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Title: Splash Screen


1
Splash Screen
2
Contents
CHAPTER FOCUS SECTION 1 Islam SECTION 2 The
Arab Empire SECTION 3 Arab Contributions CHAPTER
SUMMARY STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
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3
Chapter Focus 1
Overview
  • Chapter 22 discusses the rise of Islam and its
    central role in the creation of the Arab Empire.
    ?
  • Section 1 describes the rise of Islam. ?
  • Section 2 discusses the formation of the Arab
    Empire and the spread of Islam. ?
  • Section 3 describes the Arab contributions to
    world civilizations.

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Chapter Focus 2
Objectives
After studying this chapter, you will be able to
  • explain the teachings of Muhammad. ?
  • discuss the religious beliefs held by Muslims. ?
  • describe how Islam spread beyond the Arabian
    Peninsula. ?
  • describe Arab contributions to science,
    mathematics, medicine, and the arts.

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5
Chapter Focus 2
Read to Discover
  • How Islam developed around the teachings of
    Muhammad ?
  • What religious beliefs are held by Muslims ?
  • How Islam spread beyond the Arabian Peninsula ?
  • What early Islamic life was like ?
  • What the Arab Empire contributed to science,
    mathematics, medicine, and the arts

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page 331 of your textbook.
6
Chapter Focus 3
Terms to Learn
People to Know
  • pillars of faith ?
  • Muhammad ?
  • mosque ?
  • imam ?
  • hajj ?
  • alchemists ?
  • al-Idrisi ?
  • al-Razi ?
  • Omar Khayyám ?
  • Ibn Khaldun ?

Places to Locate
  • Makkah ?
  • Madina (Yathrib) ?
  • Damascus ?
  • Baghdad

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Chapter Focus 4
Why Its Important
Between the northeast coast of Africa and central
Asia lies the Arabian Peninsula. The people who
live there are known as Arabs. At one time, most
were Bedouins. They were herders who roamed the
desert in search of grass and water for their
camels, goats, and sheep. They lived in tents
woven from camel or goat hair. Bedouin warriors
during the 600s raided other peoples and fought
one another over pastures and springs. They
valued their camels and swords above all else.
They enjoyed poetry and music. They believed in
many gods. In the 600s, a religion called Islam
began in the mountainous area of western Arabia
known as the Hejaz. Within 100 years, an Arab
empire based on Islamic beliefs had developed. It
controlled an area larger than that of the Roman
Empire.
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End of Chapter Focus
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Section 1-1
Islam
  • Islam is an Arabic word that means the act of
    submitting, or giving oneself over, to the will
    of God. ?
  • An Arab merchant named Muhammad, who came to be
    known as the prophet of Allah, founded the
    Islamic faith. ?
  • Islam shook the foundations of Byzantium and
    Persia, the two most powerful civilizations of
    the time.

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Section 1-2
Makkah (Mecca)
  • By the middle of the 500s, the three major towns
    of Yathrib, Ta if, and Makkah had developed in
    the Hejaz. ?
  • Arab pilgrims, or travelers to a religious
    shrine, came there to worship in Arabias holiest
    shrine, the Kabah.

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Section 1-3
Muhammad
  • In 570, Muhammad was born to a widow of a
    respectable clan in Makkah. ?
  • The drinking, gambling, and corruption in Makkah
    troubled Muhammad, so he spent much time alone in
    a cave outside the city, thinking and fasting. ?
  • Muhammad concluded that there was only one God,
    Allah, the same god as the God of the Jews and
    the Christians. ?
  • The rich leaders of Makkah began to feel
    threatened and, as a result, started persecuting
    Muhammad and his followers.

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Section 1-4
Muhammad (cont.)
  • Muhammad and several hundred of his followers
    fled from Makkah to Yathrib (later Madina) in
    622. ?
  • In Madina, Muhammad gave the people a government
    that united them and made them proud of their new
    faith. ?
  • But, the people of Makkah invaded Madina several
    times.

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Section 1-5
Muhammad (cont.)
  • In 628, Muhammad signed a peace treaty with the
    people of Makkah, which they violated in 630,
    leading Muhammad and his companions to
    triumphantly enter their home city, Makkah, for a
    peaceful conquest. ?
  • In 632 Muhammad died.

