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Tobacco 2012-13

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Title: Tobacco 2012-13


1
Tobacco 2012-13
2
Whats in a Tobacco Product?
  • The tobacco plant has grown naturally in this
    country for centuries.
  • But tobacco products are far from natural.
  • When tobacco is processed, the leaves of the
    tobacco plant are combined with hundreds of other
    ingredients called additives.

3
Additives
  • The chemicals that help keep the tobacco moist,
    help it to burn longer and taste better.
  • One example of an additive is ammonia. Ammonia is
    also found in urine and in cleaning products.

4
Other additives
  • Burning tobacco produces smoke that contains
    thousands of chemicals. One of these chemicals is
    benzene, which is known to cause cancer.
  • Other chemicals that are produced by the burning
    smoke are tar and carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide is a gas that enters the
    bloodstream and starves your body of oxygen.

5
Tar
  • Tar is a solid, sticky substance. When tar is
    inhaled, it coats the airways and lungs, blocking
    small air sacs.
  • Chronic bronchitis, lung cancer, and other lung
    diseases can eventually result from smoking.

6
Cigarettes Effects Appear Early
  • You do not have to be a heavy or lifelong smoker
    to feel the harmful effects of cigarettes. The
    harm begins with the first puff, when nicotine
    enters the lungs.

7
Nicotine
  • a highly addictive drug that occurs naturally in
    the leaves of the tobacco plant. Some early
    effects of tobacco on your body are as follows

8
Early effects of tobacco on your body
  • Nicotine travels from the lungs into the
    bloodstream and into the brain, where the
    nicotine raises the heart rate and blood
    pressure.
  • Skin, breath, hair, and clothing will immediately
    smell of smoke. And other people usually notice
    the odor first.
  • Most people feel nauseated and dizzy when they
    begin smoking because they are not used to the
    chemicals that enter their bloodstream and brain.

9
Effects continued
  • Your senses of smell and taste usually suffer. As
    a result, foods no longer smell or taste the
    same.
  • Even light smokers report shortness of breath and
    increased coughing. Smokers are unable to run as
    long or as fast as they did before they started
    smoking.
  • Smokers are sick more frequently and stay sick
    longer.

10
Smokeless Tobacco Products
  • Tobacco products are not always smoked or burned.
  • Smokeless tobacco includes chewing tobacco and
    snuff.
  • Chewing tobacco is coarsely chopped tobacco
    leaves that contain flavorings and additives much
    like the tobacco in cigarettes.

11
Smokeless Tobacco
  • Chewing tobacco is placed in the mouth and
    chewed.
  • Nicotine enters the blood- stream through the
    lining of the mouth.
  • Chewing creates brown-stained saliva that must be
    spit out often.
  • Snuff is also put in the mouth, but it is a
    flavored powder. It is placed between the cheek
    and gum.

12
Smokeless Tobacco
  • Snuff doesnt need to be chewed for the nicotine
    to be absorbed into your body.
  • If saliva from either chewing tobacco or snuff is
    swallowed, the user can become very sick.
  • First-time users of these products often become
    nauseated and dizzy. Long-term effects include
    bad breath, yellowed teeth, and an increased risk
    of oral cancer.

13
Other Tobacco Products
  • pipe tobacco, cigars, and clove cigarettes are
    other common tobacco products that are smoked.
  • The way that tobacco in pipes and cigars is
    processed allows the nicotine to be absorbed more
    easily than the nicotine from cigarettes is.
  • Cigars can contain seven times more tar and four
    times more nicotine than cigarettes do.

14
Bidis
  • unfiltered cigarettes that are wrapped in tobacco
    leaves.
  • Bidis are flavored to make them attractive to
    teens.
  • With their high levels of nicotine, tar, and
    carbon monoxide, bidis may be more dangerous to
    your health than cigarettes are.

15
Environmental Tobacco Smoke
  • Smoke that comes from the tip of a lit cigarette
    and the smoke that is exhaled from a smokers
    mouth are called environmental tobacco smoke, or
    ETS.
  • ETS is also called secondhand smoke. People who
    are around smokers breathe second-hand smoke and
    are sometimes called passive smokers.

16
ETS
  • Are the same chemicals that are found in the
    smoke inhaled by smokers are also found in ETS?
  • Yes, sometimes in higher concentrations.
  • Therefore, it is harmful to be near a person who
    is smoking even if you are not smoking.

17
ETS
  • Until recently, smoking was allowed in most
    public places, which exposed nonsmokers to ETS.
  • More laws are now in place to protect nonsmokers.
    These laws may differ from state to state.
  • Nonsmokers who breathe ETS are at risk for the
    same health problems that smokers are. And many
    of these nonsmokers will die each year from
    smoking- related illnesses.

