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Ecology

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Ecology Dr. Jared Heidinger M.D. Ph.D. Masters of Ecology, Doctorate of ecology, undergraduate of ecology, know it all of ecology, full of it ecology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ecology


1
Ecology
  • Dr. Jared Heidinger M.D. Ph.D. Masters of
    Ecology, Doctorate of ecology, undergraduate of
    ecology, know it all of ecology, full of it
    ecology

2
  • Ecology study of interrelationships b/w living
    organisms and b/w organisms and their abiotic
    environment

3
Levels of Organization in Biology
  • Ecosphere global ecosystem
  • Biosphere global community
  • Ecosystem community and environ.
  • Community group of populations (same place,
    same time)
  • Population same species of organism (same area,
    same time)
  • Organism individual living thing

4
Continued
  • Organ system groups of organs that carry out a
    function (eg. digestive system)
  • Organ two or more tissues that work together at
    a function (eg. Kidney)
  • Tissue groups of cells with similar structure
    and function (eg. Muscle)
  • Cell basic unit of life

5
Continued
  • Organelle structures within cells
  • Molecule group of atoms bonded together
  • Atom basic unit of all matter

6
Other important definitions
  • Species organism which can interbreed and
    produce fertile offspring
  • Habitat environment in which a species normally
    lives or the location of a living organism.

7
Ecosystems (community and environment)
  • Consists of
  • biota (living things (eg. organisms from the five
    kingdoms))
  • Abiota (non-living things (eg. Soil, water, air,
    weather))

8
Interrelationships within ecosystem
  • Biota affects biota man eats fish

9
  • Biota affects abiota animals release gas to
    atmosphere

10
  • Abiota affects abiota fire destroys nesting
    sites
  • Abiota affects abiota water erodes rock

11
Pork CHNOPS Pork what???
12
Within Ecosystem
  • Matter is cycled
  • C, H, N, O, P, S
  • Molecules cycle between biota and abiota
    (biogeochemical cycles)
  • Energy does NOT cycle
  • Enters by sun, travels through food chain, leaves
    as heat

13
Biogeochemical Cycles
  • All chemical elements in living organisms (mainly
    CHNOPS) are
  • Part of biogeochemical cycles
  • Move through land, water and air

14
Continued
  • Biogeo. Cycles summarize movements of elements
  • Through the biota (via food chains) forming
    complex organic molecules
  • Through the abiota forming simpler reusable
    organic forms.

15
Continued
  • Affected by human activity resulting in
  • Ozone depletion
  • Green house effect and global warming
  • Acid rain
  • Algal blooms
  • Biomagnification of pesticides

16
Nitrogen Cycle
17
HUMAN IMPACT SHEET
18
Continued
19
N2 cycle has 3 phases
20
Phase 1
  • Nitrogen fixation conversion of atmospheric
    nitrogen (N2) to nitrates (NO3-)
  • Often NH3 is formed first
  • Mostly done by aerobic bacteria
  • Some free-living in soil
  • Some symbiotic live in plant roots
  • Some industrial fixation for fertilizer

21
Phase 1 cont
  • Legumes (beans, peas, alfalfa, clover) have
    root nodules that containing N2 fixing bacteria
  • Mutualistic relationship both organisms benefit
    (/)
  • Increase soil nitrates farmers rotate their
    crops with these plants

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23
Phase 2
  • Nitrification
  • Process of changing NH3 to NO2- to NO3-
  • Done by bacteria in soil

24
Phase 3
  • Denitrification conversion of nitrates (NO3-)
    to 2N
  • Anaerobic bacteria do this
  • Lowers available nitrates for plants
  • Plants dont grow as well
  • Aerate, plow, dig, anything to get some O2 back
    in soil helps to counteract the plot of the evil,
    evil denitrifying bacteria (not really evil,
    unless you are a gardener)

25
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26
Final Thoughts
  • Animals get all nitrogen (eg. - found in protein,
    DNA) from plants
  • Need nitrogen fixation to survive

