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The Age of Imperialism


Making Sense of the American Empire ... John Hay sick man of Asia and spheres of influence Open Door note neither accepted nor rejected by European ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Age of Imperialism


The Age of American Imperialism
Imperialism 101
  • Motives behind imperialism
  • Economic
  • Military
  • Philosophical
  • Manifest Destiny, Part II
  • Social Darwinism and Scientific Racism
  • Missionary impulse -
  • The White Mans Burden Rudyard Kipling

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The Imperialist Chorus
  • Josiah Strong Our Country Its Possible Future
    and Present Crisis (1885)
  • Anglo-Saxon people are the fittest to survive
  • Protestant Americans have a duty to colonize
    other lands to spread Christianity and the
    benefits of superior civilization
  • Alfred Thayer Mahan The Influence of Seapower
    Upon History (1890)
  • A strong navy is essential to securing foreign
    markets and becoming a world power
  • Thesis used to argue for construction of a modern
    (steel/coal) navy, acquisition of overseas
    islands, and construction of a canal across Latin
  • Albert Beveridge The Beveridge Report
  • American factories are making more than the
    American people can use American soil is
    producing more than they can consume. Fate has
    written our policy for us the trade of the
    world must and shall be ours.

American imperialism
  • US naval build-up The Great White Fleet
  • Hawaii, 1890s
  • Americas relationship with Hawaii
    protectorate, trading partner, military base
  • The sugar interest The McKinley Tariff, 1890
    raises sugar prices.
  • Queen Liliuokalani and the planter revolt
  • Samuel Dole
  • Grover Cleveland refuses annexation
  • President McKinley annexes in 1898.

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The Spanish-American War
  • Causes
  • Cuban Rebellion, 1895
  • Jose Marti Cuba Libre!
  • Scorched earth policy and US property interests
  • 50 million year invested/100 million year trade
  • General Valeriano Weyler
  • Reconcentration policy
  • Atrocity stories abound

  • Puck cartoon depicting the Cuban crisis

The Spanish-American War (cont)
  • Causes Cont
  • DeLome Letter
  • Dupuy de Lome -- Spanish ambassador
  • Calls McKinley weak and a bidder for the
    attention of the public
  • Published in Yellow Press
  • The Maine Explosion (Feb. 15, 1898)
  • Occurs one week after the release of the DeLome
  • Remember the Maine
  • 260 killed

  • The USS Maine before

  • and after

Yellow Journalism and the War
  • William Randolph Hearst New York Journal
  • Frederick Remington "There is no war. Request to
    be recalled.
  • Hearst "Please remain. You furnish the pictures,
    I'll furnish the war."
  • Joseph Pulitzer New York World

  • The Reaction of the
  • Yellow Press

McKinleys War Message
  • After the sinking of the Maine
  • Demands a cease fire from Spain
  • Public pressure continues

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McKinleys War Message
  • April, delivers war message
  • Promises to
  • Put an end to the barbarities, bloodshed,
    starvation, and horrible miseries in Cuba
  • Protect the lives and property of US citizens in
  • End the very serious injury to the commerce,
    trade, and business of our people.
  • End the constant menace to our peace arising
    from disorders in Cuba.
  • April 20 Congress declares war, along with the
    Teller Amendment
  • Teller Amendment US is fighting for Cuban
    independence does not intend to make Cuba a

The Sp-Am War
  • The Splendid Little War
  • War begins in the Phillipines with the defeat of
    the Spanish fleet
  • Admiral George Dewey
  • Spain loses all its ships and 381 men the US
    loses 1 (died of a heat prostration)
  • America troops would invade the Phillipines with
    the help of a Filipino nationalist, Emilio

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  • You may fire when ready, Gridley.

