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BK%20FOUNDATION%20HEALTH%20AWARENESS%20-%20CHRONIC%20DISEASES

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Title: BK%20FOUNDATION%20HEALTH%20AWARENESS%20-%20CHRONIC%20DISEASES


1
BK FOUNDATION HEALTH AWARENESS - CHRONIC DISEASES
  • JOSEPH ANA
  • CHAIRMAN BOARD OF TRUSTEES
  • BK EDUCATION FOUNDATION

2
OBJECTIVE
  • PARTICIPANTS TO HAVE AN INCREASED AWARENESS
    OF CHRONIC DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION AND
    AVOIDANCE

3
  • WHAT IS KILLING PEOPLE IN THE WORLD

4
Global Causes of Death (2006)
  • CHRONIC DISEASES
  • Heart disease 30.2
  • Cancer 15.7
  • Diabetes mellitus 1.9
  • Others 15.7
  • The total number of people dying from chronic
    (58 MILLION) is double that of all infectious
    diseases including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and
    malaria
  • (Nature, 2007).
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES
  • HIV/AIDS 4.9
  • TB 2.4
  • Malaria 1.5
  • Other inf. Dses 20.9
  • Injuries 9.3

5
DOUBLE WHAMMY OF KILLER- DISEASES IN NIGERIA
  • Infections
  • Chronic disease

6
IN NIGERIA 2012
7
CHRONIC
DISEASES
8
  • ADD
  • MENTAL ILLNESS!

9
Did you know??
35 000 000 people died from chronic diseases in
2005
10
COMMON DENOMINATORS
  • smoking
  • Lack of exercise
  • Food abuse
  • Alcohol abuse

11
10 widespread misunderstandings about chronic
disease - and the reality
  • Chronic disease epidemic is rapidly evolving
  • Global recognition and response has not kept pace
  • Misunderstandings can be dispelled by the
    strongest evidence

12
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13
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14
Reality chronic diseases are concentrated among
the poor and chronic disease is one of the main
reasons that families are pitched into poverty
15
Facing illness and deepening poverty
16
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17
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18
Reality poor and children have limited choice
19
The next generation
20
Reality 80 of premature heart disease, stroke
and type 2 diabetes is preventable, 40 of cancer
is preventable
21
Reality inexpensive and cost-effective
interventions exist
22
Reality these people are the rare exceptions
23
Reality death is inevitable but it does not
need to be slow, painful or premature
24
Dying slowly, painfully and prematurely
25
Three risk factors
  • Three risk factors cause four chronic diseases
    that cause over half of deaths worldwide.
  • The risk factors are
  • Tobacco use
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Unhealthy diet

26
ADDITIONALS
  • ALCOHOL ABUSE complex
  • OBESITY - complex

27
Old and new agendas for global health
  • acute childhood infections maternal deaths
  • Simple technologies
  • Rapid impact
  • Controlled by health services
  • Within the remit of the health campus and the
    health department
  • chronic, life long infectious and non-infectious
    diseases
  • Complex interventions
  • Decades before impacts
  • Main levers outside health service control
  • Takes a whole university and all government!

28
What works?
  • Comprehensive and integrated action is the means
    to prevent and control chronic diseases

29
Multiple interventions are effective
  • Cigarette smoking is influenced by
  • Fiscal measures high taxation
  • Advertising bans
  • Prohibiting smoking in public places
  • No vending machines available
  • Health campaigns to stop smoking
  • Transport smoking bans
  • Campaign groups
  • Health warnings on packets
  • Medical advice repeatedly

30
Diet changing what we eat
  • Nutrition transition
  • Worldwide, there is an accelerating move towards
    a diet high in saturated fats, sugar and refined
    foods, but low in fibre.
  • Average food consumption per person is likely to
    increase from 2,680 kcal in 19971999 to almost
    3,000 kcal by 2030.

Source UN FAO, 2004
31
Diet changing what we eat
  • What is driving the nutrition transition?
  • The cost of industrial fat has fallen by 50 in
    the last 50 years, whereas the cost of a healthy
    ingredient such as fruit has increased by one
    third.
  • Salt provides flavour to cheap food at around
    150 (84) a tonne. Real spices cost up to 2,000
    a tonne.

