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Machining Process Used to Produce

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Title: Machining Process Used to Produce


1
Machining Process Used to Produce Various Shapes
  • CHAPTER 23

2
Introduction
  • Addition to producing various external or
    internal round profiles,cutting operations can
    produce many other parts with more complex shapes

FigTypical parts and shapes produced with the
machining process
3
Milling Operation
  • Highly versatile machining operation
  • Multitooth tool that produces a number of chips
    in one revolution

FigSome of the basic type milling cutters and
milling operations.
4
Example of a part produces in a CNC milling
machine
  • Fig A typical part that can be produced on a
    milling machine equipped with computer
    controls.Such parts can be made efficiently and
    respectively on computer numerical control (CNC)
    machines, without the need for refixturing or
    reclamping the part

5
Slab Milling
  • Slab milling also called as peripheral milling
  • Cutters have straight or helical teeth resulting
    in orthogonal or oblique cutting action

Fig (a) Conventional milling and climb milling
(b) Slab milling operation, showing depth of cut
, d, feed per tooth, f, chip depth of cut, tc,
and workpiece speed, v. (c) cutter travel
distance lc to reach full depth of cut.
6
Milling parameters
7
Face Milling
  • The cutter is mounted on a spindle having an axis
    of rotation perpendicular to the workpiece
    surface.

FigA face milling cutter with indexable inserts.
Fig Face milling operation showing (a) action
of an insert in face milling (b) climb milling
(c) conventional milling d)dimensions in face
milling. The width of cut, w, is not necessarily
the same as the cutter radius
8
Effects of Inserts Shapes
  • FigThe effect of insert shape on feed marks on a
    face-milled surface (a) small corner radius, (b)
    corner flat on insert, and (c) wiper consisting
    of a small radius followed by a large radius
    which leaves smoother feed marks (d) feed marks
    due to various insert shapes

9
Face milling cutter
  • FigTerminology for a face milling cutter

10
Effect of Lead Angle
  • Fig The effect of Lead angle on the undeformed
    chip thickness in face milling. Note that as the
    lead angle increases, the chip thickness
    decreases, but the length of contact (i.e. chip
    width) increases. The insert in (a) must be
    sufficiently large to accommodate the contact
    length increases

11
Cutter and Insert position in Face Milling
  • Fig (a) Relative position of the cutter and
    insert as it first engages the workpiece in face
    milling, (b) insert positions towards the end of
    cut, and (c) examples of exit angles of insert,
    showing desirable (positive or negative angle)
    and undesirable (zero angle) positions. In all
    figures, the cutter spindle is perpendicular to
    the page.

12
Cutters for different types of Milling
  • Fig Cutters for (a) Straddle Milling, (b) form
    milling, (c) slotting, and (d) slitting with a
    milling cutter.

13
Other Milling Operations and Cutters
  • Fig (a) T-slot cutting with a milling cutter.
    (b) A shell mill.

14
Arbors
  • Fig Mounting a milling cutter on an arbor for
    use on a horizontal milling machine.

15
Surface Features and Corner defects
  • Fig Surface features and corner defects in face
    milling operations

16
Horizontal and Vertical Spindle Column and Knee
type Milling Machines
Fig Schematic illustration of a
horizontal-spindle column-and-knee type milling
machine.
  • Fig Schematic illustration of a
    vertical-spindle column-and-knee type milling
    machine.

17
Bed Type Milling Machine
  • Fig Schematic illustration of a bed-type
    milling machine. Note the single vertical-spindle
    cutter and two horizontal-spindle cutters.

18
Additional Milling Machines
Fig A computer numerical control,
vertical-spindle milling machine. This machine is
one of the most versatile machine tools.
  • Fig Schematic illustration of a five-axis
    profile milling machine. Note that there are
    three principal linear and two angular movements
    of machine components.

19
Examples of parts made one Planer and by Broaching
  • Fig Typical parts that can be made on a planer.

Fig (a) Typical parts that can be made by
internal broaching. (b) Parts made by surface
broaching. Heavy lines indicate broached surfaces.
20
Broaches
  • Fig (a) Cutting action of a broach, showing
    various features. (b) Terminology for a branch.

21
Chipbreakers and a Broaching Machine
  • Fig Chipbreaker features on (a) a flat broach
    and (b) a round broach. (c) Vertical broaching
    machine.

22
Internal Broach and Turn Broach
  • Fig Terminology for a pull-type internal broach
    used for enlarging long holes.

Fig Turn broaching of a crankshaft. The
crankshaft rotates while the broaches pass
tangentially across the crankshafts bearing
surfaces.
23
Broaching Internal Splines
  • Fig Broaching in internal splines.

24
Sawing Operations
  • Fig Examples of various sawing operations.

25
Types of Saw Teeth
  • Fig (a) Terminology for saw teeth. (b) Types of
    tooth set on saw teeth, staggered to provide
    clearance for the saw blade to prevent binding
    during sawing.

26
Saw Teeth and Burs
  • Fig High-speed steel teeth welded on steel
    blade. (b) Carbide inserts brazed to blade teeth.

Fig Types of burs.
27
Spur Gear
  • Fig Nomenclature for an involute spur gear.

28
Gear Generating
  • Fig (a) Producing gear teeth on a blank by form
    cutting. (b) Schematic illustration of gear
    generating with a pinion-shaped gear cutter. (c)
    Schematic illustration of gear generating in a
    gear shaper using a pinion-shaped cutter. Note
    that the cutter reciprocates vertically. (d) Gear
    generating with rack-shaped cutter.

29
Gear Cutting with a Hob
  • Fig Schematic illustration of three views of
    gear cutting with a hob.

30
Cutting Bevel Gears
  • Fig (a) Cutting a straight bevel-gear blank
    with two cutters. (b) Cutting a spiral bevel gear
    with a single cutter.

31
Gear Grinding
  • Fig Finishing gears by grinding (a) form
    grinding with shaped grinding wheels (b)
    grinding by generating with two wheels.

32
Economics of Gear Production
  • Fig Gear Manufacturing cost as a function of
    gear quality. The numbers along the vertical
    lines indicate tolerances.

33
THE END
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