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Managing Weight and Eating Disorders

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Title: Managing Weight and Eating Disorders


1
Chapter 11
  • Managing Weight and Eating Disorders

2
Chapter 11 Managing Weight Eating Disorders
  • Information from the CDC-
  • 25 of teens do not participate in at lease 60
    minutes of physical activity at least once a week
  • 35 of teens watch 3 or more hours of TV on an
    average school day
  • http//fyi.uwex.edu/swys/files/2010/12/Chapter-10-
    Teens-andTechnology-revised-final.pretty.pdf

Gaining Weight
Losing Weight
3
Essential Questions?
  • Why is weight management and proper nutrition
    essential to ones quality of life?
  • What physical, mental and emotional problems can
    be associated with obesity?
  • In what ways is our society obsessed with beauty?
  • How does the media affect our ideas of what is
    beautiful?

4
Why a some people overweight?
  • List reasons why
  • Heredity or genetics
  • Slow Metabolism
  • Consuming too many calories
  • Not enough physical exercise
  • Underweight
  • Below the standard weight range for your height
  • Both underweight and overweight carry health
    risks

5
Health Risks Overweight vs. underweight
  • Overweight
  • Underweight
  • Hypertension
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Gall bladder disease
  • Asthma
  • Certain cancers
  • Poor body image
  • Low self esteem
  • Trouble fighting disease
  • Lack of calories and nutrients for growth
  • Lack of nutrients for proper body functions
  • Feeling weak, tired
  • Trouble concentrating

6
Benefits of a Healthy Weight
  • Body works right
  • Not strain
  • More Energy
  • Less risk of disease
  • Better Mood?

7
Managing your weight
  • Healthy Ways to Gain
  • Healthy Ways to Lose
  • Select foods from the 5 major food groups
  • Choose higher calories nutrient-rich foods
  • Eat nutritious snacks more often throughout the
    day
  • Be activeincrease muscle through exercise
    (weights more than fat)
  • use MyPyramid
  1. Choose nutrient dense foods
  2. Watch portions sizes
  3. Eat fewer calories that are high in fats/sugars
  4. Enjoy favorites in moderation
  5. Be active
  6. Tone muscles
  7. Stay hydrated

8
11.1 Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • Energy Balance Equation
  • Eating the same number of calories that you burn
    each day.
  • Metabolism
  • The process by which the body breaks down
    substances (nutrients) and gets energy from food.
  • Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • A measure of body weight relative to height.
  • Overweight
  • Weighing 10 percent more than ones recommended
    weight
  • (heavier than the standard weight range for your
    height)
  • Obese- having excess body fat (weighing 20 more
    than your ideal weight)

9
(No Transcript)
10
11.1 Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • Basal Metabolic Rate
  • The amount of energy needed to fuel the bodys
    ongoing processes while the body is at complete
    rest.
  • Lean Mass
  • Total body weight minus the weight due to fat.
  • Essential Fat
  • The amount of fat needed for certain metabolic
    processes to occur
  • Storage Fat
  • Excess fat stored in the body

11
Body Composition
  • The division of the total body weight into fat
    weight and fat-free weight, which includes bone
    and muscle
  • Use this to assess your ideal body weight. Your
    goal should not be a particular weight, but an
    optimal body-fat percentage.
  • Can be measured with electrical impedance,
    skin-fold calipers, and hydro-static weighing.

12
Body Fat Scale
Some aspects of your body composition are
genetic (where you store fat)
  • Males
  • Athletes 6-13
  • Fitness 14-17
  • Average 18-24
  • Obese 25
  • Minimum?_____
  • 3-6 Essential Fat
  • Females
  • Athletes 14-20
  • Fitness 21-24
  • Average 25-31
  • Obese 32
  • Minimum?_____
  • 10-13 Essential Fat

Just as too little body fat can cause
physiological complications, too much body fat is
also harmful. For men over 25 and women over 32
fat, there is a dramatic correlation with illness
and disease.
13
How your body uses food energy
  • The amount of calories you should consume is
    determined by two factors
  • Basal Metabolic Rate
  • Your level of activity
  • _________________________
  • digestion calories
  • (energy needed to metabolize food)

14
Calculating Your Caloric Needs
  • 1- Calculate BMR calories
  • Females body wt. (lbs.) x10 BMR calories
  • Males body wt. (lbs.) x 11 BMR calories
  • 2- Calculate activity level
  • Take the appropriate of BMR calories (BMR x
    activity)
  • inactive 30 (.30)
  • average 50 (.50)
  • very active 75 (.75)
  • 3- Calculate calories needed to digest food
  • (BMR calories activity calories) (0.1)
    digestion calories
  • Total calories needed step 1 2 3

15
11.2 Body Image and Eating Disorders
  • People who try to look the same as a model,
    athlete, or someone famous will never be happy.
  • It is not a healthy approach to body image
  • www.youtube.com/watch?vIHqzlxGGJFo
  • (Dove Campaign for Beauty-female version)
  • www.youtube.com/watch?v-_I17cK1ltY
  • (male version)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vYP31r70_QNM
  • (The Photo Shop Effect)
  • How are teens body images portrayed in magazines
    and other media? Are they realistic?
  • Body Image
  • -the way you see your body/see yourself
  • During the teen years there is a rapid pace of
    physical change that may affect your body image.
  • Dieting at this point in development can
    interfere with normal growth and development

16
Fad Diets
  • Weight loss plans that tend to be popular for
    only a short time
  • (promise quick easy wt. loss)
  • Unrealistic
  • Problems
  • Dangerous to your health
  • Weight generally returns when you go back to your
    old eating habits
  • Usually do not provide adequate nutrition
  • Weight cycling-a repeated pattern of losing and
    gaining weight

