith betrayal
    of humankind

63
Theme of Faith
  • From the beginning, Elie Wiesel's work details
    the threshold of his adult awareness of Judaism,
    its history, and its significance to the devout.
  • His emotional response to stories of past
    persecution contributes to his faith, which he
    values as a belief system rich with tradition and
    unique in its philosophy.
  • A divisive issue between young Elie and Chlomo is
    the study of supernatural lore, a division of
    Judaic wisdom that lies outside the realm of
    Chlomo's common sense.
  • To Chlomo, the good Jew attends services, prays,
    rears a family according to biblical dictates,
    celebrates religious festivals, and reaches out
    to the needy, whatever their faith.

64
Theme of Faith
  • From age twelve onward, Elie deviates from his
    father's path by remaining in the synagogue after
    the others leave and conducting with Moshe the
    Beadle an intense questioning of the truths
    within a small segment of mystic lore.
  • The emotional gravity of Elie's study unites with
    the early adolescent desire for obsession,
    particularly of a topic as entrancing as the
    history of the Spanish Inquisition or the
    Babylonian Captivity.
  • It comes as no surprise that Elie's personal test
    jars his youthful faith with demands and
    temptations to doubt because he lacks experience
    with evil.

65
Theme of Faith
  • When Moshe returns from his own testing in the
    Galician forest, his story seems incredible to
    Sighet's Jews, including Elie.
  • Later, the test of faith that undermines Elie's
    belief in a merciful God is the first night at
    Birkenau and the immolation of infants in a fiery
    trench.
  • The internal battlefield of Elie's conscience
    gives him no peace as atrocities become
    commonplace, including hangings before breakfast.
  • The extreme realism of Elie's test of faith at
    Auschwitz portrays in miniature the widespread
    question of suffering that afflicts Europe's Jews
    during an era when no one is safe and no one can
    count on tomorrow.
  • Although Elie omits fasting and forgets to say
    Kaddish for Akiba Drumer, the fact that Elie
    incubates the book for a decade and writes an
    original text of 800 pages proves that the
    explanation of faith and undeserved suffering is
    a subject that a teenage boy is poorly equipped
    to tackle.

66
Hospital Stay
  • Pages 78-80
  • Must have surgery on his foot.
  • Trust in the Doctor? German Hyppocratic Oath
  • Red Army is advancing
  • All patients will remain in the hospital.
  • Inmates will be evacuated to another camp.
  • Metaphor beehive of activity
  • I have more faith in Hitler than in anyone else.
    He alone has kept his promises, all his
    promises, to the Jewish people.

67
Irony
  • faceless patient
  • No chance of survival
  • Bomb the camp
  • Kill all of us
  • Eliezer chooses to leave in pain
  • They were saved by the Red Army (page 82)

68
Leaving Bunapage 83
  • Anaphora
  • The last nightthe last nightthe last night
  • Hope still alive Russians on their waysoon
  • Imagery Poor clowns
  • Death march the belldeath knellfuneral

69
Inner Strengthstill
  • ..we were runninglike automatonslike a
    machine.
  • Wiesels faith saw too much suffering to break
    from his past and reject his heritage. He kept
    his faith in God throughout.
  • Elies faith struggled, but although he rejects
    God, he never totally rejected his faith.

70
Personification of Death
  • Page 86
  • just a few more meters..a small red flame..a
    shotDeath enveloped me, it suffocated me.
  • Love for his father keeps him alive and strong to
    continue. I had no right to let myself die.

71
Master vs God
  • Page 87-89
  • We were the masters of nature, the masters of
    the world.
  • God is no longer the Master of the worldthe
    prisoners are now the mastersgodless
    worldviewsurvival is the only goal..morality is
    meaningless.
  • Personification of Death
  • All around medance of deathsomething in me
    rebelled against that death

72
Father/Son Relationship
  • Rabbi Eliahu and his son page 91
  • Elie and his father page 91
  • Although angry with God, still prayscalls God
    Master of the Universe.

