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DO NOW ANSWERS

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Title: DO NOW ANSWERS


1
DO NOW ANSWERS
  • When you switch from low to high power, the field
    of view decreases which causes the brightness to
    decrease.
  • How can you fix this?
  • Adjust the diaphragm
  • The cell is the basic unit of life BUT WHAT DOES
    THAT MEAN?
  • It means that it builds ALL living things and it
    is capable of performing ALL life processes

2
Tuesday 1/13/15
  • AIM How did scientists discover cells?
  • DO NOW List as many cells as possible.
  • Homework read 152-153. reading check pg 153

3
How did we discover the cell?
  • The microscope

4
  • The Invention of the Microscope - YouTube

5
Who discovered the first microscope
  • 1590 Hans and Zacharias Janssen
  • Ground up glass and used it to magnify

6
Robert Hooke discovered cell
  • 1605-1703

7
1605 Robert Hooke
  • Looked at cork plant
  • Noticed it was separated into tiny compartments
    which resembled jail cell

8
One of the first users discovered protozoa
  • Anton von Leeuwenhoek
  • Ground up glass

9
1676 Anton von Leewenhoek
  • Discovered living things in pond water
  • Small single celled organisms
  • Ameba and paramecium

10
Matheis Schleiden 1838
  • ALL plants are made up of cells not just the cork
    plant

11
1839 Theodor Schwann
  • Looked at animal tissue and saw that animals also
    were made up of cells

12
Francisco Redi
  • Living things come from other living things
  • Maggots come from flies which lay eggs on
    decaying meat

13
1855 Rudolf virchow
  • Cells come from preexisting cells

14
The cell theory
  • An explanation or theory about living things
  • All living organisms are composed of one or more
    cells
  • The cell is the basic unit of structure and
    organization of all living organisms
  • Cells come from preexisting cells

15
Assessment
  • Explain how the microscope helped in the
    development of the cell theory
  • List in order the scientists that helped develop
    the microscope

16
  • AIM What are the different types of cells in the
    world?
  • DO NOW Create a timeline of events that led up
    to the development of the cell theory
  • HW Textbook read pages 151-153. Answer the
    reading check question on page 151 and 153. DO
    NOT FORGET TO WRITE OUT THE QUESTION AND THE
    ANSWER

17
  • In your own words, explain the definition of a
    cell
  • Basic unit of life
  • Builds all living things
  • Capable of performing all life functions
  • Can exist alone as a single celled organism or
    combine to create multi-cellular organisms

18
The Cell
19
The cell the basic unit of life
  • Prokaryote
  • Eukaryote

20
  • AIM how does the type of cell determine the
    classification of an organism?
  • DO NOW observe the two cells below. List all of
    the similarities and differences of the cells.

21
Picture B
Picture A
22
Prokaryotes
  • Prokaryote (Greek - Before Nucleus) Prokaryotes
    were first group of organic organisms to evolve
    3.8 BYA Prokaryote cells lack membrane bound
    nuclei, and organelles and reproduce asexually
  • ALL PROKARYOTES ARE SINGLE CELLED

23
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24
(No Transcript)
25
(No Transcript)
26
Asexual reproduction of Prokaryotes
  • Budding small identical bud grows and pinches
    off
  • Binary fission cell splits in two
  • Both produce genetically identical cells

27
  • AIM How are living things placed into Kingdoms?
  • DO NOW Explain the difference in the genetic
    arrangement of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
  • HOMEWORKTextbook Read pages 156-157. Answer
    questions 1,3,4 on page 161

28
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29
  • AIM How can we determine the difference between
    organisms within different Kingdoms?
  • DO NOWTHE CELL 5. Read pages 77-80. AS YOU
    READ, UNDERLINE THE MAIN POINT OF EACH PARAGRAPH.
    Answer questions1-4 pg 80.
  • HOMEWORK Textbook Read pages 156-157. What does
    the cytoskeleton do? How does DNA direct
    activity in the cytoplasm? What organelles
    participate in protein production?

