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High Blood Pressure and Congestive Heart Failure


High Blood Pressure and Congestive Heart Failure Topic 7 Nutrition: Sodium in Food Items Aim to limit/avoid these items: Table salt Do not add table salt to food ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: High Blood Pressure and Congestive Heart Failure

  • High Blood Pressure and Congestive Heart Failure
  • Topic 7

What Is Blood Pressure?
  • The pressure blood exerts on the arteries
  • It can rise and fall throughout the day
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Occurs when blood pressure remains elevated over
    a period of time
  • Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis)
  • When the heart works too hard it may lead to a
    stroke or heart attack

High Blood Pressure Facts
  • Systolic (top number)
  • Diastolic (bottom number)
  • Many individuals will attain their diastolic
    blood pressure goals once they reach their
    systolic blood pressure goal
  • Modifications in lifestyle can aid in improving
    systolic blood pressure

What Defines High Blood Pressure?
  • Normal
  • Systolic lt 120 mm Hg OR
  • Diastolic lt80 mm Hg
  • Pre-hypertension
  • Systolic 120-139 mm Hg OR
  • Diastolic 80-89 mm Hg

What Defines High Blood Pressure? (contd)
  • Stage 1 hypertension
  • Systolic 140-159 mm Hg OR
  • Diastolic 90-99 mm Hg
  • Stage 2 hypertension
  • Systolic gt or equal to 160 mm Hg
  • Diastolic gt or equal to 100 mm Hg

What Are Some of the Causes of High Blood
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Thyroid conditions
  • Genetics
  • Drugs (illegal)
  • Cocaine
  • Lifestyle
  • Certain medications
  • Birth control

Untreated Hypertension
  • Stroke
  • Heart failure
  • Renal failure
  • Memory trouble

High Blood Pressure Interventions
  • Weight loss
  • Especially if overweight or obese
  • Physical activity
  • 30 minutes daily most days of the week
  • Healthy eating
  • DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)
  • Limit sodium intake
  • 2-4 grams daily
  • Limit fat intake
  • Incorporate meat into a meal as a part of the
    meal and not as the focus of the meal
  • Restrict daily alcohol intake
  • Menno more than 2 drinks and Womenno more than
    1 drink

Nutrition Sodium in Food Items
  • Aim to limit/avoid these items
  • Table salt
  • Do not add table salt to food
  • Limit addition of table salt when cooking
  • Processed foods
  • Condiments, sauces and seasonings
  • Tip 1 Purchase canned vegetables packed in
    water or rinse canned foods such as tuna and
    canned beans .
  • Tip 2 Flavor foods with sodium free herbs and
  • Tip 3 When dinning out let your server know
    that you are looking for low salt or no salt

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Nutrient Claims Reading Labels
  • Sodium
  • Highmore than 300 mg/serving
  • Moderate140-300 mg/serving
  • Lowlt140 mg/serving
  • Very Lowlt35 mg/serving
  • Sodium Freelt5mg/serving
  • Aim to limit high sodium foods
  • A high sodium food item may also equate to eating
    more than a serving size of a moderate or low
    sodium food item

What Is Heart Failure?
  • The heart is unable to efficiently pump blood
    throughout the body
  • Complications can occur
  • Lung congestion
  • Abdominal pain
  • Ankle swelling
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Statistics
  • Leading cause of cardiovascular disease related
  • Over 630,000 deaths per year relating to heart

Heart Failure Causes
  • Previous heart attack
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Low thyroid function

Heart Failure Risk Factors
  • Physical inactivity
  • Overweight/obesity
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension

Heart Failure Complications
  • Edema (collection of fluid) in extremities
  • Fatigue
  • Pulmonary edema (collection of fluid in lungs)
  • Dyspnea (difficulty breathing)
  • Kidneys can function improperly
  • Liver can become damaged (scarring)
  • In some cases, cardiac cachexia (wasting through
    loss of weight and muscle mass)

Heart Failure Treatment
  • Sodium restriction
  • Diuretics
  • May include pacemaker or transplant
  • Certain treatments can improve heart function
  • Untreated heart failure can lead to death!

When Do I See a doctor?
  • Chest pain?
  • Fatigue and weakness?
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat?
  • Shortness of breath when you exert yourself or
    when you lie down?
  • Reduced ability to exercise?
  • Persistent cough or wheezing with white/pink
    colored phlegm?
  • Swelling in your abdomen, legs, ankles and/or
  • Difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness?
  • If the answer to any of these is YES, then see a

Can Heart Failure Be Prevented? Yes!
  • Control certain medical conditions high blood
    pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes
  • Stay physically active
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Reduce and properly manage stress
  • Stop smoking
  • Eat healthy foods

Discussion and Questions?
  • Food Model
  • Show and Tell

Reference Materials
  • American Heart Association
  • http//www.americanheart.org
  • Heart Failure Society of America
  • http//www.hfsa.org
  • National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
    Information Center
  • http//www.nhlbi.nih.gov/hbp/
  • Mayo Clinic (DASH Diet Recipes)
  • http//www.mayoclinic.com/health/dash-diet-recipes
  • DASH Diet
  • http//www.nih.gov/news/pr/apr97/Dash.htm
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