73
Death So Close
  • Page 94-95
  • Almost trampled
  • Juliek violin little corpse
  • Page 96-97
  • Imagery eating snow off each others backs
  • 100 men to a carso skinny
  • Page 98-99
  • cemetery covered with snow
  • Lack of humanity strip dead bodies for clothes
  • Father
  • naked orphans without a tomb

74
Animals in the Zoo
  • Page 100-101
  • dozens of starving men worker watched with
    great interest
  • Modern society coins tossed to the poor
  • Beasts of prey.ready to kill for a crust of
    bread.
  • Father and son kill for a crust of bread

75
Buchenwald
  • 100 began12 came out
  • Death personified through argument with father.
    Page 105
  • Guilt- page 106-107
  • Relief when father is gone
  • Shares his bread grudgingly
  • Father begins to die dysentery
  • Page 112- January 28, 1945 father dies
  • Free at last should he feel guilty?

76
Page 113-115
  • Liberation
  • Liquidation of inmates
  • Thousands marched out daily
  • SS escape
  • American tank enters April 10, 1945
  • From the depths of the mirrorthe look inhis
    eyeshas never left me.

77
DEATH
  • Death 5 As Elie witnesses the hanging of the
    young pipel, he feels that it is his God who is
    hanging on the gallows. Elie identifies with the
    death of the young pipel because he undergoes a
    similar slow, painful, spiritual death.
  • Death 6 The selection process determines who
    will live and who will die. Dr. Mengele, the
    notorious SS officer, is the person who heads the
    selection. He moves his baton to the right or to
    the left, depending on the health of the
    prisoners. Dr. Mengele is like the Angel of
    Death. He is the messenger of death.
  • As the prisoners prepare for the evacuation of
    Buna, the bell rings. It signals the start of the
    winter march. The sight of the prisoners setting
    out in the winter is likened to a burial
    procession. The prisoners realize that many of
    them will not make in through the march alive.
  • Death 7 On the winter march, the prisoners who
    cannot keep up are either shot by the SS officers
    or trampled upon by the others. The winter march
    is a march to their deaths. As Elie sees his
    friend Zalman fall behind, he begins to think
    about his painful foot "Death wrapped itself
    around me till I was stifled. It stuck to me. I
    felt I could touch it."The presence of his father
    is the only motivation that keeps him going.

78
DEATH
  • Death 8 On the train ride, dead corpses are
    thrown overboard onto the snow. "Twenty bodies
    were thrown out of our wagon. Then the train
    resumed its journey, leaving behind it a few
    hundred naked dead, deprived of burial, in the
    deep snow of a field in Poland." By this time,
    Elie is indifferent to death.
  • As the Jews on the train feel that the end is
    near, they all begin to wail like animals that
    are about to die. The cries are a primal,
    instinctive, and reactionary response to death.
    Many die like animals, without the dignity
    accorded to human beings.
  • Death 9 At Buchenwald, Elie's father struggles
    with dysentery. Elie tries to revive his father's
    spirit, but it is of no use. Elie's father is
    taken away during the night. Elie feels guilty
    that he cannot find the tears to weep.
    Concentration camp existence has robbed him of
    the proper response to his father's death. Elie
    is emotionally dead.
  • Death 10 In his Holocaust experience, Elie
    undergoes near physical, spiritual, and emotional
    death. It is graphically reflected in the mirror
    as he sees the image of a corpse staring back at
    him.

79
FAITH
  • From the time of his childhood, Elie was
    extremely interested in Judaism and studied the
    Talmud and the Kabbala. He regularly attended
    services at the synagogue, prayed to his God, and
    wept over the history of the Jews. His father was
    also very religious.
  • In the concentration camps, religion helps the
    prisoners to endure. They regularly pray to God
    for mercy and help. The Jews still fast during
    holy days, even though they are starving to
    death. It seems that nothing can shake their
    faith. Elie's faith, however, gets shaken to the
    core.
  • Sickened by the torture he must see and endure,
    Elie questions if God really exists. He refuses
    to pray on the eve of the Jewish New Year and
    will not fast during the time of atonement.
    Elie's faith, however, is not permanently
    shattered. When he sees a son robbing from his
    father, he prays to God that he may never desert
    his father. The prayer is answered, for even when
    his father becomes a burden, Elie stays by his
    side and cares for him.