30
Cell types
  • Prokaryote
  • Kingdom EuBacteria
  • Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • Eukaryote
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Plant
  • Kingdom Animal

31
Plasmid
  • Bacterial plasmids are used in genetic
    engineering
  • A human gene can be inserted into a bacterial
    plasmid in order to make the human protein
  • Ex Insulin

32
Plasmid Isolation - Extraction of plasmid from a
bacterial cell (Amrita University) - YouTube
33
Eukaryotic cells
  • Means True Nucleus
  • Plant, Animal, Protists, Fungi
  • All contain membrane bound organelles
  • Organelle tiny organ
  • Functioning parts of the cell
  • All eukaryotic cells are surrounded by an extra
    cellular matrix
  • There are 2 types we will discuss, plants and
    animal cells

34
How are prokaryotes and eukaryotes different?
  • Organization of the nucleus
  • Cell size
  • Membrane bound organelles

35
  • AIM What are some properties of organisms in
    each KINGDOM?
  • DO NOW Explain why the Monera Kingdom has been
    eliminated and what are the two new Kingdoms that
    took its place?
  • HOMEWORK HANDOUT The cell. Read pages 82-85.
    Give a brief description of the cell wall, cell
    membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm.

36
Kingdom Eubacteria
  • ALL single celled bacteria
  • heterotrophic, autotrophic, and chemotrophic
  • Prokaryote or
  • Eukaryote
  • Normal every day bacteria

37
Example of Eubacteria E.Coli
38
Streptococcus
  • Eubacteria that causes strept throat

39
  • AIM How can we determine the difference between
    organisms within different Kingdoms?
  • DO NOWTHE CELL 5. Read pages 77-80. AS YOU
    READ, UNDERLINE THE MAIN POINT OF EACH PARAGRAPH.
    Answer questions1-4 pg 80.
  • HOMEWORK Textbook Read pages 156-157. What does
    the cytoskeleton do? How does DNA direct
    activity in the cytoplasm? What organelles
    participate in protein production?

40
How do Eubacteria obtain food?
41
Feeding Behavior
  • Heterotrophs absorb organic materials down in
    both living and dead organisms.
  • Autotrophs can make their own food by
    photosynthesis.
  • Chemotrophs get their food by breaking down
    inorganic matter.

42
Cyanobacteria
  • Photosynthetic
  • Eubacteria
  • Used to be called blue-green algae

43
  • AIMHow can we determine the different
    characteristics of eukaryotes in different
    Kingdoms
  • DO NOW Explain the difference between an
    autotroph and heterotroph
  • HOMEWORK Read the rest of The Cell handout and
    answer the questions page 90 1-5

44
Is the Dead Sea Dying? - Video - TIME.com
45
Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • Prokaryotic bacteria that live in EXTREME
    environments
  • Halophiles
  • Thermophiles
  • Methanogens

46
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47
Halophiles
  • Can survive in extreme salty environments such as
    the dead sea

48
Thermophiles
  • Archaebacteria that live in extremely HOT
    environments

49
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50
Methanogens
  • Make methane gas

51
Assessment
  • Explain the similarities and differences between
    Eubacteria and Archaebacteria

52
  • AIMHow can we determine the different
    characteristics of eukaryotes iin different
    Kingdoms
  • DO NOW 1- Explain the difference between an
    autotroph and heterotroph
  • 2- you have 5 full minutes to study for the quiz
  • HOMEWORK Handout A closer look at the human
    cell. Read the first page and answer questions
    1-3,6-8 and 10 ONLY!!!!!!!

53
DO NOW ANSWER
  • Autotroph Make their own food
  • Heterotroph obtain food from other sources

54
Eukaryote
  • Multi or Single celled organisms
  • Protista
  • Parmecium
  • Ameba
  • Fungi
  • Yeast
  • Mushrooms
  • Animal
  • Plant

55
How are all eukaryotic organisms similar?
  • True nucleus
  • Membrane bound organelles

56
Kingdom Protista characteristics
  • Eukaryotes
  • Heterotrophic and Autotrophic
  • Unicellular
  • Mostly aquatic
  • Mostly asexual
  • Things like slime molds and algae, paramecium,
    ameba, euglena

