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Interactions of Living Things

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Interactions of Living Things Chapter 1, Section 1: Everything is Connected – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Interactions of Living Things


1
Interactions of Living Things
  • Chapter 1, Section 1 Everything is Connected

2
Ecology
  • Ecology - The study of the interactions of
    organisms with one another and with their
    environment.
  • Environment consists of all things that affect
    the organism.

3
(No Transcript)
4
Two Parts of the Environment
  • 1. Biotic - All of the LIVING organisms in an
    environment.
  • 2. Abiotic- All NONLIVING parts
  • in an environment.
  • Ex Water, soil,
  • light, temperature,
  • rocks, etc.

5
Levels within Environment
  1. Organism
  2. Population
  3. Community
  4. Ecosystem
  5. Biosphere

6
1. Organism
  • Any living thing

Example Cow
7
2. Population
  • Group of organisms of the same species that live
    in a specific geographical area

Ex Cow in a field
8
3. Community
  • All of the populations of species that live in
    the same habitat interact with one another.

Ex. Cows, grass, birds, ants, bacteria, etc. in
a field
9
4. Ecosystem
  • A community of organisms and their abiotic
    environment.

Ex. Cows, grass, bees, ants, nutrients, air,
soil, precipitation, temperature, in a field
10
5. Biosphere
  • Part of Earth where life exists.Extends from the
    deepest parts of the ocean to high in the air.

11
Recap Questions
  • What is the study of the interactions of
    organisms with one another and with their
    environment?
  • Ecology
  • What are all the living organisms in an
    environment called?
  • Biotic
  • What are all the nonliving parts in an
    environment called?
  • Abiotic

12
Recap Questions
  • Name the 5 levels of the environment from
    smallest to largest.
  • Organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem,
    Biosphere
  • What is a community of organisms and their
    abiotic environment?
  • Ecosystem
  • What are all of the populations of species that
    live in the same habitat interact with one
    another?
  • Community

13
Interactions of Living ThingsChapter 1,
Section 2 Living Things Need Energy
14
Energy
  • Organisms obtain energy in a variety of ways.
    There are 3 groups individuals based upon the way
    they accumulate energy

15
1. ) Producers
  • Producers - are organisms that make their own
    food using sunlight in a process is called
    photosynthesis.
  • Examples plants, algae, bacteria

16
2.) Consumers
Consumers - Organisms that eat other organisms.
17
Four Types of Consumers
  • A.) Herbivores- only eat plants

Examples Rabbit , Guinea pig, Sheep
18
Four Types of Consumers
  • B.) Carnivores- only eat animals.
  • Examples
  • Coyote, Cheetah, Tiger

19
Four Types of Consumers
  • C.) Omnivores- eat both plants and animals
  • Examples
  • Humans
  • Skunks
  • Pigs

20
Four Types of Consumers
  • D.) Scavengers- eat dead plants and animals
  • Examples
  • Vulture
  • Crab

21
Pd 1 starts here
22
Decomposers organisms that get energy by
breaking down dead organisms. Examples-
Bacteria - FungiAlso known asNatures
Recyclers!!
3.) Decomposers
23
Food Chain
  • Food Chain - diagram that shows how energy in
    food flows from one organism to another.

24
Pd 2, 9 starts here
25

26
  • Organisms usually favor a
  • of food, which is why a
  • simple food chain is usually
  • rare.

27
Food Web
  • Food web -shows all of the different
    possibilities of energy flow between different
    organisms.
  • Diagram that shows
  • the feeding
  • relationships
  • between organisms
  • in an ecosystem

28
Pd 8 starts here
29
The green arrows show how energy moves when one
organism eats another. Most consumers eat a
variety of foods and can be eaten by a variety of
other consumers.
30
DO NOW Match the term with the definition.
  1. Organisms that eat only meat
  2. Another word for heterotrophs
  3. All of the populations that live in the same
    habitat interact with one another
  4. A community of organisms and their abiotic
    environment
  5. Organisms that eat only producers

E
  1. Herbivores
  2. Consumers
  3. Carnivores
  4. Community
  5. Ecosystem

B
A
C
D
31
Pd 7 starts here
32
Energy Pyramid
  • Energy pyramid shows an ecosystems loss of
    energy.
  • The most amount of energy is found at the bottom
    of an energy pyramid.

33
Energy Pyramid
  • As you travel up the pyramid there is less energy
    left from the original source.
  • Less energy is available at higher levels because
    only energy stored in the tissues of an organism
    can be transferred to next level.

