Dairy Breeds and Selection - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Dairy Breeds and Selection PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 71b607-M2MxZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Dairy Breeds and Selection

Description:

... Cows with good general appearance are attractive, have femininity, vigor, stretch, ... Isle of Guernsey off the Coast of France Red (Fawn) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:68
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 67
Provided by: weeblyCom
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Dairy Breeds and Selection


1
Dairy Breeds and Selection
2
Dairy Breeds and Selection Overview
  • Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Dairy Terms and Definitions
  • Parts of a Dairy Cow
  • Dairy Traits and Selection
  • Judging Contests

3
Terms
4
Dairy Cattle Terms
  • Bull - Mature male bovine able to reproduce
  • Steer- castrated male bovine
  • Cow - Mature female bovine shows evidence of
    having produced one or more calves
  • Heifer - female dairy animal that has not had a
    calf

5
Dairy Cattle Terms
  • Calf - male or female bovine under one year of
    age
  • Yearling- male or female over 1 year of age
  • Springer - cow showing signs of pregnancy
  • Breed characteristics - physical traits that
    differentiate one breed from another

6
Dairy Cattle Terms
  • Lactation period Amount of time a female bovine
    is milking per year.
  • Estrus
  • Time the animal is in heat.
  • Cattle release one egg during this time.
  • Comes every 21 Days.
  • Cows only stay in heat from 12 to 24 hours.
  • Gestation period 281 Days

7
Dairy Cattle Terms
  • How many cows can 1 bull breed per year?
  • 30 if done Naturally
  • More if done Artificially
  • What path does milk take from udder to shelf?

8
Dairy Cattle Terms
  • dairy character - characteristics indicating the
    animal will be useful in the dairy industry
  • butterfat - percent of fat in the milk
  • milk production - amount in pounds of milk that a
    cow produces during a lactation period

9
Dairy Breeds and Selection Terms
  • Dairy herd improvement records (DHI) production
    records kept on producing dairy cattle
  • Mammary system - parts of the cow directly
    responsible for producing and storing milk
  • Pedigree - register of lines of ancestry

10
Quiz time
11
Dairy Breeds and Selection Can you remember what
youve studied?
  • 1. What is a bull?
  • 2. What is a heifer?
  • 3. The percent of fat in the milk is called what?
  • 4. A cow showing signs of pregnancy is considered
    what?
  • 5. What is a cow?
  • 6. What is the term for the span of time that a
    cow is giving milk?
  • 7. What is the term for the amount in pounds of
    milk that a cow produces during a lactation
    period?
  • 8. What is the term that describes the time that
    the animal is in heat?
  • 9. DHI is an acronym for what?
  • 10. The parts of the cow directly responsible for
    producing and storing milk is called what?
  • 11. What is the term used for register of lines
    of ancestry?
  • 12. What is the term used for a castrated male
    dairy animal?

12
Answers take out a different color to grade
your own.
13
Dairy Breeds and Selection Can you remember what
youve studied?
  1. What is a bull? Mature male bovine able to
    reproduce
  2. What is a heifer? female dairy animal that has
    not had a calf
  3. The percent of fat in the milk is called what?
    Butterfat
  4. A cow showing signs of pregnancy is considered
    what? Springer
  5. What is a cow? Mature female bovine shows
    evidence of having produced one or more calves
  6. What is the term for the span of time that a cow
    is giving milk? Lactation period
  7. What is the term for the amount in pounds of milk
    that a cow produces during a lactation period?
    milk production
  8. What is the term that describes the time that the
    animal is in heat? Estrus
  9. DHI is an acronym for what? dairy herd
    improvement
  10. The parts of the cow directly responsible for
    producing and storing milk is called what?
    mammary system
  11. What is the term used for register of lines of
    ancestry? Pedigree
  12. What is the term used for a castrated male dairy
    animal? Steer

14
Breeds of Dairy Cattle
15
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
Holstein
  • Origin Netherlands- arrived here in mid 1600s
  • Large sized
  • Heavy milk producers
  • Black and White or Red and White color pattern
  • Annual Milk Production Average 25,000 lbs.
  • Around 2900 gallons

16
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
Jersey
  • Origin Isle of Jersey in the English Channel-
    arrived here around 1815
  • Color varies from light grey to dark fawn
  • Medium sized
  • Produces more pounds of milk per body weight than
    any other dairy breed.
  • Highest Butterfat Content of and Dairy Breed
  • Average 10,000 lbs. of milk per lactation

17
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
Guernsey
  • Origin Isle of Guernsey off the Coast of France
  • Red (Fawn) and White in color
  • Medium sized
  • Give Average of 10, 600 lbs of milk per lactation
  • Golden milk due to beta carotene

