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Title: Urbanization

Growing Pains in Portland, Oregon
  • Senate Bill 100 sets guidelines for land use in
    Oregon, restricting development to urban areas
    and leaving open areas largely untouched.
  • In recent years, further measures have challenged
    Senate Bill 100, arguing that it restricts
    landowners from increasing the value of their
    property through development.

Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization
  • For the first time in history, there are now more
    urban residents than rural residents.

Land Cover and Land Use
Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization
  • Land cover Vegetation and structures that cover
  • Land use Human activities that occur on land
  • Humans change land cover, especially in urban
    areas. These changes have environmental and
    economic effects.

Urban and Rural Areas
Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization
  • Rural Any other type of land use or land cover
    (includes forests, cropland, etc.)
  • Urban Land mostly covered with buildings and
    roads (includes suburbs)

Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization
  • Occurs when people move from rural areas to
  • Cities are not new, but the enormous size of
    todays cities is. More than 20 cities have at
    least 10 million residents.

The Rise of Cities

Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization
  • Factors that contribute to the rise of
    urbanization include population growth and
  • Most cities are located near a transportation
    route such as a large body of water, railroad, or

Chicagos location on Lake Michigan helped it
grow into a large and prosperous city.
Did You Know? Since 1950, the worlds urban
population has more than quadrupled. According to
U.N. projections, it will double again by 2050.
Environmental Costs of Urbanization
Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization
  • Pollution Increased waste, industrial
    byproducts, noise pollution, light pollution
  • Heat islands Cities, several degrees warmer
    than surrounding areas, affect local weather
    and trap pollutants.
  • Imported resources Fossil fuels are burned to
    import food, water, fuel, and raw materials.

Environmental Benefits of Urbanization
Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization
  • Efficiency Less fuel and resources needed to
    distribute goods and services to residents
  • Universities and research centers Urban areas
    tend to foster education and innovation.
  • Land Preservation Dense urban centers leave room
    for agriculture, wilderness, biodiversity, and

Lesson 10.2 Sprawl
  • In 1950, 65 of the U.S. population lived in
    urban (including suburban) areas, while 35 lived
    rurally. In 2010, 89 was urban and only 11

Los Angeles, CA, is one the most sprawling U.S.
What Is Sprawl?
Lesson 10.2 Sprawl
  • The spread of low-density urban or suburban
    development outward from a dense urban core
  • Often, growth of suburban areas outpaces
    population growth because suburbs allow more
    space per person than cities.

Las Vegas, Nevada Left 1972 Right 2002
Primary Contributors to Sprawl
Lesson 10.2 Sprawl
  • Population growth
  • Increased per capita land consumption
  • On average, these two factors are equally
    important, but one may be more important than
    another in a specific city.

Patterns of Sprawl
Lesson 10.2 Sprawl
  • Uncentered commercial strip development
  • Low-density single-use residential development
  • Scattered, or leapfrog, development
  • Sparse street network

Impacts of Sprawl
Lesson 10.2 Sprawl
  • Transportation Little to no public
  • Pollution Increased driving leads to pollution.
  • Public health May promote inactivity, and by
    extension obesity and high blood pressure
  • Land Use Less land left as open space, forests,
    and farms
  • Economics Wealth tending to concentrate in
    suburbs, leaving urban areas poor

Did You Know? Every year, more than 1 million
hectares (2.5 million acres) of rural land are
converted to urban land in the United States.
Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities
  • More than 600 new urbanist communities are
    planned or in construction across North America.

City Planning and Zoning
Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities
  • City planners attempt to design cities that both
    work well and look and feel appealing.
  • Zoning Classification of land areas for
    different types of development and land use
  • An area can be mixed use or single use.
  • Involves restrictions on the use of private

Urban Growth Boundaries (UGBs)
Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities
  • A line drawn around a city to separate urban
    areas from rural areas, with limited permission
    for development
  • Advantages Saves 20 in infrastructure costs
    compared with sprawl decreases per capita land
    use promotes economic development within the
  • Disadvantages Does not completely stop sprawl
    limits rights of private landowners

Smart Growth
Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities
  • Focuses on economic and environmental approaches
    to avoiding sprawl
  • Builds up, not out
  • Maintains open spaces by redeveloping existing
    urban areas, waterfronts, and industrial sites

New Urbanism
Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities
  • Seeks to design neighborhoods that minimize the
    need to drive
  • Requires good public transportation systems
  • Sometimes impossible due to zoning restrictions

Did You Know? A 2004 study found that residents
of sprawling areas were heavier on average for
their height, and had increased instances of high
blood pressure.
Transportation Options
Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities
  • Public transportation a key factor in the quality
    of urban life
  • Buses, subways, trains more efficient, less
    polluting than cars
  • Cities encourage mass transit with fuel taxes,
    vehicle taxes, rewarding carpoolers, and
    encouraging bicycle and bus use.

Did You Know? Paris, France removed 200,000
parking spaces to encourage the use of public
transportation within the city.
Open Space
Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities
  • Provides greenery, beauty, freedom of movement,
    recreation opportunities
  • Includes parks, playgrounds, community gardens,
  • Regulates climate, produces oxygen, filters air
    and water, provides habitat

Did You Know? More than 24,000 km of abandoned
public rail line in the U.S. have been converted
to trails for walking, jogging, and biking.
Green Building Design
Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities
  • The goals of a green building are to save energy
    and resources without sacrificing peoples
  • Ashland High School near Boston, Massachusetts is
    a sophisticated green building that saves the
    school system more than 75,000 a year in energy

Urban Sustainability Successes
Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities
  • Curitiba, Brazil
  • Efficient bus network
  • Recycling and environmental education provided
  • New York City
  • Plan underway to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,
    improve public transit, plant trees, clean up
    polluted sites, and improve open space access

The tube at this Curitiba bus stop handles fare
collection for passengers boarding or exiting.
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