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INTRODUCTION%20TO%20PSYCHOLOGY

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Title: INTRODUCTION%20TO%20PSYCHOLOGY


1
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
  • MIDTERM REVIEW
  • Chapters 1-6

2
Chapter 1Foundations
  • What is psychology?
  • Psychology is the scientific study of our
    thoughts, feelings and behaviors
  • What is an approach or perspective in
    psychology?
  • An approach or perspective in psychology is a
    particular view as to why, and how, it is we
    think, feel, and behave as we do

3
Chapter 1Foundations
  • What is Behavioral Psychology?
  • Behavioral Psychology is basically interested in
    how our behavior results from the stimuli both in
    the environment and within ourselves.
  • Who are the most known Behavioral Psychologists?
  • Pavlov, Thorndike, Skinner, Watson

4
Chapter 1Foundations
  • What is Biological Perspective?
  • The biological approach believes us to be as a
    consequence of our genetics and physiology. It is
    the only approach in psychology that examines
    thoughts, feelings, and behaviors from a physical
    point of view.

5
Chapter 1Foundations
  • What is Evolutionary Psychology?
  • Evolutionary psychology focus on how evolution
    has shaped the mind and behavior
  • What is Developmental Psychology?
  • Developmental psychology, also known as Human
    Development, is the scientific study of
    progressive psychological changes that occur in
    human beings as they age.

6
Chapter 1Foundations
  • What is Psychodynamic Approach?
  • Sigmund Freud was the founder of the
    psychodynamic approach to psychology. This school
    of thought emphasized the influence of the
    unconscious mind on behavior.
  • What is Cognitive Approach?
  • Focus on our information processes of perception,
    attention, language, memory, and thinking, and
    how they influence our thoughts, feelings and
    behaviors.

7
Chapter 1Scientific Research
  • What is the aim of the psychological studies?
  • The goals of psychological studies are to
    describe, explain, predict, and perhaps influence
    mental processes or behavior.
  • What is a scientific research?
  • The scientific method is a set of principles and
    procedures that are used by researchers to
    develop questions, collect data, and reach
    conclusions.

8
Chapter 1Scientific Research
  • How are research methods in psychology are
    divided?
  • Research methods that are experimental in design
    include the laboratory, field and
    quasi-experiment. Non-experimental methods
    include the observational, survey, interview and
    case study methods.

9
Chapter 1Scientific Research
  • What is a naturalistic observation method?
  • It means, observing behavior in their natural
    environment.

10
Chapter 1Scientific Research
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of
    naturalistic observation method?
  • Advantages
  • high degree of realism because are in natural
    environments, data on large number of variables
    can be collected at the same time, researcher
    doesn't have as great an impact on the study as
    he/she may in other strategies
  • Disadvantages
  • variables not manipulated by the researcher,
    unable to infer causality, measurement of
    variables less precise than in laboratory

11
Chapter 1Scientific Research
  • What is a correlational study?
  • Correlation means relationship, so the purpose of
    a correlational study is to determine if a
    relationship exists, what direction the
    relationship is, and how strong it is. It can not
    make any assumptions of cause and effect (no
    causation).

12
Chapter 1Scientific Research
  • What are the possible results of correlational
    study?
  • There are three possible results of a
    correlational study
  • a positive correlation Both variables increase
    or decrease at the same time (exmore eating more
    weight)
  • a negative correlation Indicates that as the
    amount of one variable increases, the other
    decreases (and vice versa) (ex more smoking,
    less healthy)
  • no correlation Indicates no relationship
    between the two variables.(ex more study,more
    tall you get)

13
Chapter 1Scientific Research
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of
    correlational study?
  • Advantages
  • shows if two or more variables are related
  • allows general predictions
  • used both in natural and laboratory settings
  • Disadvantages
  • Does not permit identification of cause and
    effect

14
Chapter 1Scientific Research
  • What is an experimental study?
  • In an experiment, a researcher manipulates or
    changes a particular variable under controlled
    conditions while observing resulting changes in
    another variable or variables.

15
Chapter 1Scientific Research
  • What is a dependant and independant variable?
  • Independent Variable (IV) the variable that is
    manipulated by the experimenter (input
    variable)-effects the experimenter wishes to
    examine.
  • Dependent Variable (DV) the outcome variable
    (results of the experiment)-experimenter wants to
    find out if this variable depends on some other
    factor.

16
Chapter 1Scientific Research
  • How many groups are there in experimental
    studies?
  • The control group made up of individuals who are
    randomly assigned to a group but do not receive
    the treatment. The measures takes from the
    control group are then compared to those in the
    experimental group to determine if the treatment
    had an effect.
  • The experimental group made up of individuals
    who are randomly assigned to the group and then
    receive the treatment. The scores of these
    participants are compared to those in the control
    group to determine if the treatment had an effect.

