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Medicines and Drugs

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Title: Medicines and Drugs


1
Chapter 23
  • Medicines and Drugs

2
Lesson 1
  • The Role of Medicines

3
Classifications of Medicines
  • Medicines
  • Drugs that are used to treat or prevent disease
    or other conditions
  • Drugs
  • Substances other than food that change the
    structure or function of the body or mind
  • Medicines can be sorted into four broad
    categories
  • Help prevent disease
  • Fight pathogens, or infectious agents that cause
    disease
  • Relieve pain
  • Help maintain or restore health and regulate the
    bodys system

4
Medicines that Prevent Disease
  • Vaccines
  • A preparation introduced into the body to
    stimulate an immune response
  • Contain weakened or dead pathogens that stimulate
    your body to produce specific antibodies against
    those pathogens
  • Antitoxins
  • Extracts of blood fluids that contain antibodies
    and act more quickly than vaccines

5
Medicines that Fight Pathogens
  • Antibodies are a class of chemical agents that
    destroy disease causing microorganisms while
    leaving the patient unharmed
  • Work by killing harmful bacteria in the body or
    by preventing bacteria from reproducing

6
Antivirals and Antifungals
  • Antibiotics have no effect on viruses
  • Antivirals have been developed to treat some
    viral illnesses
  • Althetes foot and ringworm

7
Medicines that Relieve Pain
  • Analgesics or pain relievers
  • Range from mild (aspirin) to strong narcotics
    (opium based, morphine and codeine
  • Aspirin can be dangerous cause dizziness and
    ringing of the ears, can also irritate the
    stomach
  • Ibuprofen

8
Medicines that Promote Health
  • Allergy Medicines
  • Body Regulating Medicines
  • Antidepressant and Antipsychotic Medicines
  • Cancer Treatment Medicines

9
Medicines and the Body
  • Every person is different
  • Side Effects reactions to medicine other than
    the one intended
  • Additive Interaction
  • Medicines work together in a positive way
  • Synergistic Effect
  • Two or more medicines work to a greater effect
    than when they are taken separately
  • Antagonist Interaction
  • When one medicine is canceled or reduced when
    taken with another medicine

10
Other Problems
  • Tolerance
  • Withdrawal

11
Medicine Safety
  • Laws and policies for testing and approving new
    medicines
  • Prescription Medicines
  • Written approval
  • Over-the-Counter Medicines
  • Can buy without a prescription

12
Medicine Misuse
  • Serious health consequences
  • Giving a prescription medicine to a person for
    whom it was not prescribed or taking another
    persons medicine
  • Taking too much or too little of a medicine or
    taking a medicine for a longer or shorter period
    than prescribed
  • Discontinuing use of a medicine without informing
    the health care professional
  • Mixing medicines

13
Lesson 2
  • Drug Use A High-Risk Behavior

14
What is Substance Abuse?
  • Substance abuse any unnecessary or improper
    chemical substances for nonmedical purposes
  • Overuse, multiple use of a drug, use of an
    illegal drug, and use of a drug in combination
    with alcohol or other drugs.
  • Illegal drugs chemical substances that people
    of any age may not lawfully manufacture, possess,
    buy or sell.
  • Illicit drug use the use or sale of any
    substance that is illegal or otherwise not
    permitted

15
Factors That Influence Decisions About Drugs
  • Peer Pressure
  • Family Members
  • Role Models
  • Media Messages
  • Perceptions

16
The Health Risks of Drug Use
  • Physical health
  • Harm a users brain, heart, lungs and other vital
    organs
  • Overdose a strong, sometimes fatal reaction to
    taking a large amount of a drug
  • Mental health
  • Cloud reasoning and thinking, users lose control
    of their behavior
  • Ecstasy alters the brains structure and function
    (speeds up the nervous system) Figure 23.2
  • Social health
  • just experimenting can say or do things that
    will regret later
  • Negative effect on relationships with friends and
    family
  • Expelled from school, often has legal
    consequences

17
Understanding the Addiction Cycle
  • The side effects can range from nausea and
    headaches to a loss of consciousness and even
    death
  • What may begin as a seemingly harmless pastime
    results in serious consequences
  • Tolerance needs more to feel the effect
  • Psychological dependence person believes that a
    drug is needed in order to feel good or to
    function normally
  • Physiological dependence a user has a chemical
    need for the drug
  • Addiction physiological or psychological
    dependence on a drug

