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Alcohol

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Title: Alcohol


1
Alcohol
2
Alcohol Is This Right?
  • Take out a sheet of paper and number 1-12. Write
    agree or disagree in regards to each statement.
  • Alcohol is a stimulant
  • Caffeine will sober you up.
  • Food will keep you from becoming intoxicated
  • Drinking beer is safer than drinking wine or hard
    liquor.
  • Alcohol-related car crashes are all caused by
    drunk drivers.
  • Alcoholism is a disease.

3
Alcohol Is This Right?
  • 7. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism affect only the
    abuser.
  • 8. Alcohol abuse or alcoholism will never be my
    problem.
  • 9. Nothing can be done about alcohol abuse or
    alcoholism
  • 10. It is a good idea to drink alcohol to prevent
    heart disease.
  • 11. Drinking a large amount of alcohol
    occasionally is less harmful than drinking a
    smaller amount everyday.
  • 12. Drinking alcohol makes you feel more
    confident.

4
Definitions
  • Ethanol
  • Type of alcohol in alcoholic beverages
  • Produced synthetically and naturally through
    fermentation
  • Fermentation
  • Yeast, a fungus, converts sugar into alcohol and
    carbon dioxide
  • Water, flavoring and minerals are mixed to
    produce drinks
  • Liquor is created through distillation
  • Depressant
  • Drug that slows down the CNS

5
Influencing Factors
  • Peer Pressure
  • Availability
  • Legal Restrictions
  • Family
  • Media Messages

6
Alcohol Abuse
  • the continued use of alcohol despite the
    development of social, legal, or health problems.
  • any alcohol use by underage youth is considered
    to be alcohol abuse.
  • High risk for neglect, abuse, economic hardship
    and social isolation
  • Studies show drinking as a teen is 4x more
    likely to develop alcohol dependence than an
    adult

7
Characteristics of Alcohol Abuse
  • failing to fulfill major work, school, or home
    responsibilities
  • drinking in situations that are potentially
    dangerous, such as driving a car or operating
    heavy machinery
  • experiencing repeated alcohol-related legal
    problems, such as being arrested for driving
    while intoxicated
  • exhibiting continued drinking despite having
    relationship problems that are caused or made
    worse by drinking

8
Alcoholic
  • Addict who is dependent on alcohol
  • Harmful behaviors
  • Drunken driving, violent or aggressive behaviors
  • Quiet and reserved

9
Alcoholism
  • is a chronic disease involving a strong need to
    drink, the inability to stop drinking, the
    occurrence of withdrawal symptoms, and tolerance.
  • Alcoholism is often progressive.
  • Characterized by an impaired ability to study,
    work or socialize

10
Characteristics of Alcoholism
  • Craving
  • Loss of control
  • Physical dependence or the occurrence of
    withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is
    discontinued
  • Tolerance
  • Health, family and legal problems
  • use and abuse of alcohol despite adverse
    consequences
  • failure to acknowledge the problem

11
Effects of Alcoholism on Children
  • Suffer child abuse
  • Depression and anxiety
  • Physical and mental health problems
  • Difficulties in school
  • Behavior problems

12
Cost of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse
  • Approximately 13.8 million Americans have
    problems related to either alcohol abuse or
    alcoholism
  • Cost an estimated 185 billion in lost
    productivity, illness, premature death and
    healthcare expenditures (1998)
  • Non-abusers cost
  • Economic cost of criminal justice system
  • Higher insurance premiums

13
How is alcohol transported?
  • Alcohol is absorbed in the blood by diffusion
  • Absorbed from the stomach and small intestine
    into the bloodstream
  • Transported to the tissues and throughout the
    water-containing portions of the body as part of
    the distribution process
  • Brain is especially sensitive to its effects
  • About 20 of the alcohol is absorbed in the
    stomach and about 80 is absorbed through the
    upper portion of the small intestine

14
Short-Term Effects
  • Body Size
  • Gender
  • Moves faster through bloodstream in females
  • Food
  • Slows down passage of alcohol in bloodstream
  • Amount and rate of intake
  • Drinks alcohol faster than liver can break it
    down, intoxication results

15
Short-Term Effects Continued
  • Nervous System
  • Brain, memory and judgment
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Heart and blood vessels
  • Digestive System
  • Stomach, liver and kidneys
  • Respiratory System
  • Lungs and breathing

16
Long-Term Effects
  • Brain
  • Addiction
  • Loss of brain function
  • Brain damage
  • Cardiovascular
  • Heart
  • Enlarged heart
  • HBP
  • Digestive System
  • Inflammation of esophagus leading to esophageal
    cancer
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Increased risk of organ damage, frequencies of
    infections and other life long effects

17
Long-Term Effects Continued
  • Liver
  • Fatty liver
  • Excess fat blocks flow of blood to liver cells
  • Alcoholic hepatitis
  • Inflammation or infection of liver
  • Cirrhosis
  • Liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue
  • Can lead to liver failure
  • Pancreas
  • Lining of pancreas
  • Swells to block passage to small intestine
  • Chemicals begin to destroy pancreas

18
Misconceptions about Alcohol Use, Abuse and
Alcoholism
  • 1 Alcohol is a stimulant.
  • Alcohol has been falsely thought of as a
    stimulant because its initial effects on some
    people include feelings of euphoria and lowered
    inhibitions.
  • Alcohol is classified correctly as a depressant
    because it later causes sedation and drowsiness.
  • In high concentrations, alcohol can induce
    unconsciousness, coma, and even death.