17
Chapter 1Scientific Research
  • How are the experimental studies carried out?
  • The researcher manipulates the independent
    variable and observes the dependent variable. The
    dependent variable may be affected by changes in
    the independent variable. In other words, the
    dependent variable depends (or is thought to
    depend) on the independent variable.

18
Chapter 1Scientific Research
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of
    experimental studies?
  • Advantages
  • allows researcher to control the situation
  • Permits researcher to identify cause and effect
  • Disadvantages
  • situation is artificial and can not be always
    generalised to the real world
  • sometimes difficult to avoid experimenter effects

19
Chapter 2Evolution and the Biological Roots of
Behavior
  • What is Darwins theory of evolution?
  • Certain differences among individuals are
    adaptive. The individuals who possess the
    adaptive characteristics are more likely to
    survive and reproduce in the environment into
    which they are born. Some adaptive differences
    among individuals are inherited.

20
Chapter 2Evolution and the Biological Roots of
Behavior
  • What is Darwins theory of evolution? Contd...
  • The environment does not contain enough
    resources to support all individuals.
  • A struggle for existence occurs among
    individuals those who possess the most adaptive
    characteristics, by definition, win the struggle.
  • Individuals who survive and reproduce pass on
    their adaptive characteristics to their
    offspring, who are more inclined to inherit these
    adaptive traits than the offspring of parents who
    do not possess them.

21
Chapter 2Evolution and the Biological Roots of
Behavior
  • What is a set point?
  • a weight the body tries to maintain (the target)
  • What are the Built-in systems (organs) for
    regulating food intake?
  • Liver
  • Hypothalamus
  • Stomach and Duodenum
  • Adipose Tissue

22
Chapter 2Evolution and the Biological Roots of
Behavior
  • Why are there so many organs for regulating food
    in take?
  • Safety provided by backup systems
  • If one system fails, the organism is still
    protected
  • Different signals monitor different aspects of
    our nutritional needs
  • Leptin-longer term needs
  • Others (cues from stomach)-hour-by-hour energy
    requirement variations

23
Chapter 2Evolution and the Biological Roots of
Behavior
  • What are the parts of our nervous system,
    explain...
  • Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • The brain and spinal cord
  • Peripheric Nervous System (PNS)
  • System of nerves outside of the brain and spinal
    cord
  • Send control to the glands and smooth muscles
  • Controls internal organs, usually not under
    voluntary control

24
Chapter 2Evolution and the Biological Roots of
Behavior
  • What are the parts of autonomic nervous system?
    Explain...
  • Sympathetic Triggered when body temperature is
    too low. Revives up body activity to prepare for
    rigorous activity. Increased heart rate, slowing
    down of peristalsis for not using energy during
    digestion Vasoconstriction (Contraction of skins
    capillaries)
  • Parasympathetic Triggered when bodys
    temperature is too high. Restored bodys internal
    activities, Cardio slowing, speeds up
    peristalsis, vasolidation (Widening of skins
    capillaries)

25
Chapter 2Evolution and the Biological Roots of
Behavior
  • What kind of internal adjustments happen when we
    feel threathened?
  • Sympathetic branch of ANS activated
  • Prepares body for immediate, intense activity.
    Surge of adrenaline released

26
Chapter 2Evolution and the Biological Roots of
Behavior
  • What is the difference between male and female
    aggression?
  • The male is the far more aggressive sex. This
    gender difference holds only for physical
    aggression. Testosterone (the male sex hormone)
    is associated with physical aggressiveness in
    many species. Males use physical aggression
    (pushing and punching). Females use social
    aggression (spreading gossip and rumors,
    isolating unwanted friends).

27
Chapter 2Evolution and the Biological Roots of
Behavior
  • What is territoriality?
  • Acquisition and protection of resources, usually
    territory source of most aggression. Often
    expressed in humans as personal space
    preferences. Vary by culture much is learned

28
Chapter 2Evolution and the Biological Roots of
Behavior
  • How do we learn to be aggressive?
  • Explicit learning someone demands or teaches us
  • Implicit we observe
  • Seems to be causal when we observe violence, we
    become violent

29
Chapter 3The Brain and the Nervous System
  • How is the nervous system studied?
  • Clinical observation
  • Observing the change in behavior after a brain
    damage
  • Neuropsychology
  • what happens to behavior when brain structures
    are damaged
  • Experimental techniques
  • Lesioning brain structures, observing
    consequences
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation temporary loss
    of brain function in isolated areas near surface
    of brain (just under scalp)

30
Chapter 3The Brain and the Nervous System
  • What are neuroimaging techniques used for?
  • To examine structures and functioning of brain
  • What are the types of neuroimaging techniques?
  • CE, MRI, fMRI, EEG