18
Other Consequences of Drug Use
  • Individual
  • All aspects of a persons health, legal issues
  • Family and Friends
  • Lose interest in healthy activities and have
    little time for friends and family
  • Family members have a responsibility to be aware
    of the warning signs and encourage them to seek
    help
  • Babies and Children
  • Can be passed to the unborn baby, causing birth
    defects, behavioral problems or an addiction
  • Costs to Society
  • Drug related crime and violence
  • Lose 160 billion a year lost work hours and
    productivity, drug related illness, jail time,
    accidents and death, health costs and legal fees
    , law enforcement and insurance costs from drug
    related damages, injuries and deaths

19
Lesson 3
  • Marijuana, Inhalants and Steriods

20
Marijuana
  • A plant whose leaves, buds and flowers are smoked
    for their intoxicating effects
  • One of the most widely used illegal drugs
  • Also known as pot, weed, or grass
  • Often the first drug teens experiment with
  • All forms are mind altering and can damage the
    users health
  • When combined with other drugs it can be deadly

21
Marijuana and Addiction
  • Raises levels of brain chemical called dopamine
  • Dopamine produces a pleasurable feeling
  • Letdown or crash is when the pleasure sensation
    stops
  • Contains more cancer-causing chemicals than
    tobacco smoke and carries the same health risks
    as smoking tobacco
  • Interferes with the immune system, user becomes
    more susceptible to infections
  • Figure 23.3

22
Risks to Mental/Emotional Health
  • Experience slow mental reflexes and suffer sudden
    feelings of anxiety and paranoia
  • Paranoia an irrational suspiciousness or
    distrust of others
  • Dizzy, trouble walking, difficulty remembering
  • Short-term memory is adversely affected
  • Distorted perception, loss of coordination,
    trouble with thinking and problem solving

23
Risks to Growth and Development
  • Risks to the Reproductive Organs
  • Males regular use interferes with sperm
    production and lowers levels of testosterone, the
    hormone responsible for the development of adult
    male characteristics
  • Females increases testosterone levels, unwanted
    facial hair, lead to infertility

24
Risks and Consequences of Driving Under the
Influence
  • Interferes with depth perception, impairs
    judgment, and slows reflexes
  • Penalties and legal consequences for driving
    while under the influence of marijuana are strict
  • Suspension of a drivers license, a fine, and
    often jail time
  • Insurance will increase when license is restored

25
Inhalants
  • Substances whose fumes are sniffed and inhaled to
    achieve a mind-altering effect
  • Most go immediately to the brain, causing damage
    and actually killing brain cells that will never
    be replaced.
  • Include
  • Solvents and aerosols such as glues, spray
    paints, gasoline and varnishes
  • All inhalants are extremely dangerous and many
    are labeled as poisons
  • Cause permanent nervous system and brain damage

26
Inhalants cont.,
  • Most inhalants depress the central nervous system
    and produce effects that include a glassy stare,
    slurred speech and impaired judgment
  • Can cause sudden death by increasing heart rate
    that results in cardiac arrest or death by
    suffocation

27
Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
  • Synthetic substances that are similar to the male
    sex hormone testosterone
  • Anabolic refers to muscle building
  • Androgenic refers to increased male
    characteristics
  • When using under a doctors guidance , they help
    build muscle in patients with chronic diseases
  • Can cause mood swings, impaired judgment
    resulting from feelings of invincibility, and
    paranoia

28
Legal and Social Consequences of Steroid Use
  • All steroid use other than that prescribed by a
    licensed physician is illegal and dangerous
  • Steroids can increased muscle strength but the
    associated tendons and ligaments do not
  • Injuries that take a long time to heal
  • Can lead to other illegal, addictive drug use due
    to the side effects of steroids
  • Illegal for all ages in the US
  • Risk of exposure to disease causing bacteria and
    viruses

29
Lesson 4
  • Psychoactive Drugs

30
Classification of Psychoactive Drugs
  • Chemicals that affect the central nervous system
    and alter activity in the brain
  • Change the functioning of the CNS
  • There are four main groups
  • Stimulants, depressants, narcotics and
    hallucinogens

31
Stimulants
  • Cocaine
  • Crack
  • Amphetamines
  • Methamphetamine

32
Depressants
  • Barbiturates
  • Tranquilizers
  • Rohypnol
  • GHB

33
Narcotics
  • Opium
  • Morphine
  • Heroin
  • Codeine

34
Hallucinogens
  • PCP
  • LSDEcstasy
  • Ketamine

35
Health Risks of Stimulants
  • Stimulants are drugs that speed up the central
    nervous system
  • Foods that contain a small amount of a stimulant
    called caffeine are coffee, cola and tea
  • Nicotine in tobacco products is also a stimulant
  • Some are used for medication to treat
    hyperactivity
  • Most dangerous of the illegal stimulants is
    cocaine, amphetamine and methamphetamine