57
Friday
  • AIM What are some of the characteristics of the
    different Eukaryotic organisms?
  • DO NOW 1- Review your prokaryotic notes
  • 2- Explain why plasmids are important.
  • 3-Explain how prokaryotes reproduce
  • Homework Create flashcards for each organelle of
    the prokaryote
  • Pili, flagella, capsule,cell wall, cell membrane,
    nucleoid,ribosome and plasmid

58
Kingdom Protista Paramecium
  • Oral groove ingest nutrients
  • Gullet back of the throat and digestive system
  • Cilia movement
  • Contractile vacuole able to contract and expel
    excess water
  • Food vacuole responsible for digestion

59
Paramecium Feeding!! - YouTube
  • Amoeba in motion - YouTube

60
Kingdom Protista Ameba
  • Psudopods movement
  • Phagocytosis

61
phagocytose 1 - YouTube
  • Paramecium vacuole - YouTube

62
  • AIM How are all eukaryotes similar?
  • DO NOW 1- What do yeast, wheat grass, human
    beings and paramecium ALL have in common?
  • What do ALL living things have in common?
  • Homework Quiz on Firday. Textbook page 161
    questions 4 and 5

63
DoNoW answer
  • Since they are all examples of eukaryotes, they
    all have a true nucleus and membrane bound
    organelles
  • What do ALL living things have in common?
  • They are all made up of cells
  • 2 types of cells in the world
  • Prokaryote
  • Eukaryote

64
How can we determine the difference between an
Archaebacteria and a Eubacteria?
  • Archaebacteria live in extreme environments
  • Eubacteria live in normal environments

65
For your flash cards
  • Capsule is the outermost part of the prokaryotic
    cell.
  • Release a slime that helps in movement and
    infection

66
Characteristics of the Kingdom Fungi
  • Eukaryote
  • Heterotrophic
  • Saprobes or saprophytic
  • eat dead or decaying matter
  • Unicellular and Multicellular
  • Mostly terrestrial
  • Asexual and sexual
  • Mushrooms,molds, yeasts,
  • puffballs

67
Kingdom Fungi Unicellular yeast
  • Single celled
  • Mostly asexual reproduction through budding
  • Some by binary fission
  • Used in baking and alcohol fermentation

68
Kingdom Fungi Multicellular Mushroom
  • Heterotrophic saprobes
  • Decomposer or recycler
  • Breaks down dead and decaying matter to release
    back into the environment

69
Characteristics of Plantae Kingdom
  • Eukaryote Multicellular
  • Autotrophic
  • Mostly Terrestrial
  • Asexual and Sexual
  • Nonmotile Things like mosses, ferns, conifers,
    and flowering plants

70
Autotrophic Photosynthetic
  • Autotroph self feeder
  • Make their own food through Photosynthesis

71
  • AIM How do Plants and animal cells differ?
  • DO NOW Explain the difference between a
    prokaryote and eukaryote
  • Homework Text page 161 questions 1 and 2

72
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73
Prokaryotes
  • Kingdom Eubacteria
  • Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • All prokaryotes are single celled

74
Eukaryotes
  • All have a true nucleus
  • All have membrane bound organelles

75
Kingdom Animalia
  • largest of the kingdoms in terms of its species
    diversity.
  • Eukaryote Multicellular
  • heterotrophs other feeder
  • multicellular
  • In most animals, these cells are organized into
    tissues that make up different organs and organ
    systems.

76
Assessment
  • List the similarities and differences of
    organisms in the Kingdom Fungi, Plantae and
    Animalia

77
Plant Celllist all of the parts of the plant cell
78
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79
  • AIMhow do organelles help the cell function?
  • DO NOW 1- Take out your cell handouts
  • 2-Define the term organ and the term organelle
  • 3-In your own words explain how the cell
    organelles are similar to the bodies organs.
  • HOMEWORK A closer look at the human cell
    handout, questions 1-10 should ALL be completed
    by tomorrow!!!!
  • QUIZ FRIDAY!

80
Kingdom Animalia organization
  • Cell
  • Tissue
  • Organ
  • System
  • organism

81
Review for Quiz
  • 1- You should be able to fill in the info on
    each Kingdom in the Table on the side board.
  • Lets do it!!!!
  • Any Volunteers to fill in cell types for alll 6
    Kingdoms?

