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Thyroid Gland

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THYROID GLAND located at _____ two important thyroid hormones (which regulate body metabolism, growth, and differentiation of tissues) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Thyroid Gland


1
Thyroid Gland
  • located at _________________________________
  • two important thyroid hormones (which regulate
    body metabolism, growth, and differentiation of
    tissues)
  • __________________________________________
  • __________________________________________

2
Hormones that affect metabolism
  • Three different glands affect metabolism
  • ____________________________________________
  • helps regulate body metabolism (glucose oxidation
    rate)
  • produces three hormones
  • triiodothyronine, thyroxine, calcitonin
  • ______________________________________________
  • produces parathyroid hormone
  • helps regulate calcium levels in blood and lower
    phosphate levels
  • _______________________________________________
  • produces growth hormones and regulatory hormones

3
Hormones That Affect Metabolism
Gland Hormone Action
Thyroid

Parathyroid
Anterior Pituitary Gland
4
Thyroid Gland
  • individuals who secrete higher levels of
    thyroxine oxidize sugars and other nutrients
    _____________
  • __________________________________________
  • When glycogen stores are filled, excess sugar is
    converted to ___________________________
  • control of thyroid hormones is accomplished by
    ____________________

5
Feedback loop...
  • receptors in hypothalamus are activated if the
    metabolic rate __________________________
  • nerve cells secrete ______ (thyroid releasing
    hormone)
  • this stimulates pituitary to release
    _________(thyroid stimulating hormone)
  • carried by blood to thyroid gland which then
    releases ___________________________which raises
    metabolism by _______________________________
  • ____________________________________by cells
  • high levels of thyroxine cause pathway to be
    turned ________________, inhibiting release of
    TRH
  • Thyroid gland also contains ______________________
    __
  • hormone acting on _________________cells to lower
    level of __________________________found in blood

6
Oh no!
  • when inadequate amounts of iodine are obtained
    from the diet, thyroid enlarges, producing a
    _________.
  • If thyroxine levels ?s, TSH ?s, and thyroid is
    stimulated more and more
  • Thyroid cells continue to develop and thyroid
    _________________

7
(No Transcript)
8
Parathyroid Glands
  • ____________________parathyroid glands hidden
    within larger thyroid gland
  • Usually nerves or other hormones regulate the
    endocrine glands with the parathyroid glands
    being the ________________________________
  • These maintain homeostasis by responding
    __________________________________in their
    immediate surroundings (low calcium levels)
  • PTH raises _______________levels in the blood
  •  PTH (parathyroid hormone) also help activate
    vitamin D. (Low levels of vit D cause rickets!)

9
Rickets and Goiters...
10
Regulation of Blood Calcium
Endocrine System Control
Feedback
calcitonin
? kidney reabsorption of Ca
Ca depositedin bones
blood calcium level(10 mg/100mL)
? Ca uptakein intestines
activated Vitamin D
? kidney reabsorption of Ca
bones release Ca
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
11
Human Growth Hormone (aka Somatotropin)
  • Too little __________
  • Too much __________
  • Released by Ant. Pit.
  • GH increases cell __________in muscle cell and
    connective tissue by promoting Protein Synthesis
    (increasing Amino Acid uptake)
  • Promotes fat burning
  • Dec. Levels of GH with age

12
HGH and Controversy...
  • Should you take it?

13
  • GH affects all body cells BUT mainly
    ____________cells
  • _____________________________bones of jaw,
    forehead, fingers and toes increase in width,
    once other bones can no longer increase in length
    (growth plates fused)
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