  • The War in Cuba
  • Problems logistics, supplies, uniforms
  • Rough Riders
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • San Juan Hill

Treaty of Paris, 1898
  • Ratified in 1899, provides for
  • Cuban Independence recognized
  • US gains two Spanish islands
  • Puerto Rico (Caribbean)
  • Guam (Pacific)
  • Philippines bought for 20 million
  • Debate between the imperialists and
    anti-imperialists in the US
  • Anti-imperialism and isolationism fear of
    entanglement in Asian conflicts.
  • W McKs justification for taking the Philippines
  • Christianity
  • Democracy
  • Manliness v. cowardice

The Philippine-American War, 1899-1902
The Philippine-American War
  • Guerilla war
  • Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Atrocities (water torture, attacks on women and
    children) reported on both sides
  • Racial dimensions of the conflict
  • This country wont be pacified until the niggers
    are killed of like the Indians - Kansas
  • Larger conflict than the Sp-Am War
  • 70,000 US soldiers stationed
  • 400 million spent
  • 10,00z 0 US casualities
  • 16,000 Filipino casualties
  • 200,000 civilian deaths.

Anti-Imperialist Cartoons
Making Sense of the American Empire
  • Insular Cases (1901-1903)
  • A series of Supreme Court cases addressing the
    question Does the Constitution follow the
  • Court rules that constitutional rights are not
    automatically extended to territorial
    possessions Congress has the power to decided
    whether or not to grant such rights.

Making Sense of the American Empire
  • Platt Amendment (1901)
  • US troops remain in Cuba from 1898-1901
  • Withdrawal of troops conditioned upon Cubas
    acceptance of the Platt Amendment
  • No foreign treaties that impair independence
    (except this one, of course!)
  • US is allowed to intervene in Cubas affairs to
    preserve Cuban independence and maintain law and
  • US may maintain naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
  • Overall US oversight and control
  • Amendment is bitterly resented by Cuban

Foreign Policy the New American Empire
  • Asia
  • The Open Door Policy (1899)
  • John Hay
  • sick man of Asia and spheres of influence
  • Open Door note neither accepted nor rejected by
    European powers

  • European spheres of influence

  • Boxer Rebellion (1900)
  • Society of Harmonious Fists, aka Boxers
  • Nationalism and xenophobia on the rise
  • Attacks on Christian missionaries and foreign
  • International force sent in (inc. Ams) to crush
  • Prompts a second round of Open Door notes from
    Hay calling for powers not to use the rebellion
    as an excuse to gain more territory.

Asia (cont)
  • Japan
  • Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
  • Imperialist rivalry between Japan and Russia
    breaks out into war
  • TR arranges the Portsmouth Conference (1905) to
    settle dispute
  • Japanese feel betrayed after failing to gain
    Sakhalin Island
  • Gentlemens Agreement (1908)
  • Japan upset by California laws preventing
    Japanese children from attending public schools
  • Compromise calls for Japan restricting emigration
    in return for TR persuading California to repeal
  • Root-Takahira Agreement (1908)
  • Important agreement that pledges a) respect for
    each others territories, and b) to support the
    open door in China.

Theodore Roosevelts Big Stick Policy
  • 1901, TR becomes Pres after McKinley is
    assassinated in Buffalo, NY
  • TR declares his philosophy of foreign policy
    talk softly, and carry a big stick

The Big Stick in the Americas
  • Panama Canal
  • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901)
  • US gets okay from Britain to go it alone
  • The Nicaragua v. Panama debate
  • Colombian control of Panama resistance
  • The Panamanian Revolution (1903)
  • Banau-Varilla
  • Hay-Banau-Varilla Treaty (1903)
  • Colombia compensated for 25 million in 1921

  • Panama Canal (cont)
  • Construction of the Canal
  • A man, a plan, a canal Panama
  • Dr. William Gorgas eradication mosquitos and
    yellow fever

  • Venezuela (1901)
  • US forces sent in by TR to force it to pay debts
    to European creditors
  • Santo Domingo (1904)
  • US sends troops in to occupy ports, collect
    taxes, and oversee debt repayment
  • Done to prevent European powers from doing the
    same thing
  • Policy is called the Roosevelt Corollary to the
    Monroe Doctrine US may intervene to prevent
    others from doing so