27
Farming
  • Breaks the natural nitrogen cycle by removing all
    of the plant matter at harvest
  • Less matter to decompose and replenish nitrogen
  • Results in the need to fertilize

28
Carbon Cycle
  • Often called carbon oxygen cycle
  • Interrelated
  • Major processes
  • Photosynthesis
  • Decomposition breakdown of organic matter,
    mostly done by fungi and saprophytic bacteria
  • Combustion mostly done by automobiles

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30
Problems
  • Global Warming
  • Deforestation causes decline in photosynthesis

31
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32
Not the same
  • Greenhouse effect is a natural process. Without
    it we could not survive on earth.
  • Greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O vapour, CH4 (methane),
    nitrous oxide, CFCs) help to keep heat (infrared
    radiation) close to the earths surface
  • Global warming an increase in the earths average
    temperature due to the burning of fossil fuels
    releasing excess amounts of CO2

33
  • Worst case scenario warming is greatest at
    poles causing melting of ice caps
  • Ocean could rise by 100m resulting in flooding of
    coastal regions up to 150km inland
  • Change in climate could mess with agriculture as
    well.

34
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35
Water Cycle
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37
Steps
  • Evaporation l to g
  • Transpiration l to g from plants
  • Condensation g to l form clouds
  • Transport movement of clouds
  • Precipitation rain, sleet, snow, etc.
  • Runoff streams, lakes, rivers
  • Groundwater aquifers, underground streams

38
Problems
  • Acid rain
  • Toxic waste dumping
  • Leaching (chemical compounds seep into
    underground water)
  • Deforestation
  • runoff increases, minerals run into streams,
    disrupting balance in ion concentrations in water
  • Transpiration rates are changed.

39
Phosphorous Cycle
40
Phosphorous uses in Biota
  • Cell membranes (phospholipids)
  • Energy storage (ATP)
  • Genetic information (DNA, RNA)

41
in Abiota
  • Phosphate ions (PO43-) combined with other
    elements in rock
  • Ions dissolved in water move with water cycle

42
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43
Problems
  • Eutrophication

44
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46
Human Impact Worksheet
47
Energy Flow in the Biosphere
  • E flows through an ecosystem
  • Enters as light, leaves as heat
  • Is transferred through the food chain.

48
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49
Food Chain
  • Shows flow of energy thorough ecosystem
  • DIAGRAM

50
Producer
51
Consumer
  • Eats something
  • Primary eats producer
  • Secondary eats primary
  • Tertiary
  • Quaternary not usually more than a quaternary
    consumer

52
  • Autotroph make own food from abiotic materials
  • Photoautotroph use sun
  • Chemoautotroph Use heat and chemical compounds
    to make useable energy
  • Heterotroph needs something else for energy

53
Decomposers
  • Use last energy from organic matter that has died
  • NOT shown on a food chain
  • Trophic level (feeding level) each step in a
    food chain

54
Energy Transfer in a Food Chain
  • Inefficient some E lost in each step
  • Only 10-20 of E passed to next level
  • E loss due to
  • Some material not eaten
  • Some not digested or assimilated
  • Heat lost through cellular respiration

55
  • Therefore, the E available to each trophic level
    is always less than at the previous level
  • Results in less organisms at each successive level

56
Ecological Pyramids
  • Used to show overall E flow
  • Numbers can be inaccurate (many insects on one
    tree)
  • Biomass
  • Energy most accurate, biggest pain to do

57
Food Webs
  • Show alternative food chains
  • Shows complexity of energy flow

58
Population Ecology
  • Populations are described in terms of
  • Size
  • Distribution
  • Density
  • Diversity

59
Four main Factors affect Population size
  • Natality (birth rate)
  • Mortality (death rate)
  • Immigration (moving in)
  • Emmigration (moving out)

60
Estimating Population size
  • Mark and recapture method.

61
Population Growth
62
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63
Represented on growth curves
  • DIAGRIZZLE

64
Definitions
  • Carrying capacity number of organisms an
    ecosystem can support
  • Reproductive potential max reprod. Rate under
    ideal conditions