19
Misconceptions about Alcohol Use, Abuse and
Alcoholism
  • 2 Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are problems
    only for the individual drinker.
  • Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are social problems
    that touch many more lives than that of the
    individual drinker.
  • Alcohol abuse is a contributing factor to many
    other social problems including auto crashes,
    domestic violence, and child abuse or neglect.
  • Alcoholism also has a severe economic impact on
    the country due to lost productivity, healthcare
    treatment, and costs attendant to administering
    the criminal justice system.

20
Misconceptions about Alcohol Use, Abuse and
Alcoholism
  • 3 People with alcoholism are morally weak
    individuals lacking will power.
  • It is known to be a complex disease that involves
    a variety of factors including genetic,
    environmental, social, and behavioral components.
  • A disease that must be diagnosed, and as separate
    from alcohol abuse.
  • In alcoholic individuals, the brain is affected
    by alcohol and promotes its continued use through
    both positive and negative reinforcements. The
    severe physical withdrawal symptoms that result
    from stopping drinking serve as a strong
    biological force that can maintain drinking
    behavior.

21
Misconceptions about Alcohol Use, Abuse and
Alcoholism
  • 4 Children cannot be alcoholics.
  • Alcohol is the most used and abused drug among
    young people. A recent national poll reports that
    one in four 8th graders drank alcohol in the past
    month, and 18 percent of 8th graders got drunk at
    least once in the past year.
  • Research using animal models suggests that the
    developing brain of the adolescent responds
    differently to alcohol than does the adult brain.
  • Children who abuse alcohol may develop
    alcoholism, though the criteria for making the
    diagnosis may be different from those used to
    diagnose adults

22
Misconceptions about Alcohol Use, Abuse and
Alcoholism
  • 5 Small amounts of alcohol wont impair bodily
    or mental functions.
  • Half of the states in the United States have set
    the legal limit for blood alcohol concentration
    (BAC) at 0.08 percent for motor vehicle
    operation.
  • This does not mean, however, that an individual
    is unimpaired at lower BACs. A BAC of 0.020.04
    can impair memory and judgment.
  • The effects of alcohol on an individual vary
    depending on the persons weight, nutritional
    state, gender, exposure to other drugs, and other
    factors. Any amount of alcohol taken during
    pregnancy is considered risky.

23
Misconceptions about Alcohol Use, Abuse and
Alcoholism
  • 6 Alcohols effects are only temporary.
  • The adult body can process approximately one
    drink per hour.
  • A drink is one 12-ounce bottle of wine cooler or
    beer, one 5-ounce glass of wine, or 1.5 ounces of
    80-proof distilled liquor.
  • A significant portion of the societal costs of
    alcohol use (for example, falls, automobile
    crashes, and violence) is due to acute effects.
  • Although the acute effects of alcohol last only a
    short time, chronic long-term effects can develop
    and persist. Adolescents and adults who drink
    excessive amounts of alcohol may be causing
    chronic alterations to their brains. A recent
    study provides evidence that heavy drinking among
    teenagers can impair brain function. It is not
    yet known if these effects are reversible.

24
Misconceptions about Alcohol Use, Abuse and
Alcoholism
  • 7 Alcohol is good for your health.
  • Recent reports have indicated that moderate
    drinking (defined as one drink per day for women
    and two drinks per day for men) may lessen the
    risk for cardiovascular disease.
  • Although moderate drinking is associated with
    decreased risk for heart disease, it is also
    associated with increased risk of accidents.
  • Drinking 5 drinks per day leads to increased
    risks for stroke and cancer. In addition,
    pregnant women, people using certain medications,
    and those diagnosed with alcoholism or other
    medical problems should refrain from drinking
    entirely.

25
Misconceptions about Alcohol Use, Abuse and
Alcoholism
  • 8 Alcoholism can be cured by behavioral
    programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous.
  • Alcoholism, at present, has no known cure.
  • Alcoholism can be controlled effectively using
    behavioral therapies, with or without
    pharmacological therapies. For such treatments to
    be effective, however, the patient must be
    willing to make significant and permanent
    lifestyle changes.
  • People being treated for alcoholism often
    experience one or more episodes of relapse. An
    important aspect of behavioral therapy is to help
    patients deal with such relapses and motivate
    them to continue their efforts to remain sober.