31
Chapter 3The Brain and the Nervous System
  • What is a CT technique?
  • Images created from multiple x-ray images of
    brain. It only shows structure.
  • What are functional neuroimaging techniques?
  • fMRI and EEG

32
Chapter 3The Brain and the Nervous System
  • What are the names and functions of lobes of the
    Cortex?
  • Frontal Lobes receive and coordinate messages
    from other lobes as well as motor control, speech
    and higher functions
  • Parietal Lobes receives information about
    pressure, pain, touch and temperature
  • Temporal Lobes hearing, language comprehension,
    memory and some emotional control
  • Occipital Lobes vision and visual perception

33
Chapter 3The Brain and the Nervous System
  • What is Corpus Collosum?
  • The Cerebral Cortex is divided into two
    hemispheres (left and right) connected by the
    Corpus Collosum
  • What are the functions of left and right brain
    (Lateralization)?
  • Left Brain Language Functions (speaking,
    reading, writing, and understanding language),
    analytical Functions (mathematics, physical
    sciences), right-hand touch
  • Right Brain Non-verbal abilities (music, art,
    perceptual and spatial manipulation, facial
    recognition), some language comprehension,
    left-hand touch

34
Chapter 3The Brain and the Nervous System
  • What is Brocas and Wernickes area?
  • Brocas Area
  • an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the
    muscle movements involved in speech (speech
    production)
  • Wernickes Area
  • an area of the left temporal lobe involved in
    language comprehension and expression (speech
    comprehension)

35
Chapter 3The Brain and the Nervous System
  • What is apraxia?
  • inability to initiate or carry out learned
    complex (2 steps) motor action
  • What is agnosia?
  • inability to identify familiar objects (persons,
    sounds, shapes or smells) using the affected
    sense

36
Chapter 3The Brain and the Nervous System
  • What is brain plasticity?
  • Plasticity means Subject to alteration.
    Historically, nervous system deemed NOT plastic.
    New evidenceshows that neurons can change, form
    new connections with other neurons, even can take
    the place of the damaged cells in the brain. As a
    result, the brain itself can entirely change.

37
Chapter 5 Perception
  • What are the dimensions on our retinal image?
  • Width and height
  • What makes us see objects as three-dimensional?
  • Depth perception Ability to see
    three-dimensional space and to accurately judge
    distances

38
Chapter 5 Perception
  • What are the types of depth cues?
  • Binocular (two eyes)
  • Monocular(one eye)
  • What is binocular disparity?
  • We compare the retinal image in one eye to the
    retinal image in the other they differ each
    eye is a slightly different distance from an
    object in the world. The disparity between the
    views serves as a powerful cue for depth

39
Chapter 5 Perception
  • What are Monocular cues?
  • Interposition When one object partly blocks your
    view of another, you perceive the partially
    blocked object as farther away
  • Linear Perspective Parallel lines that are known
    to be the same distance apart appear to grow
    closer together, or converge, as they recede into
    the distance
  • Texture Gradients The texture of objects tend to
    become smoother as the object gets farther away,
    suggesting that more detailed textured objects
    are closer. 
  • Relative size Larger objects are perceived as
    being closer to the viewer, and smaller objects
    as being farther away
  • Light and shadow the location of the shadow
  • Motion parallax relative velocity of objects
    moving across the retina of a moving person

40
Chapter 5 Perception
  • What is size constancy?
  • Refers to our ability to see objects as
    maintaining the same size even when our distance
    from them makes things appear larger or smaller. 
  • What is shape constancy?
  • Perceiving objects as having a stable or
    unchanging shape regardless of changes in the
    retinal image resulting from differences in
    viewing angle

41
Chapter 5 Perception
  • What is apparent motion?
  • When intervals between images occur at correct
    timing (not too far apart in time) we perceive
    motion

42
Chapter 5 Perception
  • What is Gestalt Psychology?
  • The German word "Gestalt" roughly means to
    "whole" or "form" . According to Gestalt
    psychologists, The whole is greater than the sum
    of its parts.  It means, in order to interpret
    what we receive through our senses, we attempt to
    organize this information into certain
    groups. Therefore, sense of shape is derived
    from the whole, not the sum of its parts

43
Chapter 5 Perception
  • What are Gestalt principles of organization?
  • Issues of figure/ground we seem to have an
    innate tendency to pereive one aspect of an event
    as the figure or fore-ground and the other as the
    ground or back-ground.
  • Similarity we will tend to group similar items
    together.
  • Proximity Things that are close together as seen
    as belonging together
  • Good continuation We tend to perceive things in
    good form
  • Closure if something is missing in an otherwise
    complete figure, we will tend to add it
  • subjective contours

