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Ancient Greece


Mr. Blais World Studies Ancient Greece The Polis Around 700 B.C. the polis, or city-state, became the center of Greek life. Each polis had farms, orchards, markets ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece
  • Mr. Blais
  • World Studies

The Polis
  • Around 700 B.C. the polis, or city-state, became
    the center of Greek life.
  • Each polis had farms, orchards, markets, and a
    fortified center hill called the acropolis.
  • Each city-state had its own government, culture,
    and army

Sparta and Athens
  • The two most famous city-states of ancient Greece
    were Sparta and Athens.
  • Each had completely different cultures and ways
    of living.
  • Sparta was famous for its military.
  • Athens was famous for its democracy and its
    temple on the acropolis called the Parthenon

Greek Military
  • Around 750 B.C. cheaper iron replaced began to
    replace expensive bronze which meant more and
    more people could afford to be soldiers
  • Greek armies were predominantly foot soldiers
    called hoplites
  • They stood in a close formation called a phalanx
    holding spear in one hand, shield in another,
    always overlapping their shield with the shield
    of the man next to them

The Persian Wars
  • Around 546 B.C.E the Persians conquered Ionia, on
    the western coast of Anatolia
  • This had long been settled by the Greeks and when
    the Ionia Greeks revolted Athens sent ships and
    soldiers to help them.
  • After the Persian King Darius the Great put down
    the revolt he vowed to get revenge on Athens.

  • By 490 B.C.E. the Persians sent approximately
    25,000 men to conquer Athens
  • The Greek army of about 10,000, made up of
    soldiers from various city-states, met the
    Persians on an open plain known as Marathon
  • The disciplined and heavily armored Greek army
    defeated the Persian army.
  • Then Pheidippides (a runner) was sent 26 miles to
    Athens to deliver the news of victory.
  • The Greek army also soon arrived back in Athens
    and when the Persians sailed into the city they
    saw it heavily defended and sailed home.

  • Ten years later the Xerxes, son of Darius,
    returned to Greece with an enormous invasion
    force (up to 200,000)
  • As Xerxes marched through Greece 7,000 Greeks
    from various city-states blocked his way at
    Thermopylae, a narrow mountain pass.
  • The Greeks held off the Persian advance for three
    days but when the Persians found a way around 300
    Spartans (and 1,000 Thebans) made one last stand
    to hold the pass.
  • Their bravery inspired Greeks everywhere.

  • After the defeat at Thermopylae the Athenians
    abandoned their city and positioned their fleet
    in a narrow channel near the island of Salamis
  • When the Persians tried to block the channel the
    Athenian navy attacked and sunk a third of the
    Persian fleet.
  • With this major defeat the Persians were forced
    to retreat and would never again threaten Greece.

The Delian League
  • After the Persian Wars many Greek city-states
    formed a military alliance
  • Over the next few decades the League continued to
    push the Persians out of surrounding Greek
  • Then by the 470s Athens had emerged as the head
    of the Delian League, built an empire of their
    own, and entered a new Golden Age.

Art, Architecture, and Theater
  • Greek art and architecture aimed to create pieces
    that displayed ideal beauty, order, balance, and
    perfection in form.
  • Modern theater was developed by the Ancient
  • They wrote and performed both comedies and
    tragedies in some of the most sophisticated
    amphitheaters ever made.

Math, Science, and Philosophy
  • Ancient Greece was home to some of histories
    greatest thinkers called Philosophers or lovers
    of wisdom.
  • These philosophers explored social problems
    through rational thought and reasoning skills.
  • Ancient Greeks also made advances in math and
    science such as
  • The scientific method
  • Pythagorean Theorem
  • Hippocratic Oath

The Peloponnesian War
  • As Athens grew in wealth and power many other
    city-states began to view it with growing
    hostility, particularly Sparta.
  • In 431 B.C.E. Sparta declared war on Athens
  • Athens had a stronger navy and Sparta had a
    stronger army.
  • Pericles avoided land battles and barricaded
    himself and his people behind the walls of Athens.

Ending the Peloponnesian War
  • After a plague hit Athens the two cities sued for
    peace in 421 B.C.E.
  • Peace didnt last long and in 415 B.C.E. Athens
    launched a major offensive against the city of
    Syracuse in Sicily (A powerful ally of Sparta)
  • The invasion was a complete disaster and Athens
    lost all its men and ships.
  • Athens managed to defend their city for nine more
    years but they were ultimately defeated by Sparta
    in 404 B.C.E.

City-States Fall
  • After the Peloponnesian War many city-states lost
    any sense of community they once had.
  • The 30 years of war had bankrupted many
    city-states and animosity between upper and lower
    classes was beginning to grow.
  • This distrust and complete disunity made Greece
    an easy target for ambitious conquerors.

Macedonian Conquest
  • Macedonia was a small kingdom located just north
    of Greece.
  • Many of its rulers defended from Greeks and
    admired their culture.
  • King Philip II of Macedon felt it was his destiny
    to unify Greece and spread its culture
  • He spent his 20 year reign slowly conquering

Spreading Greek Culture
  • Through the use of flattery, bribery, political
    alliances, trickery, and force Philip II
    controlled all of Greece by 338 B.C.E.
  • Upon his death in 336 B.C.E. his son Alexander
    took over as King.
  • He would soon march his armies east to conqueror
    the vast Persian Empire in 13 years, spreading
    Greek tradition and culture along the way.