34
  • Energy Pyramids

35
The pyramid represents energy. As you can see,
more energy is available at the base of the
pyramid than at its top.
36
Recap Questions
  • What are the 3 main groups that obtain energy?
  • Producers, Consumers, Decomposers
  • What are organisms that get energy by breaking
    down dead organisms?
  • Decomposers
  • What are organisms that make their own food using
    sunlight during photosynthesis?
  • Producers

37
Recap Questions
  • What are organisms that eat other organisms?
  • Consumers
  • What are the 4 types of consumers?
  • Herbivore, Carnivore, Omnivore, Scavenger
  • What is a diagram that shows how energy in food
    flows from one organism to another?
  • Food Chain
  • What shows all of the different possibilities of
    energy flow between different organisms?
  • Food Web

38
Interactions of Living ThingsChapter 1,
Section 3 Types of Interactions
39
Habitat
  • An organisms habitat is the area in which it
    lives.
  • Example A frog lives in a pond

40
Niche
  • The organisms way of life, is called their
    niche.
  • This includes their habitat, food, and the
    abiotic factors that affect them such as
    temperature and weather.

41
Interactions with the Environment
  • Populations affect every other population
  • Most living things produce more offspring than
    will survive (ex frog eggs)
  • Biotic and abiotic factors affect survival rate
    and controls the size of the population

42
Interactions with the Environment
  • Populations cannot grow without resources.
  • There is a limited amount of resources such as
    food, water, living space.
  • Limiting Factors - a resource that is so
    necessary that it limits the size of the
    population.
  • Any resource can be a limiting factor!

43
  • Limiting Factors

44
Pd 1 starts here
45
(No Transcript)
46
Carrying Capacity
  • The largest population that an environment can
    support at any given time.
  • When a population grows
  • larger than carrying capacity,
  • limiting factors cause
  • individuals to leave or die off.
  • The population will eventually return to a size
    that the environment can support

47
pd 2 starts here
48
Interactions between Organisms
  • Four main ways that species and individuals
    affect each other
  • Competition
  • Predators and prey
  • Symbiotic Relationships
  • Co-evolution

49
1.) Competition
  • When 2 or more individuals or populations try to
    use the same resource.
  • Resources have a limited supply, therefore the
    use by one decreases the availability for others.
  • Happens within populations or between
  • populations

50
2.) Predators and Prey
  • Prey is an organism that is eaten
  • Have methods abilities to keep from being eaten
  • Run
  • Travel in groups
  • Camouflage or Coloration
  • Poisonous
  • Predator is an organism that eats the prey
  • They have methods to catch their prey
  • Speed
  • Ambush
  • Coloration

51
Camouflage
  • Camouflage - blending in with the background

52
Defensive Chemicals
  • Skunks
  • Bees
  • Wasps
  • Frogs

53
Warning Colors
  • Warning coloration - colors that associate with
    pain or illnesses.
  • Bright red, yellow, orange, black and white

54
3.) Symbiosis
  • Relationship in which two different organisms
    live in close association with each other.
  • Can benefit from, be unaffected by or harmed by
    the relationship.
  • 3 Groups
  • Mutualism
  • Commensalism
  • Parasitism

55
Mutualism
  • Symbiotic relationship in which both organisms
    benefit
  • Examples
  • Bacteria in your
  • intestines
  • Coral and algae

56
Commensalism
  • Symbiotic relationship in which one organism
    benefits and the other is unaffected.
  • 0
  • Example
  • Sharks and remoras (remoras hitch a ride and
    feed on scraps left by sharks and sharks are
    unaffected)

57
Parasitism
  • Symbiotic relationship in which one organism
    benefits and one is harmed. ( -)
  • Parasite organism that benefits
  • Host organism that is harmed
  • Parasite gets nourishment from host while host is
    weakened or sometimes killed.
  • Example
  • Ticks, tapeworms, tomato hornworm, etc

58
4.) Coevolution
  • The evolution of two species that is due to
    mutual influence, often in a way that makes the
    relationship more beneficial to both species.
  • Relationships between organisms change over time
    and interactions can change the organism
  • Takes place between any organisms that live close
    together, but happens over long periods of time

59
Coevolution Flowers
  • Pollination is necessary for reproduction of
    plants
  • Pollinator- Organism that carries pollen from one
    flower to another.
  • Example Bees, bats, hummingbirds, etc
  • Flowers have changed to attract pollinators
  • Example Color, odor or nectar

60
Recap Questions
  • What is a resource that is so necessary that it
    limits the size of the population?
  • Limiting Factor
  • What is the largest population that an
    environment can support at any given time?
  • Carrying Capacity
  • What type of interaction is it when an organism
    gets eaten by another organism?
  • Predator and Prey

61
Recap Questions
  • What type of interaction is it when 2 or more
    individuals or populations try to use the same
    resource?
  • Competition
  • Skunks, bees, frogs fend off their predators by
    what?
  • Defensive Chemicals
  • What type of interaction is it when two different
    organisms live in close association with each
    other?
  • Symbiosis
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