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ECOLOGY

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Ecology is the study of homes. The average number of organisms that can be sustained in an ecosystem is known as carrying capacity. Food, water, and shelter are known ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ECOLOGY


1
ECOLOGY
  • Ecology is the study of homes.
  • The average number of organisms that can be
    sustained in an ecosystem is known as carrying
    capacity.
  • Food, water, and shelter are known as limiting
    factors.

2
2nd block
Round Deer Limiting Factors
1 11 15
2 20 6
3 12 14
4 18 8
5 14 12
6 12 14
7 2 24
8 4 22
9 8 18
10 16 10
11 18 8
12 16 10
13 12 14
14 20 6
15 10 16
Carrying Capacity

3
ECOLOGY
  • Tolerance is the ability of a population to
    withstand fluctuations of biotic and abiotic
    factors.
  • Abiotic All of the non-living elements in an
    ecosystem like air, water, and temperature.
  • Biotic All of the living elements in an
    ecosystem.

4
homeostasis
5
Population
Biosphere
Species
Community
Ecosystem
Biome
6
ECOLOGY
  • Biodiversity is the number and variety of
    organisms found within a specified region.
  • Extinction is when a species is no longer in
    existence.
  • Endangered means a species is in danger of
    extinction throughout all of a significant
    portion of its range.

7
Primary Succession is the development of primary
communities in a previously uninhabited and
barren habitat with little or no soil.
8
A
B
C
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Secondary Succession is the reestablishment of a
community that has been destroyed by a natural
disaster.
12
ECOLOGY
  • The first group of organisms to arrive after the
    devastation of an ecosystem is typically the
    lichen and moss. These would be known as the
    pioneer community.
  • Climax community is a stable mature community
    which has reached equilibrium after having
    evolved through stages and adapted to its
    environment.

13
Energy
Energy
Energy
Energy
Energy
Energy
Energy
Energy
14
ECOLOGY
Food Chain A chain including the organisms and
their food source. Grass grasshopper
bird
15
A food chain illustrates the transfer of energy
from one trophic level to the next.
16
ECOLOGY
Food Web Multiple chains assembled into one
large web.
17
ECOLOGY
Ecological Pyramid A food chain that shows the
relationship between the organisms in each
trophic level.
18
Ecological Pyramids of Numbers
The figures represent number of individuals
counted at each trophic level.
19
Ecological Pyramids of Biomass
  • The total dry weight of organisms in a particular
    trophic level is referenced as biomass.

BIOMASS of organisms x the weight of an
average individual
biomass
20
Ecological Pyramids of Biomass
21
Ecological Pyramids of Energy
  • Energy in ecosystems flows from producers to
    consumers.
  • Energy is depicted in kilocalories.
  • Primary producers convert only about 1 of the
    energy in available sunlight.
  • The average amount of energy that is available to
    the next trophic level is about 10.

22
Ecological Pyramids of Energy
23
Plant
24
Mouse
25
Hawk
26
preAP Calculating Kcals from Calories
Carbohydrates gram 4Kcal Protein gram
4Kcal Fat gram 9Kcal Limit to 30
27
Cycles
  • Cycling of materials between the environment and
    organisms
  • Chemical and biological processes
  • Examples
  • Water cycle
  • Nitrogen cycle
  • Carbon cycle

Plants obtain nitrogen from nitrogen-fixing bacter
ia and pass it to other organisms through the
food chain
28
Water Cycle
29
Carbon Cycle
30
Nitrogen Cycle
31
Biomes??
  • a major biotic community characterized by the
    dominant forms of plant life and the prevailing
    climate