80
FAITH
  • Faith 1 Elie is a deeply religious boy whose
    favorite activities are studying the Talmud and
    spending time at the Temple with his spiritual
    mentor, Moshe the Beadle. At an early age, Elie
    has a naïve, yet strong faith in God.
  • Faith 2 Many of the prisoners try to cope with
    their situation by talking of God. Akiba Drumer,
    a devout Jew with a deep solemn voice, sings
    Hasidic melodies and talks about God testing the
    Jews. Elie, however, ceases pray. He identifies
    with the biblical character Job, who questions
    God when misfortunes come upon him. Similarly,
    Elie begins to doubt God's absolute justice.
  • Faith 3 As Elie witnesses the hanging of the
    young pipel, he feels that it is his God who is
    hanging on the gallows. Elie identifies with the
    death of the young pipel because he undergoes a
    similar slow, painful spiritual death. The death
    of the pipel is related to the death of his faith
    in God.

81
FAITH
  • Faith 4 On the Jewish New Year, Elie feels a
    strong rebellion against God. He becomes the
    accuser and God the accused. But in his rebellion
    against his faith in God, he also feels alone and
    empty.
  • The Jews debate whether they should fast for Yom
    Kippur. As an act of obedience to his father and
    also as an act of rebellion against God, Elie
    swallows his food. In the camps, his physical
    needs become more important than his faith.
  • Faith 5 Even the most devout, religious Jews
    begin to lose faith. Akiba Drumer does not make
    the selection when "cracks" begin to form in his
    faith. A rabbi from Poland, who always recites
    the Talmud from memory, concludes that God is no
    longer with them. For some, losing their faith in
    God is akin to losing their will to live.

82
FAITH
  • Faith 6 As Elie recuperates in the hospital
    after his foot surgery, a faceless neighbor tells
    him that he has more faith in Hitler than in
    anyone else because he's the only one who's kept
    his promises to the Jewish people. This is a
    direct attack on those who have clung to their
    faith in God. The ultimate insult is that even
    Hitler is an object worthier of faith than is
    God.
  • Faith 7 Recalling the actions of Rabbi Eliahou's
    son, Elie prays to the God he no longer believes
    in, that he have the strength to never do what
    the rabbi's son had done in abandoning his
    father. Rabbi Eliahou's search for his son
    rekindles in Elie a sense of hope and faith. Elie
    feels that at the very least, he should be
    faithful to his father to the end.
  • From an early age, Elie Wiesel has a tremendous
    love for religion, wanting to study the Cabbala
    and Talmud. When he is first imprisoned, it is
    his faith that helps him survive. Like most of
    the Jews, he prays regularly for an end to the
    persecution and strength to survive. His faith,
    however, is shaken when he sees the depth of the
    atrocities committed against his fellow Jews. On
    the eve of Rosh Hashanah, he finds that he cannot
    even pray, questioning if God exists amongst such
    cruelty to mankind. In the end, his faith returns
    and helps him deal with his experiences.

83
MEMORY
  • Memory 4 At Buna, Elie is beaten by Idek the
    Kapo and a young French girl comes to his aid and
    tells him to keep his anger and hatred for
    another day. Years later, Elie Wiesel recalls
    running into her in Paris. They reminisce about
    the days in the concentration camp. Such memories
    are hard to forget.
  • Memory 5 After the prisoners go through the
    selection process, they forget about it until a
    few days later when the head of the barracks
    reads off the numbers of those selected. Although
    the prisoners forget, Dr. Mengele, the one who
    makes the selections, does not forget.
  • Akiba Drumer, sensing that his death is near,
    makes Elie and others promise to remember him
    when he is taken away by praying the Kaddish. Due
    to the harsh treatment they receive, after only
    three days since Akiba Drumer is taken away, Elie
    and the others forget to pray the Kaddish for
    him.

84
MEMORY
  • Memory 6 During the train ride in the dead of
    winter, the prisoners forget about
    everything-death, fatigue, and their physical
    needs. The unbearable sufferings that the
    prisoners undergo desensitize their senses-they
    are able to block everything from their minds.
  • Elie remembers that Rabbi Eliahou's son had tried
    to abandon his father during the winter march.
    That memory makes him pray to a God that he no
    longer believes in, to give him the strength not
    to do what the rabbi's son had done.
  • Memory 7 Elie cannot forget the smile his father
    shows him even in the midst of his suffering. "I
    shall always remember that smile. From which
    world did it come?" Elie asks. These seemingly
    minor, death-defying gestures are particularly
    memorable.