18
Tobacco Products, Disease, and Death
  • Many of the effects of smoking can be reversed
    after a person quits.

19
Respiratory Problems
  • Shortness of breath and coughing are common signs
    of chronic respiratory disease which affects most
    smokers.
  • A chronic disease is a disease that, once
    developed, is always present and will not go
    away.
  • Two chronic respiratory diseases are chronic
    bronchitis and emphysema.

20
Respiratory Problems
  • Respiratory Problems continued
  • Chronic bronchitis is a disease that causes the
    airways of the lungs to become irritated and
    swollen.
  • This irritation causes the person to produce a
    lot of mucus in the lungs.
  • As a result, the person coughs a lot.

21
Respiratory Problems
  • Emphysema destroys the tiny air sacs and the
    walls of the lung.
  • The holes in the air sacs cannot heal.
  • Eventually, the lung tissue dies, and the lungs
    can no longer work.

22
Respiratory Problems
  • Smoking causes most cases of chronic bronchitis
    and emphysema.
  • Death from heart failure follows.
  • Usually, the more cigarettes people smoke each
    day, the more serious the respiratory disease is.

23
Cardiovascular Disease
  • A disorder of the circulatory system.
  • This type of disorder includes high blood
    pressure, heart disease, and stroke.
  • These diseases prevent organs and limbs from
    getting the amount of blood they need.
  • Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of
    death for adults in the United States.

24
Cardiovascular Disease
  • Smoking also damages the inside lining of the
    arteries.
  • This damage allows solid material to build up
    inside the artery. Eventually, the artery becomes
    blocked.
  • When the arteries that supply oxygen to the heart
    become blocked, a heart attack results.

25
Cardiovascular Disease
  • A stroke results when the arteries that supply
    blood to the brain become blocked.
  • Blocked arteries that supply blood to limbs of
    the body can cause severe pain.
  • Sometimes, the need for an amputation, which is
    the surgical removal of an arm or leg, can result
    from blocked arteries that can no longer supply
    blood to the arms or legs.

26
Cancer
  • Smoking causes cancer.
  • Cancer is a disease in which damaged cells grow
    out of control.
  • All tobacco products contain chemicals that cause
    cancer.
  • Smoking can cause cancer of the bladder, kidneys,
    throat, mouth, and lung.

27
Lung Cancer
  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths
    among both men and women who smoke.
  • Finding lung cancer early is difficult because it
    spreads very quickly.
  • Symptoms usually don't appear until the disease
    is advanced.
  • If a smoker quits, then the risk of cancer
    decreases. But it usually does not decrease to
    the level of someone who has never smoked.

28
Mouth Cancer
  • Smokeless tobacco causes cancers of the mouth,
    head, and neck.
  • A person that uses smokeless tobacco has a higher
    risk of getting mouth cancer than a cigarette
    smoker does.
  • Sores form in the mouth of one-half to
    three-quarters of smokeless tobacco users.

29
Mouth Cancer
  • These sores may develop into cancer.
  • When the user quits, these sores can disappear.
  • The risk of oral, or mouth cancer depends on how
    long and how much smokeless tobacco was used.

30
Other Health Problems
  • The following list contains more reasons to avoid
    tobacco products.
  • Cigarette smokers catch the flu and colds more
    often. And they do not recover from them as
    quickly as nonsmokers do.
  • Smokers take longer to heal from wounds and
    surgeries than nonsmokers do.
  • All tobacco products increase the risk for gum
    and dental diseases.

31
Other Health Problems
  • Cigarette smoking has been associated with many
    eye diseases.
  • Smoking can cause premature signs of aging. Smoke
    has negative effects on certain tissues in the
    skin, which causes premature wrinkling.

32
Other Health Problems
  • Smoking is harmful to a fetus. When a pregnant
    woman smokes, she is more likely to have a
    miscarriage.
  • Babies born of mothers who smoked during
    pregnancy are often smaller and may suffer from
    health complications as well. These babies are
    also at a higher risk for sudden infant death
    syndrome, or SIDS.

33
Social and Emotional Effects of Tobacco
  • There are other consequences for smoking than
    health problems. For example, lying to family or
    friends, feeling weak about giving in to peer
    pressure, and sneaking around to avoid getting
    caught are just a few of the problems that teen
    smokers face.