65
Elephant - 2 years
66
Human - 9 months
67
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68
Limiting factors
  • Conditions that prevent population growth
  • Amount of food
  • Space
  • Waste
  • Competition
  • Predation

69
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70
Limiting factors cont
  • Responsible for establishing the carrying
    capacity
  • Determine the distribution of org. in ecosys.
  • Plants affected by temp., water, soil pH,
    salinity, mineral nutrients
  • Animals affected by temp., water, breeding
    sites, food supply, territory

71
Niche
  • Total role of an organism in its ecosystem
    including
  • Trophic level (food sources)
  • Habitat used
  • Interactions with biota and abiota

72
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73
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74
Competitive Exclusion Principle
  • No two species can occupy the same niche
  • One always out competes the other.

75
Biological Relationships
  • Symbiotic organisms living in close association
    with each other
  • Mutualism / both benefit (nitrogen fixing
    bacteria and bean plant)
  • Commensalism /0 one benefits other unaffected
    (shark and remora)

76
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77
  • Parasitism /- one benefits other is harmed
    (tapeworm and human)

78
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80
Competition
  • Intraspecific b/w members of the same species
    (eg food, mates)
  • Interspecific b/w members of different species
    (eg. Food, space)

81
  • Competition creates selection pressures that
    drive evolution forward.
  • Competition is reduced by resource partitioning
    (making use of different parts of the ecosystem
    (I.e. niche specialization)

82
Succession
  • Successive stages of development in an ecosystem
  • Begins with pioneer species
  • Develops through seral stages
  • Ends with a climax community

83
Succession continued
  • Primary succession occurs in an area where
    organisms have not established themselves already
  • lichens, moss on rocks exposed by a retreating
    glacier

84
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85
  • Secondary succession occurs in an area where
    life has already been but has been disturbed
  • Forest after a forest fire

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89
Why Succession Happens
  • Organisms at each stage affect the abiotic
    environment, altering the conditions in such a
    way as to allow other species to move in
  • Abiotic changes include soil
  • development, accumulation of minerals and
    reduced erosion

90
Productivity in the Ecosystem
  • Gross Production (Gross Primary Productivity gt
    GPP)
  • Total amount of light E converted to chemical E
    by the autotrophs of an ecosystem over a given
    period of time

91
  • some E from gross production is used for
    cellular respiration
  • Rest is converted to biomass and is available to
    the next trophic level

92
Net Productivity (Net Primary Productivity -gt NPP)
  • Gross production minus respiration
  • GPP Rs NPP
  • net production can be expressed as
  • Energy per area per time (J m-2 yr-1)
  • Biomass (dry weight) expressed as mass per area
    per time (g m-2 yr-1)

93
Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biodiversity number and types of organisms
    present in an area (a.k.a. species richness)
  • Wildlife conservation efforts to maintain high
    levels of biodiversity

94
Eg) With reference to rainforest why attempt to
conserve biodiversity?
  • Ethical concerns responsibility
  • Ecological concerns interrelationships between
    species
  • Economic concerns medicines, drugs, pool of
    valuable resources
  • Aesthetic concerns beauty of the rainforest
    worth saving.

95
In-situ vs ex-situ conservation measures
  • In-situ keeping organisms in their natural
    habitat
  • Eg creating nature reserves (aquatic or
    terrestrial)

96
Ex-situ
  • Ex-situ conservation efforts outside of their
    original habitat
  • Eg. Zoos (captive breeding programs), aquaria,
    seed banks, botanical gardens

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98
In-situ advantages/disadvantages
  • Advantages
  • Natural habitat
  • Maintains ecological relationships
  • Protects from human exploitation
  • Disadvantages
  • Need large tracts of land
  • Must control alien species
  • Must restore degraded areas

99
Ex-Situ Advantages/Disadvantages
  • Advantages
  • Breeding ensured even with low population counts
  • Animals released where they are lowest in numbers
  • Disadvantages
  • Animals not in natural habitats
  • Doesnt maintain ecological relationships
  • Doesnt fix original problem
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