WASTE MANAGEMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – WASTE MANAGEMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 71d570-ZjhlY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS

Description:

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS PROFESSOR JIM BRIDGES Emeritus Professor of Toxicology and Environmental Health Chair of the EU scientific committee SCENIHR – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:61
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 17
Provided by: profi222
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: WASTE MANAGEMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS


1
WASTE MANAGEMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS
  • PROFESSOR JIM BRIDGES
  • Emeritus Professor of Toxicology and
    Environmental Health
  • Chair of the EU scientific committee SCENIHR

May 2006
2
WASTE HEALTH CONSIDERATIONS
  • 1.Waste contains many thousands of
    chemicals and many species of micro-organisms
  • 2.All methods of waste treatment involve the
    destruction of some substances but the creation
    of others.
  • .

3
CONSIDERATIONS CONTINUED
  • 3.The milder the treatment the less of the
    original chemicals are destroyed and the less new
    chemicals are created. None of these chemicals
    are unique to waste management
  • 4.All chemicals are toxic if the exposure is
    high and long enough. However for the great
    majority of chemicals a threshold is found below
    which adverse effects are unlikely

4
STAGES IN EVALUATION
  • Hazard identification- a property of all natural
    and synthetic chemicals
  • Assessing the risk- likelihood that adverse
    effects will occur at actual exposure levels
  • Risk benefit analysis- Comparing risks and
    benefits

5
METHODS OF WASTE TREATMENT- CONSIDERATION OF
EMISSIONS
  • Microbiological/spontaneous
  • Heat/combustion
  • Chemical
  • Physical separation
  • the milder the treatment the more of the
    initial contaminants are left in the waste
    residue

6
CHEMICALS THAT MAY BE EMITTED FROM LANDFILLS
(microbiological/ spontaneous)
  • In landfill gas- benzene, styrene and many other
    volatile chemicals
  • From Gas Burning- dioxins, PM10, metals, nitrogen
    dioxide
  • In the leachate, metals, ammonia

7
BIOPROSSING - SUBSTANCES EMITTED
  • Volatile chemicals such as benzene, hydrogen
    suphide, toluene
  • Microrganisms, including various pathogens

8
MATERIALS EMITTED DURING COMPOSTING
(microbiological)
  • Volatile chemicals such as benzene, styrene,
    methyl sulphide and toluene
  • Micro-organisms. Various human, animal and plant
    pathogens and endotoxins
  • Leachate containing ammonia, metals

9
CHEMICALS EMITTED FROM AN INCINERATOR
(heat/combustion)
  • Particulates eg PM10, mercury
  • Less volatile organics, eg dioxins,
  • chlorobenzenes
  • Gases and volatile substances eg
  • benzene, nitrogen dioxide

10
SUMMARY OF SUBSTANCES THAT MAY BE EMITTED BY
WASTE FACILITIES INCLUDE
  • Fine particles such as PM10
  • Dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Metals
  • Acid gases
  • Volatile organic compounds such as benzene
  • Micro-organisms
  • Allergenic proteins

11
PUBLIC CONCERN (1)-DIOXINS
  • Always present in MSW
  • A family of chemicals created by any combustion
    process
  • Many related compounds (eg PCBs), some very
    persistent
  • Different dioxins have very different potencies.
    Some are carcinogenic, can also affect the
    nervous system, skin, reproduction outcome

12
DIOXINS CONTINUED
  • Total exposure over many months/years the key
    consideration
  • Main source of human exposure is fatty foods
  • Vulnerable groups children and foetuses

13
PM1O FINE PARTICULATE MATTER
  • - Range of sizes the smaller the particle the
    higher the potential risk
  • - Many sources, eg cooking, diesel engines,
    nanotechnology products

14
PM10 CONTINUED
  • Acute health effects, such as respiratory and
    heart.
  • Long term effects may include cancer
  • - Vulnerable groups those with severe
    respiratory and coronary disease

15
CHANGES IN INCINERATOR EMISSIONS
  • Many incinerators in the 1950s-1960s caused
    local pollution
  • Modern incinerators have 1/100th -1/1000th of
    the emission levels of dioxins, PM10 and metals
    compared to these old incinerators

16
CONCLUSIONS
  • Waste contains natural and synthetic
    chemicals. Treatment results in some chemicals
    being formed
  • None of these chemicals is unique to waste
    treatment
  • Key factors in determining possible health risks
    are - composition of the waste and form of
    treatment,
  • - levels of exposure of the local
    residents
  • - safe use/disposal of residual
    materials
About PowerShow.com