34
Breaking Rules
  • Many states are writing new policies about
    tobacco use.
  • For example, it is against the law to sell
    tobacco products to anyone under the age of 18.
    New Jersey law is 19 to possess or buy.
  • Schools forbid smoking on school grounds and at
    school events.
  • Most parents have their own rules regarding
    tobacco products.

35
Social Strain
  • When the use of tobacco causes awkward or risky
    situations and creates tension among family and
    friends.
  • It is difficult for both parents and children to
    watch a loved one increase his or her chances of
    dying from a deadly disease. It is especially
    hard when that disease could have been prevented
    in the first place.
  • Social strain also arises when pressure is placed
    on people to use tobacco even if they do not want
    to.

36
Forming a Tobacco Addiction
37
Nicotine The Addictive Drug
  • Nicotine is a poisonous substance.
  • After a person puffs on a cigarette, nicotine
    goes from the lungs into the bloodstream. It only
    takes seconds for the nicotine to reach the
    brain.
  • Once in the brain, nicotine attaches to special
    structures on nerve cells.
  • These structures are called receptors.

38
Nicotine
  • When nicotine attaches to these receptors,
    chemical messages are sent throughout the body.
  • These messages cause your heart to beat faster
    and your blood pressure to rise.
  • One way the brain responds to nicotine is by
    increasing the number of nicotine receptors in
    the brain.
  • Therefore, tobacco users need more nicotine to
    fill these receptors.

39
Addiction
  • The body gradually becomes used to the nicotine
    and cannot feel normal without it.
  • This is because using nicotine causes an
    addiction.
  • Addiction is a condition in which a person can no
    longer control his or her need or desire for a
    drug.

40
Addiction
  • The more a substance is used, the more it is
    needed.
  • People who try cigarettes are more likely to
    become addicted than people who try alcohol,
    cocaine, or heroin are.

41
Tolerance, Dependence, and Withdrawal
  • Most long-time smokers smoke more cigarettes than
    beginning smokers do. This is because they have
    developed a tolerance to nicotine.
  • Tolerance is a condition in which a user needs
    more of a drug to get the same effect. So,
    long-time smokers experience smaller and smaller
    effects, even with more cigarettes.

42
Dependence
  • As tolerance develops, smokers begin to feel more
    normal when using nicotine than when not using
    it.
  • This is called physical dependence.
  • Physical dependence on a drug is when the user
    relies on the drug to feel normal.

43
Dependence
  • A person can also be psychologically dependent on
    a drug.
  • People who rely on tobacco products as an
    emotional crutch are psychologically dependent.

44
Withdrawal
  • If tobacco users have to go for a very long time
    without nicotine, they begin to feel sick,
    nervous, and irritable.
  • These symptoms are examples of withdrawal.
  • Withdrawal is the way in which the body responds
    when a dependent person stops using a drug.

45
Withdrawal
  • Withdrawal is the sign that a person has become
    physically dependent on tobacco products.
  • Withdrawal usually includes uncomfortable
    physical and psychological symptoms.
  • A major reason that it is hard for long- time
    smokers to quit smoking is the discomfort of
    withdrawal.

46
Why People Use Tobacco
  • Pressure from friends is one of the main reasons
    teens begin to smoke. Having to say no to your
    friends is very difficult to do. In this lesson,
    you will learn about different influences on
    teens and why some teens eventually give in to
    smoking.

47
Influence from Others
  • One of the most powerful forces comes from your
    peers.
  • Peers are people of about the same age as you
    with whom you interact every day.
  • Peer pressure is the feeling that you should do
    something because your friends want you to.

48
Peer Pressure
  • Influence from peers is one of the main reasons
    that teens first try cigarettes.
  • Most teens smoke because they want to be accepted
    by their peers.
  • And they want to experiment with an Adult
    activity.

49
  • Sadly, most teens do not think they will become
    addicted.
  • Nor do teenagers believe that they will have any
    serious tobacco-related health problems.
  • Studies show that most teen smokers wish they
    could quit. And quitting is just as difficult for
    adolescent smokers as it is for adult smokers.
    Because adolescents are still growing and
    developing, they can seriously hurt their bodies
    by smoking.

50
The Power of Advertising
  • Tobacco companies spend nearly 1.5 million an
    hour to advertise their products.
  • Ads often use targeted marketing.
  • Targeted marketing is advertising aimed at a
    particular group of people.
  • Teenagers, sports fans, and outdoor enthusiasts
    are especially good targets.

51
Advertising
  • The ads make the companies products and brands
    appealing to people in these groups.
  • For example, most cigarette ads show very
    attractive people doing something very exciting
    while smoking their brand of cigarettes.
  • Laws have been passed to ban tobacco advertising
    on TV, on billboards, and in certain magazines.

