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INFLAMMATION

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... actinomycosis Viral as granuloma inguinale 2. Non-infective granuloma: As silicosis, asbestosis and foreign-body granuloma. 3. Unknown cause: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INFLAMMATION


1
  • INFLAMMATION

2
Cellulitis
  • Definition Acute diffuse suppurative
    inflammation.
  • Cause Streptococcus haemolyticus. The organism
    produces two enzymes (1) Fibrinolysin
    (streptokinase) Dissolves fibrin. (2)
    Hyaluronidase (spreading factor) Dissolves
    hyaluronic acid of ground substance helping
    spread of bacteria and its toxins.

3
  • Sites Loose connective tissue as subcutaneous
    tissue, scrotum, orbit and wall of the appendix.
  • Characters
  • Failure of localization because of absence of
    fibrin.
  • Extensive necrosis.
  • Pus is thin in consistency and may contain many
    RBCs i.e. sanguinous.
  • Complications
  • Acute lymphangitis and lymphadenitis.
  • Septic thrombophlebitis causing pyaemic
    abscesses.
  • Septicaemia.

4
II. NON-SUPPURATIVE INFLAMMATION
  • 1. Catarrhal Inflammation Mild acute
    inflammation of the mucous membranes of the
    respiratory and GIT characterized by excess mucus
    secretion. e.g. catarrhal rhinitis (common cold),
    bronchitis, ... etc.

5
  • 2. Membranous Inflammation (Pseudomembranous)
  • Severe acute inflammation characterized by the
    formation of a pseudomembrane on the affected
    surface formed of necrotic cells, fibrin threads,
    leucocytes. e.g. diphtheria and bacillary
    dysentery.

6
  • 3. Fibrinous Inflammation Characterized by an
    exudate rich in fibrinogen e.g. lobar pneumonia.
  • 4. Serofibrinous Inflammation It involves
    serous sacs as pleura, peritoneum and
    pericardium. Characterized by excess serous
    exudates in the sac and deposition of fibrin on
    the surface.

7
Serofibrinous Inflammation
8
  • 5. Hemorrhagic InflammationCharacterized by
    cellular exudate rich in the red blood cells due
    to vascular damage e.g. smallpox.

9
  • 6. Allergic Inflammation
  • as urticaria. It is an antigen antibody
    reaction characterized by abundant fluid exudates
    and eosinophils.

10
CHRONIC INFLAMMATION
11
  • Chronic inflammation is characterized by the
    following 1.The irritant is mild and has a
    prolonged action. 2. The tissue response is
    gradual and prolonged. 3. Chronic inflammation
    may follow acute inflammation or starts as slowly
    progressing chronic disease as in tuberculosis
    and syphilis.

12
  • 4. Histopathologically it shows
  • End arteritis obliterans (E.A.O) of small
    arteries.
  • Chronic inflammatory cells include lymphocytes,
    plasma cells, macrophages.
  • Fibrosis which is the surest sign of chronicity.

13
Fibrosis
  • E.A.O

14
Types of Chronic inflammation
  • 1. Chronic non-specific inflammation Different
    irritants produce inflammatory reactions of the
    same non-specific microscopic picture of chronic
    inflammation e.g. chronic non-specific
    cholecystitis.
  • 2. Chronic specific inflammation
  • Each irritant or organism produces a
    characteristic microscopic picture called
    granuloma e.g. tuberculosis, bilharziasis and
    leprosy

15
Granuloma
  • Definition
  • Chronic specific inflammation forming a tumor
    like mass grossly and characterized
    microscopically by focal accumulation of large
    number of chronic inflammatory cells.

16
Pulmonary Tuberculosis
17
  • Types
  • 1. Infective granuloma
  • Bacterial as TB, leprosy syphilis
  • Parasitic as bilharziasis leishmaniasis
  • Mycotic (fungus) as madura foot, actinomycosis
  • Viral as granuloma inguinale
  • 2. Non-infective granuloma
  • As silicosis, asbestosis and foreign-body
    granuloma.
  • 3. Unknown cause
  • Sarcoidosis, crohns disease

18
Histopathology of granuloma
  • Macrophages main bulk of granuloma, made of
    tissue histiocytes and blood monocytes.
  • Other inflammatory cells as lymphocytes, plasma
    cells, eosinophils.
  • Granulation tissue.
  • Fibrous tissue.
  • Specific organism or foreign body.

19
Foreign body granuloma to suture material (nylon,
silk) contains multinucleated giant cells, with
haphazardly arranged nuclei. These giant cells
are fused macrophages. The foreign body is
birefringent, and sometimes may be visible by
polarized light in the middle of the granuloma or
inside the giant cells.
20
Schistosomiasis
21
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