44
Chapter 5 Perception
  • What does classical approach to perception tells
    about the role of the perceiver?
  • In classical approach to perception emphasis is
    on the active, constructive role of the
    perceiver, who routinely
  • Resolves ambiguous figures
  • Determines identity of objects based on
    contextual clues and previous knowledge
  • Determines identity of objects based on
    contextual clues

45
Chapter 5 Perception
  • How do illusions happen?
  • Cues sometimes cause an over-estimate or
    under-estimate slight over/under interpretations
    can cause us to misinterpret the information we
    receive

46
Chapter 6 Learning
  • What is learning?
  • Learning is a relatively permanent change in an
    organisms behavior due to past experience
  • What is habituation?
  • Decline of organisms response to stimulus once
    that stimulus becomes familiar simply getting
    used to... Organism does not learn anything new
    from that event

47
Chapter 6 Learning
  • What is classical conditoning?
  • Organism comes to associate two stimuli a
    neutral one and one that already causes a
    reflexive response

48
Chapter 6 Learning
  • What is unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned
    response?
  • Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
  • stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and
    naturally--triggers a response
  • Unconditioned Response (UR)
  • unlearned, naturally occurring response to the
    unconditioned stimulus

49
Chapter 6 Learning
  • What is conditioned stimulus and conditioned
    response?
  • Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
  • originally irrelevant and neutral stimulus that,
    after association with an unconditioned stimulus,
    comes to trigger a conditioned response
  • Conditioned Response (CR)
  • learned response to a previously neutral
    conditioned stimulus

50
Chapter 6 Learning
  • In Pavlovs experiment what is US, UR, CS and CR?
  • US food
  • UR salivation
  • CS bell
  • CR salivation

51
Chapter 6 Learning
  • What is extinction?
  • The dying out of a conditioned response.
    Conditioned Response will gradually disappear if
    the CS is repeteadly presented by itself without
    the Unconditioned Stimulus
  • What is spontaneous recovery?
  • Extinction does not work by erasing the
    original learning. The animal keeps some memories
    of the learning, therefore extinction can be
    undone

52
Chapter 6 Learning
  • What is generalization?
  • CS that resemble each other (even if never paired
    with the US) can elicit the CR
  • What is discrimination?
  • Ability to make fine discriminations of what will
    and what wont elicit the CR

53
Chapter 6 Learning
  • What is the role of surprise in learning?
  • Surprise plays a key role in conditioning.
    Learning occurs only when events are not in line
    with our expectations. Otherwise we dont need to
    learn anything new about the environment.

54
Chapter 6 Learning
  • What is instrumental conditioning?
  • Many of our behaviors are voluntary, initiated
    and controlled by the organism itself. Subjects
    behavior determines an outcome and is
    subsequently impacted by that outcome

55
Chapter 6 Learning
  • What is the difference between classical
    conditioning plus habituation and instrumental
    conditioning?
  • Neither habituation nor classical conditioning
    teaches the organism a new response.
  • You just learn to associate an existing response
    (salivating) with a new stimulus (the bell) and
    create reflexes. Key difference from Classical
    Conditioning subjects behavior determines an
    outcome and is subsequently impacted by that
    outcome

56
Chapter 6 Learning
  • Who found Law of Effect, explain...
  • Thorndikes principle that behaviors followed by
    favorable consequences become more likely, and
    behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences
    become less likely. In instrumental conditioning
    the animal or person must produce some behavior
    to get a reward or avoid a punishment. If a
    particular voluntary response is followed by a
    reward, that response will be strengthened (the
    response comes from within).

57
Chapter 6 Learning
  • What is a reinforcer and what are the types of
    reincorcer?
  • Any event that strengthens the behavior it
    follows
  • Positive its exisitence helps to create the
    desired behavior (food, drink etc)
  • Negative its non-existence helps to create the
    desired behavior (loud noise, electric shock etc)

58
Chapter 6 Learning
  • What was Tolmans contribution to instrumental
    conditioning?
  • Tolman demonstrated latent learning (Learning
    that occurs, but is not apparent until there is
    an incentive to demonstrate it) using an operant
    conditioning paradigm
  • Rats explored a maze with no reward
  • Later, under conditions of reward could
    demonstrate formation of a cognitive map
    (mental representation of the layout of ones
    environment)
  • Indicated that learning had taken place, not
    mere conditioning

59
Chapter 6 Learning
  • What is learned helplessness? and how does it
    show itself in depression?
  • Control over environment lessens
    stress/distress sense of futility, or lack of
    control, increases stress/distress. In
    depression, patient was once in a state where she
    was really helpless, and therefore, believes that
    there is no contingency between acts and
    outcomes, and so no point in trying.

60
Chapter 6 Learning
  • Make a brief comparison of classical conditioning
    and instrumental conditioning
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