82
  • Paramecium have an oral groove which takes food
    in
  • The gullet digests food to form a food vacuole
  • Food vacuole stores food until it is digested

83
Ameba
  • Uses psuedopods to perform phagocytosis

84
Contractile vacuole
  • Help single celled aquatic organisms pump out
    excess water so that they do not drown
  • All protista have contractile vacuole

85
Kingdom fungi
  • YOU MUST UNDERSTAND THAT THEY ARE SAPROBES
  • Recycle dead and decaying matter

86
For the Prokaryote cell
  • Must know each part and function

87
The Cell
  • The parts of a cell are called?
  • Organelles.
  • Organelles means little organs

88
Types of Eukaryotic Cells
  • Plant cell Animal cell

89
http//www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/04700037
90/animations/cell_structure/cell_structure.htm
90
  • AIM Why are orgranelles tiny organs of the cell?
  • DO NOW Handout 41 15-24. Label the plant and
    animal cell.
  • Homework Textbook Read pages 39-40 Cell
    Organization. For each organelle that you read
    about, list and give its function.

91
Use your colored pencils to identify the
following organelles
  • Nucleus Pink
  • Centriole Orange
  • Mitochondria Purple
  • Cytoplasm Yellow
  • Vacuole White
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Blue
  • Golgi Bodies Red
  • LysosomeBrown
  • Chloroplast green

92
DO NOW ANSWER
  • In the nucleus are chromosomes
  • Chromosomes are made up of DNA
  • Genes are a part of DNA
  • Genes hold the code for all of your physical
    characteristics
  • The double nuclear membrane protects the genetic
    material (chromosomes)

93
Tuesday 1/7/14
  • AIM How do organelles work together to make the
    cell a functioning unit?
  • DO NOW 1- what is an organelle?
  • 2- how are multicellular organisms organized?
  • Homeworktext read pages 159-161. answer
    question 4 on page 161

94
Activity
  • Use the diagram below to identify each cell part

95
Plant Cell
Central
96
Thursday 1/9/14
  • AIM How do the organelles work together to make
    the cell a functioning unit?
  • DO NOW Create a Venn diagram showing the
    organelles in animal cells, plant cells and both
    animal and plant cells
  • HOMEWORK textbook page 161 question 5.
  • ALL Questions 1-5 due tomorrow

97
Monday 1/13/14
  • AIM How do the organelles help the cell
    function?
  • DO NOW 1- where is the DNA in a eukaryotic cell?
  • 2- what is the function of DNA?
  • HOMEWORKHandout

98
Nucleus
  • The Brain of the cell Contains the Chromosomes
  • Found in the center of the cell
  • Nucleolus RNA synthesis

99
The nucleus
  • the brain of the cell
  • Controls all of the cell activities
  • Because chromosomes contain genes
  • Genes help build proteins
  • Proteins cause chemical reactions
  • Chemical Reactions control ALL life processes

100
Nuclear Membrane or Nuclear Envelope
  • Separates Chromosomes from the rest of the cell.
  • Double membrane
  • Nuclear pores

101
Chromosomes
  • Made of DNA and proteins
  • Carry genes instructions for building the body

102
The Cell Membrane
  • Surrounds the cell creating a barrier
  • Allows materials to move in and out
  • Maintain homeostasis
  • http//www.susanahalpine.com/favicon.ico

103
Cytoplasm
  • Jelly like material
  • Supports the Organelles.
  • Many chemical reactions happen here.
  • Has many molecules and ions dissolved in it

104
Mitochondria
  • Site of cellular respiration (production of
    ATP)cellular energy
  • Powerhouse of the cell

105
Mitochondria
  • Double membrane
  • Outer membrane is smooth
  • Inner membrane is folded into cristae
  • Cristae increase surface area for cellular
    respiration
  • More active a cell is, the more mitochondria it
    will have

106
Where does the energy for a cell originally come
from?
  • GLUCOSE

107
  • Which cell would have the most mitochondria and
    why?
  • Heart muscle cell
  • Stomach cell
  • Skin cell
  • Gall bladder cell
  • The more energy a cell needs the more
    mitochondria it will have