36
Cocaine
  • Rapid-acting, powerful, highly addictive
  • Interrupts normal functioning of the central
    nervous system
  • Illegal everywhere
  • White powder extracted from the leaves of the
    coca plant
  • Experience a surge of self-confidence and
    euphoria, a feeling of intense well-being or
    elation
  • Regular use can lead to depression, fatigue,
    paranoia, and physiological dependence
  • Overuse can lead to cardiac arrest, respiratory
    failure, seizures and death

37
Crack
  • More dangerous form of cocaine
  • Aka crack cocaine, rock or freebase rock
  • One of the most deadly drugs available
  • Pure form of cocaine that reaches the brain
    seconds after being smoked or injected
  • Causes heart rate and blood pressure to soar to
    dangerous levels
  • Death may result from cardiac or respiratory
    failure
  • Mixing with alcohol can cause death due to liver
    failure

38
Amphetamines
  • Used in prescription medicines to reduce fatigue
    and drowsiness or to suppress the appetite
  • Used illegally to stay awake, alert, to improve
    athletic performance, or to lose weight
  • Easily develop a tolerance and therefore user can
    ingest more of the substance
  • Twitching, irregular heartbeat, paranoia and
    heart and blood vessel damage

39
Methamphetamine
  • Meth
  • used in treating certain diseases, including
    Parkinsons disease and obesity
  • White, odorless powder that easily dissolves in
    alcohol or water
  • Club Drug
  • Short term feeling of euphoria
  • Results in depression, paranoia, damage to CNS,
    increased heart rate and blood pressure, and
    damage to brain cells
  • Also cause death

40
Health Risks of Depressants
  • Sedatives
  • Drugs that tend to slow down the central nervous
    system
  • Relax muscles, relieve feelings of tension and
    worry and cause drowsiness
  • Dangerous because they slow the heart rate, lower
    blood pressure, and interrupt the normal rate of
    breathing
  • Most common alcohol, also includes, barbiturate
    and tranquilizers, rohypnol and GHB
  • Cause a synergistic effect

41
Barbiturates
  • Sedative-hypnotic drug
  • Drugs that induce sleepiness
  • Mood changes, sleeping more than normal and coma
  • Rarely used for medical reasons
  • Used illegally to produce a feeling of
    intoxication and to counteract the effects of
    stimulants
  • Combining with alcohol can be fatal

42
Tranquilizers
  • Depressants that reduce muscular activity,
    coordination, and attention span
  • Relieve anxiety, muscle spasms, sleeplessness,
    and nervousness
  • Overuse can lead to physiological and
    psychological dependance

43
Rohypnol
  • Club Drug
  • Date rape drug
  • Tablet form and looks like ordinary aspirin
  • Dissolves in carbonated beverages
  • The victim will wake up much later with no
    recollection of what may have happened

44
GHB
  • Gammahydroxy Butyric Acid
  • Has been used in date rape crimes
  • Clear liquid, a white powder, variety of tablets
    and capsules
  • Leaves the blood relatively quickly making it
    hard to tell if there is an overdose

45
Narcotics
  • Specific drugs derived from the opium plant that
    are obtainable only by prescription and are used
    to relieve pain
  • Morphine, OxyContin, and Codeine
  • Morphine and codeine relieve pain by blocking
    pain messengers in the brain
  • Cause euphoria, drowsiness, constipation,
    pinpoint pupils, slow and shallow breathing,
    convulsions, coma and death
  • Very addictive, pharmacists are required to keep
    records of all sales

46
Heroin
  • Highly addictive narcotic
  • Processed form of morphine that is injected,
    snorted or smoked
  • Depresses the CNS and slows breathing and pulse
    rate
  • Can cause infection of the heart lining and
    valves, as well as liver disease
  • Easily develop tolerance

47
Hallucinogens
  • Drugs that alter moods, thoughts, and sense
    perceptions including vision, hearing, smell and
    touch
  • No medical use
  • PCP, LSD, Ketamine, and Ecstasy
  • Overload the sensory controls in the brain
  • Brain confuses and intensifies sensations and
    hallucinates
  • Impair judgment and reasoning
  • Increase heart and respiratory rates
  • Effects are extremely unpredictable
  • Last for several hours or several days

48
PCP
  • Most dangerous of all drugs
  • Effects vary greatly from user to user
  • Distorted sense of time and space, increase
    muscle strength and inability to feel pain
  • Overdose can cause death
  • Most PCP-related deaths are caused by the
    destructive behaviors
  • Flashbacks can occur at any time causing panic,
    confusion and lack of control