32
Tundra
33
Flora Fauna
Grasses Dwarf shrubs Cushion Plants Treeless Arctic foxes Snoeshoe hares Snowy owls Musk oxen Caribou Reindeer
Tundra
34
Temperature Precipitation
Average annual temperatures are -70F (-56C). The ground is permanently frozen 10 inches to 3 feet down so that trees can't grow there (permafrost)
Tundra
35
Flora Fauna
Short and grouped together Use a minimal amount of energy Breeding and raising young in the summer Hibernation
Adaptations in the Tundra
36
Taiga
37
Flora Fauna
Coniferous trees Red deer MooseMigratory birds Elk Black bears
Taiga
38
Temperature Precipitation
-65 F to 70F Average annual rainfall of 12 - 33 inches. Most of it falls in the summer as rain.
Taiga
39
Flora Fauna
Trees typically are evergreens Plants are dark and hairy Plants grow in clumps migrate to warmer climates. hibernate when temperatures drop. produce a layer of insulating feathers or fur to protect them from the cold.
Adaptations on the Taiga
40
AKA Temperate Forest
Deciduous Forest
41
Flora Fauna
Eagles Brown Bears Chipmunk Red Squirrel White-tailed deer Coyote American Beech Pecan White Oak Carpet Moss Ferns Guelder Rose
Deciduous Forest
42
Temperature Precipitation
The average temperature in temperate deciduous forests is roughly 75F 2 to 5 feet of precipitation (both rain and snow) each year. Humidity in these forests is high, from 60 to 80
It has four distinct seasons spring, summer,
autumn, and winter.
Deciduous Forest
43
Flora Fauna
In the spring, leaves are thin, broad, light-weight leaves. Thick bark Cooler temps and limited sunlight causes the tree to adapt. The leaves are unable to continue producing chlorophyll and change colors. Birds migrate and mammals hibernate. Some tend to store food.
Adaptations in the Deciduous Forest
44
 AKA Steppes of Eurasia North American
Prairie The Pampas Savannah Velt
Grassland
45
Temperature Precipitation
As low as -40 F, and in the summer it can be as high 70 F Temperate grasslands annually from 10-30 inches. Tropical grasslands annual 25-60 inches.
Grassland
46
Flora Fauna
Buffalo Grass Sunflower Asters Coneflowers, Clover Wild Indigos Coyotes Eagles Bobcats Wild Turkey Flies and crickets Dung Beetle Bison
Grassland
47
Flora Fauna
Have narrow leaves that lose less water to evaporation. Have roots that extend as much as 3.5 m. for during dry periods. Have brightly colored flowers. Are grazing or burrowing animals (flat-topped teeth) Can run away for hungry predators then Are colors that blend in with the plant life
Adaptations in the Grassland
48
Desert
49
Flora Fauna
Barrel Cactus Prickly Pear Cactus Joshua Trees Tumbleweeds Armadillo Lizard Gila Monsters Coyote Javelina Tortoise Proghorn Antelope
Desert
50
Temperature Precipitation
The average annual temperature of these miles of hot sand is 64 F Approximately 1 in. of rain falls in dry deserts per year
Desert
51
Flora Fauna
store water in the roots, stems, leaves or fruit develop shallow roots adapt the size, sheen, or texture of their leaves are small in size stay in shade or burrowing underground are nocturnal concentrate the body's fat in one place
Adaptations in the Desert
52
Rain Forest
53
Flora Fauna
Bromeliads Mangroves Drip Tips Nepenthes Africa Forest Elephant Bengal Tiger Chimpanzee Golden Lion Tamarin Linn's Sloth Orangutan Toco Toucan Vampire Bat
Highest biodiversity!!!!
Rain Forest
54
Temperature Precipitation
The temperature in a rain forest rarely gets higher than 93 F and rarely drops below 68 F High humidity 77-88 Large amounts of rainfall 50 to 260 annually. 50 of the precipitation comes from its own evaporation.
Found near the equator!!!
Rain Forest
55
Flora Fauna
Thin smooth bark Drip tips... It is thought that these drip tips enable rain drops to run off quickly. Buttresses may help transport water Large, broad leaves Shallow roots Prehensile tails Bright colors and sharp patterns Loud vocalizations Diets heavy on fruits
Adaptations in the Rain Forest
56
Marine Biomes Oceans and Coral Reefs
57
Flora Fauna
Kelp Phytoplankton Algae Sharks Rays Fish Sea Turtles Lobster Corals Jellyfish Whales
Adaptations Pressure and temperature
fluctuations
Marine Biomes Oceans and Coral Reefs
58
Estuaries
59
Flora Fauna
Algae Seaweeds Marsh grasses Mangrove trees Worms Oysters Crabs Waterfowl Flounder
Adaptations Plants and animals living in
estuaries must be able to respond quickly to
drastic changes in salinity.
Estuaries
60
Niche Role of an organism in a community
Habitat The area or environment where an organism
or ecological community normally lives or occurs
61
Symbiotic Relationships
Symbiosis is a close ecological relationship
between the individuals of two (or more)
different species that dwell together.
62
Symbiotic Relationships
63
Symbiotic Relationships
64
Predation
  • One benefits and the other dies.

65
Mutualism
66
Commensalism
67
Parasitism
68
Neutralism
69
Competition
70
Renewable Resources
  • A natural resource that can replenish itself
    naturally over time, as wood or solar energy

71
Nonrenewable Resources
  • any natural resource from the Earth that exists
    in limited supply and cannot be replaced if it is
    used up

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