18
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
Brown Swiss
  • Origin Alp Mountains in Switzerland- arrived
    here around 1869
  • Solid brown, varying from very light to dark
  • Light colored band around the muzzle
  • Large sized
  • Average milk production of over 12,100 lbs per
    lactation

19
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
Ayrshire
  • Origin Scotland- arrived here around 1822
  • Red and white in color (amount varies)
  • Medium sized
  • Average milk production of around 11,000 lbs

20
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
Milking Shorthorn
  • Origin Northeastern England in the Valley of the
    Tees- arrived here around 1783
  • Red and white or any combination of red and white
  • Dual purpose breed
  • Split from the American Shorthorn Assoc. in 1949

21
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
Milking Devon
  • Origin Brittan
  • Red to chestnut with any addition of white
  • Multiple purpose breed
  • Milk good for cream and cheese

22
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Review
  • Jersey

23
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Review
  • Milking Shorthorn

24
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Review
  • Brown Swiss

25
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Review
  • Guernsey

26
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Review
  • Milking Devon

27
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Review
  • Ayrshire

28
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Review
  • Holstein

29
Quiz time
30
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Quiz
1
2
3
4
31
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Quiz
5
6
7
32
Answers take out a different color to grade
your own.
33
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Quiz Answers
  • 1. Brown Swiss 2. Holstein
  • 3. Milking Devon 4. Guernsey

34
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Quiz Answers
  • 5. Ayrshire 6. Milking Shorthorn
  • 7. Jersey

35
Parts of Dairy Cattle
36
Dairy Breeds and Selection Parts of a Dairy Cow
37
Dairy Breeds and Selection Parts of a Dairy Cow
Quiz
38
Dairy Breeds and Selection Parts of a Dairy Cow
Quiz Answers
15. horn 16. neck 17. heart girth 18. withers 19.
crops 20. ribs 21. chine 22. loin 23. barrel 24.
hip 25. rump 26. thurl 27. tailhead 28. pin
bones 29. Tail 30. rear udder attachment
  • 1. heel
  • 2. sole
  • 3. knee
  • 4. chest floor
  • 5. brisket
  • 6. point of elbow
  • 7. dewlap
  • 8. point of shoulder
  • 9. throat
  • 10. jaw
  • 11. muzzle
  • 12. bridge of nose
  • 13. forehead
  • 14. poll

38. pastern 39. hoof 40. teats 41. fore udder 42.
fore udder attachment 43. mammary veins 44. milk
wells
31. thigh 32. stifle 33. flank 34. rear udder 35.
hock 36. switch 37. dewclaw
39
Selection
40
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 1. Stature (measured at withers) points are
    awarded from 99 to 50 points - very tall 99 to
    very low set 50 points.

41
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 2. Chest and body (considering age and stage of
    lactation) points are awarded from 99 to 50
    points - wide chest, deep rib, long body 99 to
    extremely narrow and frail 50 points.

42
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 3. Dairy character (independent of performance)
    points are awarded from 99 to 50 points -
    extremely sharp 99 to extremely thick 50 points.

43
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 4. Foot and shape (angle) points are awarded from
    99 to 50 points - extremely steep angle 90 to
    extremely low angle 50 points.

44
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 5. Rear legs (side view) points are awarded from
    99 to 50 points - extremely sickled 99 to
    extremely posty or overextended 50 points.

45
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 6. Pelvic angle points are awarded from 99 to 50
    points - severe slope from hooks to pins 99 to
    pins clearly higher than hooks 50 points.

46
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 7. Rump width points are awarded from 99 to 50
    points - extreme width of pelvic area 99 to
    extremely narrow pelvic area 50 points.

47
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 8. Fore udder attachment points are awarded from
    99 to 50 points - extremely tight attachment 99
    to extremely broken 50 points.

48
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 9. Rear udder width (at attachment) points are
    awarded from 99 to 50 points - extremely wide 99
    to extremely narrow 50 points.

49
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 10. Rear udder height (at attachment) points are
    awarded from 99 to 50 points - extremely high 99
    to extremely low 50 points.

50
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 11. Teat placement (rear view) points are awarded
    from 99 to 50 points - base of teats extremely
    close 99 to extremely wide placement 50 points.

51
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 12. Suspensory ligament (cleft) points are
    awarded from 99 to 50 points - extreme cleft 99
    to broken 50 points.

52
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 13. Udder depth (relative to point of hock)
    points are awarded from 99 to 50 points -
    extremely shallow, udder floor well above hock 99
    to extremely deep 50 points.