49
LSD
  • Strong hallucinogen
  • Severe distorted perceptions of sound and color
  • Higher doses increase the risk of convulsions,
    coma, heart and lung failure and even death
  • Affects brain emotional center and distorts
    reality
  • Range of emotions euphoria to deep depression
  • Frightening range of emotions long after actual
    use of the drug

50
Ketamine
  • Used for medical purposes, mostly in treating
    animals
  • Misused as a club drug
  • White powder to be snorted or injected
  • Also smoked with marijuana or tobacco
  • Causes hallucinations and dreamlike states
  • Result in death due to respiratory failure
  • Also known as Special K, Vitamin K, Kit Kat, Cat
    Valium, and Purple
  • Legal to use on animals
  • Many of the same effects as PCP
  • Most teens choose to experiment with it because
    the effects typically last only an hour

51
Ecstasy and Other Dangerous Drugs
  • Designer Drugs synthetic substances meant to
    imitate the effects of hallucinogens and other
    dangerous drugs
  • Can be several hundreds times stronger than the
    drugs they are meant to imitate
  • Ecstasy may give a short-term feeling of euphoria
  • Often causes confusion, depression, paranoia,
    psychosis, and even long-term damage to brain
    cells
  • Also result in uncontrollable tremors, paralysis,
    and irreversible brain damage

52
Consequences of Drug Use
  • Negative consequences
  • Health problems, addiction, difficulties in
    school
  • Poor judgment
  • Put you at risk for unintentional injuries,
    accidents, violence, STDs, unintended pregnancy,
    and suicide
  • Best way to avoid these consequences is to refuse
    to use drugs

53
Lesson 5
  • Living Drug Free

54
Resisting Pressure to Use Drugs
  • Peer pressure can be intense during the teen
    years
  • Everybody is doing it is not a fact
  • Most teens do not come in contact with illegal
    drugs
  • 58 have never tried marijuana and 90 have never
    tried cocaine

55
Commitment to Be Drug Free
  • Make a firm and deliberate decision
  • Be fully committed to refusing them
  • Steer clear of people who do use drugs and places
    where drugs may be used
  • Being drug free means being able to enjoy life
    and deal with challenges and problems in
    healthful ways
  • Shows the strength of your values and
    demonstrates good character and respect for
    yourself and others

56
Efforts to Curb Drug Abuse
  • School Efforts
  • Drug-free school zones areas within 1,000 feet
    of schools and designated signs, within which
    people caught selling drugs receive especially
    severe penalties
  • Drug education classes
  • Zero tolerance policies
  • Expulsion of students who are caught using
  • Community Efforts
  • Drug watches organized community efforts by
    neighborhood residents to patrol, monitor, report
    and otherwise try to stop drug deals and drug
    abuse
  • Choosing Healthy Alternatives

57
Becoming Drug Free
  • Never too late
  • Admitting that there is a problem
  • Getting help
  • Overcoming the problem
  • Individual counseling, support groups, or drug
    treatment centers

58
Offering Help
  • Identify specific sources of help in your
    community
  • Drug counselors, treatment centers or support
    groups
  • Talk to the person when he or she is sober
  • Express your affection and concern, and describe
    his or her behavior without being judgmental
  • Listen to the persons response
  • Be prepared for anger and denial
  • Discuss the sources of help you have found
  • Offer to go with the person

59
Warning Signs of Drug Use
  • Gets drunk or high regularly, is often hungover
  • Lies about the drugs he or she is using or
    constantly talk about drugs
  • Stops participating in activities that once were
    an important part of his or her life
  • Changes eating or sleeping habits, shows rapid
    weight loss
  • Has difficulty concentrating
  • Takes unnecessary risks or participates in unsafe
    behaviors
  • Gets in trouble with authorities, such as school
    administrators or police
  • Seems withdrawn, depressed, tired, and cares less
    about personal grooming and appearance
  • Has red-rimmed eyes and runny nose not related to
    cold or allergies
  • Has blackouts and forgets what he or she did
    while under the influence

60
Getting Help
  • Drug abuse is a treatable condition
  • Support groups, counseling services and treatment
    centers
  • For teens the first step to getting help is to
    talk to a parent, teacher, school counselor,
    health care provider or another trusted adult
  • Toll free hotlines or drug treatment center

61
Treatment Centers
  • Outpatient Drug-Free Treatment
  • Programs usually do not include medications and
    often consist of individual or group counseling
  • Short-Term Treatment
  • Centers can include residential, medication, and
    outpatient therapies
  • Maintenance Therapy
  • Intended for heroin addicts, this treatment
    usually includes medication therapy
  • Therapeutic Communities
  • Residencies for people with a long history of
    drug abuse, highly structured programs that
    usually last from 6 to 12 months
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