17
Types of Fad Diets
  • Miracle Food Burn Fat eating lots of a
    single food or type of food.
  • Magic Combination- certain foods will trigger
    weight loss when eaten together
  • may be safe, but no evidence
  • Liquid Diets- replacing solid foods with
    low-calorie liquid formulas
  • Diet Pills- appetite suppressants or block or
    flush fat from the body (can be addictive
    stimulant)
  • Fasting- deprives the body of nutrients causes
    dehydration and slows down metabolism

18
Fad Diets
  • To solve these problems, check for the following
    in the program
  • Involve qualified dieticians
  • Involve a safe, personalized activity program
  • Encourage slow, gradual weight loss
  • Include all of the 5 major food groups
  • Fit your lifestyle
  • Help you make positive changes that will last a
    lifetime

19
Eating Disorders http//www.youtube.com/watch?vn-
do8s0lsqg
  • Extreme harmful eating behavior that can cause
    serious illness or death
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • An eating disorder in which an irrational fear of
    weight gain leads people to starve themselves
  • Bulimia
  • An eating disorder that involves a cycle of
    overeating (binging) and purging food, or
    attempts to rid the body of food
  • Binge Eating
  • Overeat compulsively
  • Pica
  • Eating non food items such as clay, soil,
    laundry
  • detergent, starch, chalk, coffee grounds,
    etc.

20
Myth Busters
  • Only teenage girls suffer from eating disorders
  • Fact anyone can suffer, regardless of their age
    or gender
  • Fact 5-10 of eating disorder cases are male

21
Anorexia Nervosa
  • Effects/Health hazards
  • Excessive weight loss
  • malnutrition
  • Bones become brittle
  • Heart rate, BMR and body temperature all drop to
    low levels
  • Body breaks down muscle to use as energy since
    there is no fat in the body to use
  • Permanent heart damage from loss of muscle tissue
  • Sexual maturity and growth can stop
  • Signs/Symptoms
  • Obsessive behaviors related to food
  • Avoiding meals
  • Eating only a few kinds of food in small amounts
  • Weighing and counting calories
  • Excessive exercise
  • Weighing themselves constantly

22
Anorexia
  • Treatment
  • 10 of anorexics die of starvation without
    treatment
  • Physical counseling from a team of professionals
  • Mental/emotional health counseling to help deal
    with depression and/or low self-esteem
  • May involve forced feeding on a temporary basis
  • First priority of treatment is aimed at meeting
    nutritional deficiencies to prevent a long term
    medical problem
  • (1 in 200 American women suffer from anorexia)

23
Bulimia
  • Signs/Symptoms
  • Recurring episodes of binge eating
  • Feeling of lack of control over eating behavior
    during eating binges
  • Regular practice of self-induced vomiting, use of
    laxatives, or diuretics
  • An average of two or more binge eating episodes a
    week for at least three months
  • Persistent over concern with body shape and
    weight
  • Effects/Health hazards
  • Tooth decay enamel on the teeth can dissolve
    from exposure to stomach acid
  • Dehydration altered electrolyte balance
  • Abnormal heart rhythms and kidney damage
  • Constipation
  • High blood pressure
  • Erosion of the esophagus
  • Irregular heart rhythms, heart failure and death
    due to chemical imbalance

24
Binge Eating (Compulsive Eating)
  • Signs/Symptoms
  • Eating large amounts of food in short periods of
    time
  • Feelings of being powerless and out of
    controlcant stop
  • more common in males than any other eating
    disorder/accounts for more than a 1/3 of all cases
  • Effects/Health Hazards
  • Becoming overweight or obese
  • They dont purge like bulimicstherefore can
    develop all the diseases associated with weight-
  • Hypertension
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Cardiovascular disease

25
Pica
  • The specific causes of pica are unknown, but
    certain conditions and situations can increase a
    person's risk
  • nutritional deficiencies, such as iron or zinc,
    that may trigger specific cravings (however, the
    nonfood items craved usually don't supply the
    minerals lacking in the person's body)
  • dieting people who diet may attempt to ease
    hunger by eating nonfood substances to get a
    feeling of fullness
  • malnutrition - especially in underdeveloped
    countries, where people with pica most commonly
    eat soil or clay
  • cultural factors in families, religions, or
    groups in which eating nonfood substances is a
    learned practice
  • parental neglect, lack of supervision, or food
    deprivation often seen in children living in
    poverty

26
Pica
  • developmental problems, such as mental
    retardation, autism, other developmental
    disabilities, or brain abnormalities
  • mental health conditions, such as OCD and
    schizophrenia
  • pregnancy, but it's been suggested that pica
    during pregnancy occurs more frequently in women
    who exhibited similar practices during their
    childhood or before pregnancy or who have a
    history of pica in their family
  • Health dangers
  • Eating harmful bacteria that could be present in
    clay, soil or laundry starch
  • Mineral deficiencies can occur
  • Intestinal obstruction and/or rupture
  • Bowel problems
  • Dental injury

27
10.3 Lifelong Nutrition
  • Your age, gender, lifestyle, and health needs can
    affect your bodys food needs
  • Dietary supplements products that supply one
    or more nutrients as a supplement to, not
    substitute for healthy foods
  • Foods can trigger certain health conditions
  • Diabetes, High Blood pressure, high cholesterol
  • Food allergies-reaction is the result of the
    bodys immune system (rashes, itching,
    anaphylactic shock)
  • Intolerance- not brought on by the bodys immune
    system (does not have the enzyme to digest
    certain foodslactose)
  • Celiac disease-unable to tolerate a protein
    called gluten (wheat, rye, b5arley, and oats)
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