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Sustainable Cities


Ecocities or green cities: ... New urbanism Walkability Mixed-use and diversity Quality urban design Environmental sustainability Smart transportation New Urbanism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sustainable Cities

Sustainable Cities
  • Chapter 22

22-1 What Are the Major Population Trends in
Urban Areas?
  • Concept 22-1 Urbanization continues to increase
    steadily and the numbers and sizes of urban areas
    are growing rapidly, especially in developing

Half of the Worlds People Live in Urban Areas
  • Urbanization
  • The creation and growth of urban areas
  • Measured as the percentage of people living in an
    urban area
  • Urban growth
  • The rate of increase of urban areas
  • Natural increase (births over deaths)
  • Immigration from rural areas

Half of the Worlds People Live in Urban Areas
  • Immigration from rural areas as a result of
  • People pulled to urban areas from rural areas
  • In search of jobs, food, housing, education,
    better health care, entertainment, etc.
  • People pushed from rural areas to urban areas
  • Poverty, lack of land for growing food, declining
    agricultural jobs, war, famine, etc.

Half of the Worlds People Live in Urban Areas
  • Four major trends
  • Proportion of global population living in urban
    areas is increasing
  • 30 urban in 1950, 60 urban by 2030
  • Urban areas are expanding rapidly in number and
  • 1970 2 urban areas with population of 10
  • 2025 37 urban areas with population of 10
  • Urban growth is much slower in developed
    countries than in developing countries
  • Poverty is becoming increasingly urbanized
    mostly in developing countries
  • One billion people living in slums worldwide

Half of the Worlds People Live in Urban Areas
  • Megacities cities with 10 million or more
  • Hypercities cities with 20 million or more

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Case Study Urbanization in the United States
  • Four phases between 1800 and 2008 that led to
    urban population growing from 5 to 79
  • Migration from rural areas to large central
  • Migration from large central cities to suburbs
    and smaller cities
  • Half of all urban Americans live in suburbs
  • Migration from North and East to South and West
  • 80 of U.S. pop. growth occurred in South and
  • Migration from cities and suburbs to developed
    rural areas

Case Study Urbanization in the United States
  • 8 in 10 Americans live in urban areas.
  • About 48 of Americans live in consolidated
    metropolitan areas.

Urban Sprawl Gobbles Up the Countryside
  • Urban sprawl
  • Growth of low density development on the edges of
    cities, thus eliminating agricultural and wild
  • Contributing factors to urban sprawl in the U.S.
  • Ample land to spread out
  • Government loan guarantees stimulate growth
  • Low-cost gasoline highways encourage vehicle
  • Tax laws encouraged home ownership
  • State and local zoning laws
  • Multiple political jurisdictions poor urban

Urban Sprawl Gobbles Up the Countryside
  • As they grow and sprawl outward, urban areas
    merge to form a megalopolis.
  • Bowash runs from Boston, Massachusetts to
    Washington, D.C.

Natural Capital Degradation Urban Sprawl
22-2 What Are the Major Urban Resource and
Environmental Problems?
  • Concept 22-2 Most cities are unsustainable
    because of high levels of resource use, waste,
    pollution, and poverty.

Urbanization Has Advantages
  • Cities are centers of economic development, jobs,
    commerce, education, and transportation.
  • Urban populations are generally healthier, with
    better access to medical care, family planning
    information, education, and social services.
  • The poor do not have the same access.
  • Recycling is more feasible and environmental
    protection is better supported.
  • People concentrated in an area preserves
    biodiversity and wildlife habitats.

Urbanization Has Disadvantages
  • Huge ecological footprints, not self-sustaining
  • Urban areas are only 2 of Earths surface but
    consume 75 of the resources.

Urbanization Has Disadvantages
  • Lack vegetation
  • Water problems
  • Very high demand
  • Deprives surrounding rural areas
  • Increase flooding from storm runoff
  • Concentrate pollution and health problems
  • Pollution levels are greater b/c they cannot be
    dispersed and diluted as easily
  • CO2 and NO2 emissions from cars
  • More easily spread infectious diseases

Urbanization Has Disadvantages
  • Excessive noise
  • Noise pollution unwanted, disturbing, or
    harmful sound that impairs hearing, causes
    stress, hampers concentration/efficiency, or
    causes accidents.
  • Different climate and experience light pollution
  • Heat generated and solar energy absorbed
  • Similar to noise, too much light can be harmful

Life Is a Desperate Struggle for the Urban Poor
in Developing Countries
  • Extreme poverty forces hundreds of millions of
    people to live in slums, squatter settlements, or
    shantytowns where adequate water supplies, sewage
    disposal, and other services do not exist.
  • According to a U.N. study, in 2006 about 1
    billion people worldwide lived in these

22-3 How Does Transportation Affect Urban
Environmental Impacts?
  • Concept 22-3 A combination of plentiful land,
    inexpensive fuel, and expanding networks of
    highways in some countries has resulted in
    dispersed cities whose residents depend on motor
    vehicles for most transportation.