108
Chloroplast
  • Plant cell only
  • Contain Chlorophyll
  • Double membrane
  • Site of Photosynthesis ( the exact opposite of
    cellular respiration)

109
Why do the mitochondria and chloroplast have two
membrane?
  • Because they were once prokaryotes

110
The Endosymbiont Theory
  • Created by Lynn Margulus
  • States that eukaryotes evolved from a symbiotic
    relationship between two small prokaryotes that
    were ingested by a larger prokaryote

111
Wednesday 1/15/14
  • AIM How can we determine the difference between
    a plant and animal cell?
  • DO NOW 1-Explain why the nucleus is surrounded
    by a double membrane
  • HOMEWORKHandout

112
Ribosomes
  • Site of protein synthesis (use information from
    DNA to make proteins)
  • Very tiny
  • Can float free in the cell or be bound to the
    Endoplasmic reticulum

113
Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Transports materials around the cell
  • Network of passageways
  • Can be smooth(no ribosomes) or rough (ribosomes

114
  • Smooth ER makes carbohydrates and lipids
  • Rough ER holds ribosomes and makes proteins

115
Golgi Body golgi apparatus
Receive Modify Package The post Office of the
cell Makes vesicles to ship out molecules all
over the cell
  • Packages materials for export out of the cell

116
Vesicle
  • Membrane surrounding some type of molecule
  • Used to transport stuff from the GA to the rest
    of the cell
  • Can fuse with the
  • Cell membrane to
  • Release contents

117
THE ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM
  • The nuclear envelope
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • All connected through their membranes

118
THE ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM
119
(No Transcript)
120
  • How does the Golgi apparatus ship mature
    molecules to other parts of the cell?
  • ANSWER Vesicle

121
Vacuole
  • Space within the cell that can be used to store
    food, water or waste products.
  • Vacuoles are the storage compartments of the cell.

122
The cytoskeleton
  • Network of protein fibers
  • Provide structure, support, transport
  • Made up of Microfilaments, Intermediate
    filaments, microtubules
  • Plant cells microfilaments only

123
(No Transcript)
124
Cytoskeleton
125
The cytoskeleton
  • Microfilaments muscle contraction, cytoplasmic
    movement, psudopodia
  • Intermediate filaments Function to support cell
    framework
  • Mictrotubules Function to assist in movement
    within the cell
  • Create centrosome and centrioles
  • Cilia and flagella

126
Thursday 1/16/14
  • AIM How are plant cells different from animal
    cells?
  • DO NOW List the organelles that form the
    endomembrane system.
  • EXPLAIN WHY the endomembrane system is important
    to cell communication
  • HOMEWORK MIDTERM EXAM WEDNESDAY JANUARY 22 and
    THURSDAY JANUARY 23

127
Centrosome structure
Normally located outside of the nucleus When the
cell is getting ready to divide, they move to
opposite ends or poles
128
Centrioles and Spindle Fibers
  • Centrioles are anchor point for spindle fibers
  • Spindle fibers appear during cell division

129
Lysosomes
  • Contains enzymes that digest foreign particles
    and old cell parts
  • digestive enzymes surrounded by a membrane

130
lysosome
  • Break down old and damaged cell parts
  • Break down food particles into their molecular
    components

131
Friday 1/6/12
  • AIM How do plant and animal cells differ?
  • DO NOW Explain the difference between a vesicle,
    vacuole and lysosome
  • Homework Textbook page 171 question 13

132
Parts of the Plant Cell
  • Plants have organelles in them that Animal cells
    dont have.

133
Plant Cell only Central Vacuole
  • Space within the cell that can be used to store
    food, water or waste products.
  • Vacuoles are the storage compartments of the cell.

134
Central Vacuole
  • Plant Cells Only
  • Storage space for sap,food, water or waste
    products.

Vacuole
135
Cell Wall
  • Rigid structure that encloses, supports and
    protects the cells of plants, algae, fungi and
    most bacteria.