Source The Guardian, 25 April 2006
32
Diet
  • From this

8oz
12oz
16oz
20oz
34oz
33
Diet
?50 tsp (200g) of sugar (Coca-Cola)
  • to this!

16oz
64oz
32oz
44oz
52oz
Source Brownell, 2005
34
A rough example
  • There are 1,144 kcal in a McDonalds
    quarter-pounder with cheese, small fries and a
    small chocolate milkshake
  • This is approximately 70 of the recommended
    daily calorie intake of a 10-year-old girl
  • To work off 1,144 kcal, a child weighing 87 lbs
    would have to walk at 3 mph for about six hours

SourceMcDonalds AAFP The fitness calculator
35
Physical activity transition
  • A transition in physical activity is occurring
    we lead increasingly sedentary lives
  • desk jobs replace manual work
  • labour-saving devices make housework easier and
    less time consuming
  • transportation options remove the need to walk or
    cycle
  • safety fears keep children and older people
    indoors.

36
Influences on physical activity
Distance to work/school
Work/school
Playing fields
Work gym
Changing facilities
PE / lunchbreaks
Stair access
School governors
Employer
Access to gym
Teachers
Active games
Government
Colleagues
Media
Green space
Age
Community
Motivation
Family
Health insurers
Beliefs
Knowledge/ education
Bike paths
Income
Housework
Government
Self-image
Abilities
Gender
Town planners
Friends
Time
Shop location
Mobility
Architects
Health professionals
Media
Stairs
Pollution
NGOs
Industry
Safe streets
Home
Street layout
Environmental
Sports equipment
Pavements
37
Lack of physical activity
  • As a result of these trends
  • UK 69 of adults and 35 of children
  • US 55 of adults and 31 of adolescents
  • - ? Data for Nigeria
  • do not reach the recommended levels of physical
    activity.

Source At least five a week report from the
CMO of England and Wales, 2004 and CDC 2002
38
Recommended levels of physical activity
  • For adults
  • At least 30 minutes a day of moderate-intensity
    physical activity on five or more days of the
    week.
  • The 30 minutes can be made up of bouts of
    activity of 10 minutes or more.
  • For children and young people
  • At least 60 minutes of moderate-intensity
    physical activity every day.

39
Benefits
  • Compared with people who do not reach the
    recommended levels of physical activity, active
    people have
  • almost half the risk of dying from coronary heart
    disease
  • a 27 lower risk of stroke
  • a 3350 lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes
  • 4050 lower risk of colon cancer, and reduced
    risk of other cancers, e.g. breast cancer.
  • Plus, benefits for musculoskeletal health and
    mental health.

Source At least five a week report from the
CMO of England and Wales, 2004
40
Increasing physical activity
  • No magic bullet
  • Many interventions will be necessary
  • Redesigning the environment will be more
    important than exhortation, doctors prescribing
    exercise, or gyms

41
TAKE THE STAIRS!
42
  • THANK YOU FOR LISTENING

43
  • A BPlt135 reassess every 3 years
  • 85
  • B BP 135 -139 high normal
    values
  • 85 89 -
    reassess yearly
  • C 145 159
    Hypertension
  • 90 99
    (after at least three readings)

  • ?
  • Target organ damage
    No target organ damage
  • CVD complications
    No CVD complications
  • Diabetes
    No Diabetes
  • Ten year CHD risk gt 15
    Ten year CHD risk lt 15
  • ?

    ?
  • TREAT

    OBSERVE (reassess yearly)

44
  • HYPERTENSION - MANAGEMENT
  • Non pharmacological therapy (for all)
  • Weight reduction\salt reduction/limit alcohol
  • Regular exercise
  • increase fruit vegetable intake
  • Pharmacological therapy
  • Diuretic
  • Diuretic B-blocker
  • Diuretic ACE Inhibitors (except verapramil)
  • Calcium antagonist B-blocker
  • Calcium antagonist ACE In hibitor
  • A-blocker B-blocker
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