85
MEMORY
  • Memory 8 Elie finds it hard to forget the last
    concert Juliek gives to an audience of dying men.
    The memory of the last concert is heightened by
    the lasting images of Juliek's dead body and his
    smashed violin. And whenever Elie Wiesel hears
    Beethoven's concerto, he remembers the face of
    his friend, Juliek, and his last concert.
  • Memory 9 When he awakes from his sleep, Elie
    remembers that he has a father. Sleep and fatigue
    had gotten the better of him the survival of his
    body overcomes him to the point of forgetting
    about his father.
  • At Elie's father's death, there are no prayers,
    no candles lit to his memory, no tears. In the
    depth of his memory, Elie admits feeling a sense
    of relief in not having to worry about his father
    anymore. He feels free from his father's physical
    presence, but not from the memory of his father,
    which remains with him forever.

86
NIGHT
  • Night 5 The impression of "last nights" anchors
    the timeframe of Elie's narrative. There are
    numerous instances of last nights the last night
    at home the last night in the ghetto the last
    night on the train the last night at Buna.
  • Night 6 "Night" carries with it the notion of
    uncertainty and fear. Short of representing
    death, night becomes an imagery of the unknown.
    As Elie and the other prisoners prepare to leave
    Buna, there is a greater fear of what is to come
    "The gates of the camp opened. It seemed that an
    even darker night was waiting for us on the other
    side."
  • Night 7 One night, on the winter trek to
    Buchenwald, Elie is almost strangled to death by
    an unknown attacker. Elie does not know the
    reason for the attack. Night brings out the worst
    dangers.
  • The nights become bleaker as the narrative
    progresses. Thus, Elie detests the "long nights"
    of the winter "We were all going to die here.
    All limits had been passed. No one had any
    strength left. And again the night would be
    long."

87
MANS INHUMANITY TO MAN
  • Deportations begin. The Jews are herded into
    cattle cars and sent to concentration camps,
    where they are forced to do hard labor, are
    beaten and tortured, are denied food and water,
    and are often killed by burning, hanging,
    shooting, starving, freezing, or beating. Even
    the babies and small children are thrown into
    pits of fire since they serve no purpose to the
    Nazis.
  • Because of the torture they must witness and
    endure, the prisoners become animalistic. When
    they are made to march, if a fellow prisoner
    falls, he is often trampled to death. When food
    is thrown at them, the prisoners kill each other
    to gain a bite of bread. In their search for
    survival, sons turn against their fathers even
    Elie has fleeting thoughts of being rid of Mr.
    Wiesel.
  • Through most of the book, however, Elie tries to
    help his father, who is repeatedly tortured. He
    shows him how to march properly so he will not be
    persecuted by the Nazi guards he nurses him
    after he is beaten by a guard he saves him from
    being thrown off the train as a corpse he gets
    him up and to Buchenwald after he falls amongst
    the corpses and he takes care of him after his
    skull is cracked for pleading for water. In the
    end, Mr. Wiesel is taken to the crematorium and
    thrown into the fire, probably while he is still
    breathing.

88
MANS INHUMANITY TO MAN
  • The major theme of the book is the horror that
    results from extreme prejudice. Because Hitler
    hated Jewish people, he caused them to be
    imprisoned, tortured, and murdered.
  • The book records the horrendous experiences of
    Elie Wiesel, the Jewish author, during Hitler's
    reign of terror. He is arrested, imprisoned in a
    concentration camp, and tortured.
  • Although he escapes death, he is totally
    devastated by the things he must endure and
    witness during the holocaust.
  • The book is a recording of man's inhumanity to
    man at its worst.
  • The persecution begins when the Germans occupy
    Sighet. Soon Jews are made to wear yellow stars
    to identify themselves in addition, Jewish shops
    are closed and Jewish homes are seized, forcing
    the families to live in the ghetto.

89
Eternal Flame
  • All Jewish temples have a light that is always
    on. It references the Eternal Flame that was
    kept burning in the First Temple. Represents the
    eternal watchfulness and providence of God over
    His people.
  • Night flame and fire represent Nazi power and
    cruelty. Reflects Eliezers loss of faith.
    Symbolizes the evil in the world rather than
    Gods benevolence.
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