53
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
  • Milk Production
    Facts
  • Breed Percent Butterfat Pounds Butterfat
    Pounds Milk Production
  • Holstein 3.66 703 19,185
  • Ayrshire 3.95 569 14,398
  • Jersey 4.75 618 13,020
  • Brown Swiss 4.03 606 15,062
  • Guernsey 4.57 611 13,363
  • Think about this?
  • 1. Which breed produced the most total pounds of
    milk? Why do think this is so?
  • 2. What breed produced the lowest total pounds of
    butterfat?
  • 3. What would you think the most popular breed of
    Dairy cattle would be judging from this data? Why?

54
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
Terms
  • balance of symmetry - proper proportions and
    blending of parts.
  • clean - free from fat
  • cow-hocked - rear legs turned so that the hocks
    are close together and feet point out when viewed
    from the rear.
  • body capacity - total amount of volume exhibited
    by a cow and indicated by a combination of depth
    of fore and rear rib, length of barrel, spring of
    rib and depth of flank.

55
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
Terms
  • quality - overall smoothness, blending of
    shoulders, and refinement of head and bone.
  • spring of rib - amount ribs arch out from the
    backbone.
  • type - combination of characteristics that make
    an animal most useful for a specific purpose.
  • sickle-hocked - rear legs too curved when viewed
    from the side.

56
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
Factors to Consider
  • General appearance - Cows with good general
    appearance are attractive, have femininity,
    vigor, stretch, scale and a harmonious blend of
    all parts.
  • Dairy character - Dairy character refers to a
    combination of characteristics that indicate a
    cows ability to convert feed into milk.
  • Characteristics include angularity, freedom from
    coarseness, and evidence of milking ability with
    udder quality.

57
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
Factors to Consider
  • Evaluate all parts of the cow when considering
    general appearance.
  • Udder - The udder should be large enough to
    produce and store milk.
  • The length, width, and depth of the udder
    determines its capacity.
  • The udder should be attached high and wide behind
    and carry well forward in front.
  • Other factors considered would be teat
    placement, size and prominence of the mammary
    veins, and number and size of milk wells.

58
Dairy Breeds and Selection Use What you have
learned
  • Which animal would be considered desirable?
  • What terms would you use to describe the
    differences?
  • Which animal shows the best general appearance?

59
Dairy Breeds and Selection Use What you have
learned
  • Which animal would be considered desirable?
  • What terms would you use to describe the
    differences?
  • Which shows more dairy character? What are the
    indicators?
  • What about the udder?

60
What is involved in a Dairy judging CDE?
  • Dairy Judging is the process of carefully
    analyzing a dairy animals individual traits and
    comparing those traits to an ideal animal or
    standard
  • Registration and Placing Cards
  • Judging the Classes
  • Taking Notes
  • Presenting Oral Reasons
  • Calculate Placing Scores
  • Possible Awards

61
Livestock Judging sample scoring
Official Placing 3 2 1 4 (cuts) 5
3 3 Your Placing 3 4 1 2
a. Compare each pair you placed to the
corresponding pair in the official placing.
Write you placing as pairs 3/4-0pts 4/1
-3pts 1/2-3pts 3/1-0pts 4/2 -3,-3pts 3/2-0pts
62
Livestock Judging sample scoring
b. Count points for pairs that do not match using
the cuts. Is the number 3 over all of the others,
if not get the point difference. c. Total
the points and subtract from 50 (which would be a
perfect score). The result is your score.
Official Placing 3 2 1 4 (cuts) 5
3 3 Your Placing 3 4 1 2
Points you missed 4/1 -3pts 1/2-3pts 4/2
-3,-3pts
Total - 12pts Score - 50 pts possible -12 pts
38
63
Dairy Breeds
  • Note Additional judging classes and information
    can be obtained from these internet sites --
    www.hoards.com, www.dairybulls.com,
    www.holsteinusa.com

64
Activity
65
Dairy Breeds and Selection Suggested Activity
  • Acquire 3 gallons (what ever is needed for the
    size of the class).
  • Milk must have the cream included.
  • 1/2 gallon of homogenized milk.
  • 1/2 gallon of 2 milk.
  • A number of small Dixie cups.
  • Small glass containers with tight lids.
  • Discuss the differences between fresh milk and
    milk from the supermarket.
  • Divide the students into pairs of teams of 3.
  • Have them separate the cream out of the fresh
    milk.
  • Taste test the three samples of milk and describe
    the differences in writing.

66
Dairy Breeds and Selection Suggested Activity
  • Place the separated cream in the glass containers
    with lids.
  • Have the students shake the cream until it turns
    to butter.
  • Note This activity could be team taught with
    the Family and Consumer Science instructor.
    Bread could be made available for sampling the
    butter. A field trip to a dairy to view the
    milking process are other possible activities.
About PowerShow.com