26
Misconceptions about Alcohol Use, Abuse and
Alcoholism
  • 9 The public knows enough about the effects of
    alcohol use further research is not necessary.
  • We do know many of the behavioral effects of
    alcohol consumption, such as memory and motor
    function impairment.
  • We do not know how alcohol creates its addictive
    actions.
  • Research continues to provide insight into how
    alcohol acts on all cells of the body and affects
    their functions. New scientific approaches help
    scientists understand more about the biological
    and behavioral effects of alcohol.
  • The results of these studies, from cell to
    society, yield essential knowledge that is a
    prerequisite for more-effective ways to prevent
    and treat this disease.

27
Immediate Effects
  • Increased thirst
  • Slurred speech
  • Double vision
  • Increased aggression altered behavior
  • Lowered inhibitions
  • Sleepiness
  • Impaired judgment
  • Slowed reflexes and body processes
  • Loss of motor control and coordination

28
Types of Alcohol
  • What are different kinds of alcoholic beverages?
  • Beer/Wine/Hard Liquor?
  • Are they all the same in terms of amount of
    alcohol?
  • Beer 12 oz
  • Wine 5 oz
  • Hard Liquor 1.5 oz

29
Measurement of BAC
  • Metabolism
  • Process by which the body breaks down food to
    extract energy from it
  • In regards to alcohol
  • Metabolism refers to the transformation of
    ethanol to acetaldehyde and other products
  • Liver
  • Primary site of alcohol metabolism
  • Less than 10 of alcohol consumed is not
    metabolized and excreted from the body in breath,
    sweat and urine

30
Measurement of BAC continued
  • Although expressed as a percentage, it is
    actually weight-per-volume
  • Grams of ethanol per 100 mL, or deciliter, of
    blood
  • Males average 58 of total body weight in water
  • Females average 49 of total body weight in water
  • Average metabolism for a moderate drinker is a
    decline of BAC of 0.017 per hour

31
BAC
  • How does the pattern of drinking relate to an
    individuals BAC?
  • Persons BAC is affected mainly by how much the
    individual drinks and over what time period the
    drinking occurs
  • Alcohol metabolism is at a constant rate
  • If the rate of alcohol consumption is faster than
    the bodys metabolism rate, than the BAC will
    increase

32
Absorption of Alcohol
  • Food
  • Faster when stomach is empty
  • Type of food present
  • Fatty foods allow absorption to take place over a
    longer time
  • Effects are not prevented
  • Body Weight and Build
  • Greater weight is a greater volume to absorb
  • Muscle tissue takes up more alcohol than fat
    tissue
  • Gender
  • Females have lower level of alcohol dehydrogenase
    in stomach

33
Females vs Males
  • Why, on average, are females more affected by
    drinking the same amount of alcohol as males?
  • Females tend to be smaller than their male
    counterparts
  • Females tend to have more body fat than males,
    which has the effect of reducing the amount of
    body water in which to distribute the alcohol

34
Alcohol and Drugs
  • Can lead to illness, injury and possibly death
  • Multiplier effect
  • Medication has a greater or different effect than
    if it were taken alone
  • LABELS

35
Binge Drinking
  • 5 or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting
  • Possible to consume a fatal dose

36
Hazing
  • Any action taken or situation created
    intentionally
  • Causes embarrassment, harassment or ridicule
  • Risks emotional and/or physical harm
  • Members of a group or team
  • Can be done by a number of ways
  • Alcohol
  • Physical

37
Blackouts
  • the brief impairment of short- and long-term
    memory occurring during episodes of excessive
    alcohol consumption or of other substance abuse
  • consciousness is retained
  • Alcohol impairs the ability to form new memories
    while the person is intoxicated, but does not
    typically erase memories formed before
    intoxication

38
Alcohol Poisoning
  • A severe elevation of the BAC which may lead to
    coma and death, often resulting from consumption
    of large amounts of alcohol
  • Also called alcohol overdose
  • BAC reaches a level that the body cannot process
    quickly enough
  • Alcohol consumed in large doses can shut down
    involuntary actions such as breathing, the
    heartbeat and gag reflex that prevents choking

39
Effects of Alcohol Poisoning
  • Mental confusion, coma, vomiting
  • Can choke on vomit and die of asphyxiation
  • Slow respiration 10 seconds between breaths or
    less than 8 breaths a minute
  • Breathing slows, irregular heartbeat and finally
    stops
  • Hypothermia low body temp leading to cardiac
    arrest
  • Pale or bluish color
  • Severe dehydration
  • Call 911 immediately

40
Ways to Stop
  • Alcoholics Anonymous
  • Naltrexone
  • Blocks receptors for endorphins, thus helping to
    reduce the craving for alcohol
  • National Association for Children of Alcoholics
  • National Drug and Treatment Referral Routing
    Service

41
Heredity
  • Children of alcoholics are 4x more likely than
    other children to become alcoholics
  • Does not mean a person will become an alcoholic
  • Other factors
  • Family, friends, culture, peer pressure,
    availability of alcohol and stress

42
Situations
  • Alcohol and Law
  • Illegal under 21
  • Arrested, fined, sentenced
  • Alcohol, Violence and Sexual Activity
  • Impairs a persons judgment, lowers inhibitions
    and compromises moral standards
  • Sexually active at a younger age
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