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Egypt: The Decline of an Empire


Egypt: The Decline of an Empire CHW3M The Late Dynastic Period 1070 BCE 332 BCE Increasing pressure from the Hittites to the North, Nubians to the South ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Egypt: The Decline of an Empire

Egypt The Decline of an Empire
  • CHW3M

The Late Dynastic Period
  • 1070 BCE 332 BCE
  • Increasing pressure from the Hittites to the
    North, Nubians to the South, Assyrians to the
  • Struggle for power among priests and nobility
  • Egyptian empire ceases to be a cohesive nation,
    instead breaks up into several more or less
    autonomous states
  • Egyptian expansion to the south and north is

The Black Pharoahs
  • Nubians begin invading Egypt around 1,000 BCE
  • Kashta (745-742 BC) invades the south, and his
    predecessor Piankhi (742-715 BC) finishes the job
    in 728 BCE, founding the Nubian dynasty (Egypts
    25th dynasty), with its capital in Napata

The Assyrians
  • The Assyrians, under Ashurbanipal, invaded Egypt
    in 667 BCE, establishing the 26th Dynasty
  • As we know, the Assyrians were masters of war,
    and so the Egyptians/Nubians didnt really stand
    a chance
  • Remember that the Persians invaded Mesopotamia
    around 530 BCE Egypt was next

The Persians
  • Persians invade Egypt in 525 BCE
  • The Egyptians constantly revolted against Persian
    rule, eventually regaining their independence
  • Thanks in large part to an alliance with the
    Athenians and Spartans
  • Independence only lasted 63 years
  • The Persians reconquer Egypt in 341 BCE

The Greeks
  • In 332 BCE, Macedonian Armies conquer Persia and
    move on to Egypt
  • Led by Alexander the Great
  • Egypt is ruled as a Greek province for almost 300
  • Greek is the official language
  • Egyptian culture is mixed with Greek culture,
    though its more like the Greeks who ruled in
    Egypt adapted to Egyptian culture, rather than
    imposing their culture on the Egyptians
  • The Greek rulers, starting with Ptolemy I in 305
    BCE, identified themselves as Pharoahs
  • They were deified as gods, built temples and
    statues in their honour, and in general behaved
    like any Egyptian pharoah

The Greeks
  • Alexandria, on the Mediterranean in the Nile
    Delta, becomes the new capital
  • All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name
  • Princesses and queens were called Cleopatra or
  • Standard practice for the Ptomlemies was for
    brothers to marry their sisters

The Romans
  • Cleopatra VII ruled with each of her two brothers
    from 51 BCE to 48 BCE
  • She took hold of power for herself in 48 BCE by
    forming alliances with the Romans
  • Julius Caesar in 48 BCE and Mark Antony in 41 BCE
  • She was the only Ptolemaic ruler to learn
  • Rome was undergoing civil wars at the time
    Julius Caesars nephew Octavian defeated Mark
    Antonys army in 31 BCE, and marched into Egypt,
    which officially became a Roman province

The Romans
  • Despite being a Roman province, Greek continues
    to be the official language of government in
  • The Romans werent all that concerned with Egypt
  • The Roman empire split into two in 395 CE, and
    Muslims from Arabia conquered the weakened Egypt
    by 642 CE
  • Greek still spoken in Egypt even after that