136
Cell Wall
  • Protective outer layer on plant cells
  • Adds support
  • Cell walls in plants are made of cellulose.

137
Chloroplast
  • Contain Chlorophyll
  • Site of Photosynthesis

138
Chloroplasts
  • Have 2 membranes just like the mitochondria
  • Structures found only in the plant cell.
  • Site of photosynthesis.
  • Photo Light, Synthesis To make.
  • So Photosynthesis is to make something (glucose)
    using Light!

139
Write down a part of the cell we learned that you
think is most important and describe why you
think it is most important.
  • Ask a neighbor what they thought was most
    important and why.
  • Pick ONE.
  • Why did you decide to pick that one?

140
Animal Cell
141
Parts of the Animal cell
  • Part 1 The Nucleus.
  • The nucleus is the control center of the cell.
  • It contains the chromosomes which are made of DNA.

142
Part 2 The Nuclear Membrane
  • The Nuclear Membrane surrounds the nucleus and
    keeps the Chromosomes separate from the cytoplasm.

143
Part 2 The Nuclear Membrane
144
Part 3 Chromosomes
  • Structure found in the nucleus that contains
    hereditary material.

145
Part 3 Chromosomes
146
Part 4 Centrioles
  • Cylindrical structures only found in animal cells
    that aid in replication (cell division).

147
Part 5 - Mitochondria
  • Breaks down food and releases energy.
  • Often called the powerhouse of the cell.

148
Part 6 - Cytoplasm
  • Gel-like liquid that all of the other organelles
    float around in.
  • Most of the chemical reactions that occur in the
    cell happen in the cytoplasm.

149
Part 7 Cell Membrane
  • Protective outer covering of all cells that
    regulates what goes in and out of the cell.

150
Part 9 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  • Network of folded membranes that act as a
    transport system for materials in the cell.
  • Can be Rough or Smooth.
  • Rough ER Has ribosomes attached to it.
  • Smooth ER No ribosomes attached to it.

151
Part 10 - Ribosomes
  • This organelle is used to make proteins within
    the cell.
  • Ribosomes are like the factories of the cell
    where small structures (amino acids) are put
    together to form larger structures (proteins).

152
Parts of the Plant Cell
  • Plants have organelles in them that Animal cells
    dont have.

153
Part 1 - Ribosomes
  • This organelle is used to make proteins within
    the cell.
  • Ribosomes are like the factories of the cell
    where small structures (amino acids) are put
    together to form larger structures (proteins).

154
Part 2 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  • Network of folded membranes that act as a
    transport system for materials in the cell.
  • Can be Rough or Smooth.
  • Rough ER Has ribosomes attached to it.
  • Smooth ER No ribosomes attached to it.

155
Part 4 - Nucleus
  • The nucleus is the control center of the cell.
  • It contains the chromosomes that are made of DNA.

156
Part 2 The Nuclear Membrane
  • The Nuclear Membrane surrounds the nucleus and
    keeps the Chromosomes separate from the cytoplasm.

157
Part 6 Chromosomes
  • Structure found in the nucleus that contains
    hereditary material.

158
Nuclear membrane and Chromosomes
159
Part 7 Cell Membrane
  • Protective outer covering of all cells that
    regulates what goes in and out of the cell.

160
Part 8 - Cytoplasm
  • Gel-like liquid that all of the other organelles
    float around in.
  • Most of the chemical reactions that occur in the
    cell happen in the cytoplasm.

161
Part 9 - Mitochondria
  • Breaks down food and releases energy.
  • Often called the powerhouse of the cell.

162
Part 10 Chloroplasts
  • Structures found only in the plant cell.
  • Site of photosynthesis.
  • Photo Light, Synthesis To make.
  • So Photosynthesis is to make something (glucose)
    using Light!

163
Just like complex organisms, cells are able to
survive by coordinating various activities.
Complex organisms have a variety of systems, and
cells have a variety of organelles that work to
help the cell survive. Describe the role of two
organelles. In your answer be sure to include
  • The names of two organelles and the function of
    each.
  • An explanation of how the organelle does its
    job.
  • The name of the organelle and the name of a part
    of the human body that has a similar function.
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