Cities Can Grow Outward or Upward
  • Land availability determines whether a city must
    grow vertically or if it can spread out
  • Compact cities (Hong Kong, China Tokyo, Japan)
  • Dense development, high-rise buildings, mass
  • Dispersed cities (U.S. and Canada)
  • Plentiful land, cheap gasoline, network of
    highways, dependence on cars

Cities Can Grow Outward or Upward
  • The urban sprawl of most U.S. urban areas is a
    prime example of car-centered dispersed cities.
  • With just 4.6 of the worlds population, the
    U.S. has almost one-third of the worlds cars.
  • Passenger vehicles are used for 98 of all
  • If Americans doubled their use of mass transit
    from 5 to 10, this would reduce U.S. dependence
    on oil by 40.
  • Mass transit not an option in most cities as a
    result of the dispersed nature of the growth

Motor Vehicles Have Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Advantages
  • Mobility and convenience
  • Status symbol
  • Jobs in production and repair of vehicles and
    parts, supplying fuel, building roads
  • Disadvantages
  • Largest source of outdoor air pollution
  • Accidents death and injury
  • Helped create urban sprawl
  • Traffic congestion

Reducing Automobile Use Is Not Easy, but It Can
Be Done
  • Full-cost pricing higher gasoline taxes to cover
    the harmful costs of driving
  • Tolls on roads, tunnels, and bridges into major
  • Raise parking fees
  • Car-sharing
  • Some cities are promoting alternatives to cars
  • bicycles, mass transit rail systems, buses,
    rapid-rail system between urban areas

Trade-Offs Bicycles, Advantages and
Trade-Offs Mass Transit Rail, Advantages and
Trade-Offs Buses, Advantages and Disadvantages
Trade-Offs Rapid Rail, Advantages and
22-4 How Important Is Urban Land Use Planning?
  • Concept 22-4 Urban land-use planning can help to
    reduce uncontrolled sprawl and slow the resulting
    degradation of air, water, land, biodiversity,
    and other natural resources.

Urban Land-Use Planning
  • Land-use planning
  • Encourages future urban sprawl
  • Funded by property taxes
  • Goal is economic development
  • Often environmentally destructive
  • Zoning Parcels of land are designated for
    specific uses
  • Favors high priced projects
  • Discourages innovation

Smart Growth Works
  • Smart growth can help control growth patterns
    discourage urban sprawl, reduce car dependence,
    and protect ecologically sensitive areas.

22-5 How Can Cities Become More Sustainable and
  • Concept 22-5 An ecocity allows people to choose
    walking, biking, or mass transit for most
    transportation needs recycle or reuse most of
    their wastes grow much of their food and
    protect biodiversity by preserving surrounding

Cluster Development
  • Conventional housing development
  • Bulldoze woods or farmland and build rows of
    houses on uniform sized lots
  • Cluster development
  • Houses concentrated on one portion of the land
    with the rest used for commonly shared open
  • Cheaper
  • More aesthetically pleasing
  • More open recreational space

New Urbanism is Growing
  • There is a growing movement to create mixed-use
    villages and neighborhoods within urban areas
    where people can live, work and shop close to
    their homes.
  • New urbanism
  • Walkability
  • Mixed-use and diversity
  • Quality urban design
  • Environmental sustainability
  • Smart transportation

The Ecocity ConceptCities for People Not Cars
  • Use parts of the new urbanism ideals to redesign
    entire cities. Ecocities or green cities
  • Allows people to walk, bike, or take mass transit
    for most of their travel
  • Use renewable energy resources
  • Recycle and purify water
  • Use energy and matter resources efficiently
  • Prevent pollution and reduce waste
  • Recycle, reuse and compost municipal waste
  • Protect and support biodiversity
  • Urban gardens farmers markets