52
Feeling Tempted
  • Peer pressure, family members who smoke,
    advertising, TV, and movies all influence your
    attitude about smoking. The movies and TV often
    make smoking look very glamorous.
  • But remember, once people are addicted, the
    glamour of smoking quickly fades. Most smokers
    develop a nasty cough. And their clothes, hair,
    and breath smell of smoke.

53
Quitting
  • Most people who use tobacco products wish they
    didnt. Every year, about 70 percent of adult
    smokers say they want to quit. Of the 41 percent
    of all adult smokers who try to quit, only about
    4-5 percent of them are successful. By age 18,
    about two-thirds of teens who smoke say they
    regret having started smoking.

54
Its Tough to Quit
  • The younger a person is when they quit, the more
    that persons body can recover. Often, quitting
    takes several attempts.
  • Once tobacco users quit using tobacco, withdrawal
    begins.
  • They get headaches, become dizzy, have trouble
    sleeping, and get depressed. Withdrawal symptoms
    make it difficult to stay tobacco free.

55
Quitting
  • Some people crave tobacco products years after
    theyve quit. But quitting has major health
    benefits even if the person is already sick with
    a smoking-related disease.

56
Tools That Can Help
  • Some of the tools that can help people who want
    to stop smoking
  • Support groups and counseling programs can
    provide encouragement for people who want to quit
    using tobacco.
  • Nonprescription nicotine replacement therapy, or
    NRT, is a safe medicine that delivers a small
    amount of nicotine to the body.

57
NRT
  • Many withdrawal symptoms are caused by a lack of
    nicotine in the body, so NRT was developed to
    help ease the symptoms. Nonprescription NRT is
    available as nicotine gum, patches, and lozenges.

58
Tools
  • Prescription NRT can also help a person quit
    smoking. The latest prescription nicotine
    replacement therapies are nicotine inhalers and
    nicotine nasal sprays.
  • Prescription medications that block nicotines
    actions in the brain are also helping people quit
    smoking.

59
Tools
  • Sometimes, a combination of more than one method
    will work. For example, some people may use the
    nicotine patch while going to a support group.
    The nicotine patch can help with the physical
    addiction.

60
Relaxing Without Tobacco
  • Hanging out with friends and enjoying life is
    much easier with- out tobacco. Its hard to relax
    and have fun when you know that youre breaking
    the law, becoming addicted to nicotine, and
    damaging your health as well as the health of
    others around you.

61
Relaxing Without Tobacco
  • Many everyday activities, such as playing sports,
    going to the movies, or shopping at the mall
    become a hassle when youre a tobacco user.
    Smokers often worry about what they will do in
    situations in which they cant smoke. It is
    difficult to travel on trains, buses, or planes
    now that smoking has been banned on them.

62
Relaxing Without Tobacco
  • Being addicted to nicotine means that if you
    dont get your nicotine fix you dont feel right.
    And that can be quite a problem. There are many
    times when you cant light up a cigarette or take
    a dip of snuff.

63
Finding Healthy Habits
  • Many teens are first offered tobacco during
    middle and high school. Many of these teens will
    try it, get hooked, and ultimately die because of
    it.
  • Understanding the dangers of tobacco and being
    prepared to refuse tobacco are the best ways to
    ensure a healthy life.

64
Choosing Not to Use Tobacco
65
Refusing Tobacco
  • Learning to say no can be a valuable tool. Your
    response could be a simple No or no, thanks.
    Or you could reply, smoking is too
    dangerous-especially if my parents find out!
  • Whichever way you decide to handle the situation,
    dont feel that you have to explain why you
    refused or make excuses. And even if youve
    accepted tobacco in the past, you can still say
    no this time.

66
Peer Pressure
  • Positive peer pressure influences you to do
    something that benefits you. It is easier to stay
    tobacco free if none of your friends smoke.
  • If your friends try to get you to smoke, they are
    using negative peer pressure. Negative peer
    pressure can harm you if you let it.

67
A Tobacco-Free Life
  • If you have never used tobacco, dont start!
  • It is very easy to become addicted to nicotine.
    In fact, it is easier to become addicted to
    tobacco than to most other drugs.
  • Using tobacco is deadly. Smoking is the leading
    preventable cause of death in the United States.

68
A Tobacco-Free Life
  • Tobacco makes your skin, hair, breath, and
    clothing smell bad. It also makes your teeth
    yellow.
  • Tobacco in any form is expensive, and it is
    getting more expensive every day.Make a healthy
    choice to stay tobacco free. You wont regret it!
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