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Section 1-6
The Quran
  • The Quran is written in Arabic and describes the
    pillars of faith, or the five duties all Muslims
    must fulfill. ?
  • The first duty is the confession of faith. ?
  • The second duty deals with prayer some of which
    are recited at a mosque and led by a prayer
    leader called an imam. ?
  • The third duty has to do with the giving of
    zakah, or charity. ?
  • The fourth duty deals with fasting. ?
  • The fifth duty involves a pilgrimage to Makkah,
    called the hajj.

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Section 1-Assessment 1
Section Assessment
According to Muslim tradition, what caused
Muhammad to begin his preachings?
The angel Gabriel told him to.
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Section 1-Assessment 2
Section Assessment (cont.)
What does the Quran say will happen after death?
All who fulfill their duties will go to Paradise.
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Section 1-Assessment 3
Section Assessment (cont.)
Identifying Cause and Effect What effect did the
rise of Islam have on Byzantium and Persia?
It shook their foundations.
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18
Section 1-Assessment 4
Section Assessment (cont.)
Recreate the diagram on page 336 of your
textbook, and use it to summarize the five
pillars of faith.
The five duties are confession of faith, prayers
five times a day, giving of zakah, fasting during
daylight hours of Ramadan, and pilgrimage to
Makkah.
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End of Section 1
20
Section 2-1
The Arab Empire
  • When Muhammad died in 632, a group of Muslims
    chose a new leader whom they called khalifa, or
    caliph, which means successor.

Section 2 begins on page 336 of your textbook.
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Section 2-2
The Rightly Guided Caliphs
  • The first caliph was Abu Bakr, Muhammads
    father-in-law and close friend. ?
  • As the next caliphs ruled from Madina and kept in
    close touch with the people, they were called the
    Rightly Guided Caliphs. ?
  • The Rightly Guided Caliphs honored Muhammads
    wish to carry Islam to other peoples and sent
    warriors into Palestine, Syria, Iraq, Persia,
    Egypt, and North Africa.

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Section 2-3
The Rightly Guided Caliphs (cont.)
  • Throughout all these places, the Arabs were
    victorious because Islam united them in striving
    for a common goal, which they considered holy. ?
  • The Arab way of treating the people they
    conquered also contributed to their success.

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Section 2-4
The Umayyads
  • Ali, Muhammads son-in-law and the last of the
    Rightly Guided Caliphs, was killed in 661. ?
  • The new caliph moved the capital from Madina to
    Damascus and founded the Umayyad Dynasty. ?
  • The Umayyads ruled more like kings than religious
    leaders. ?
  • However, the Umayyads had social and economic
    troubles that, in the end, led to their downfall.

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Section 2-5
The Umayyads (cont.)
  • The Muslims themselves divided into two groups,
    the Shiah and the Sunni. ?
  • After a while, war broke out between the Umayyads
    and a group of Muslims called Abbasids. ?
  • In 750, the Abbasids defeated the Umayyads and
    became the new rulers of the Arab Empire.

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Section 2-6
The Abbasids
  • The Abbasids ruled the Arab Empire from 750 to
    1258 their first 100 years was known as the
    Golden Age of Islam. ?
  • Under the Abbasids, all that remained of Arab
    influence was the Arabic language and the Islamic
    religion. ?
  • The Abbasids created the government post of
    vizier, or chief adviser between the throne and
    the people. ?
  • The Abbasids made Baghdad one of the major
    trading centers of the world.

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Section 2-7
The Abbasids (cont.)
  • Life in the empire changed as advanced farming
    methods were employed. ?
  • The empire soon became too large for one caliph,
    and it began to break up into independent
    kingdoms. ?
  • In 836, the caliph moved to a new capital city
    called Samarra. ?
  • In 945, the Persians took control of Baghdad.

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Section 2-8
The Golden Age of Muslim Spain
  • The Muslim Arabs who conquered North Africa
    intermarried with the Berbers and became known as
    Moors. ?
  • In 710, they invaded Spain, defeated the West
    Goths, who had taken the country from the Romans,
    and set up a kingdom that allowed religious
    freedom. ?
  • For the next 400 years, a rich culture flourished
    in Spain. ?
  • During this time, Jews traveled to and traded in
    every part of the Arab Empire and beyond.

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28
Section 2-9
Islamic Life
  • Islam was born in a society where men could have
    unlimited numbers of wives and the killing of
    female children was common. ?
  • Islam attempted to correct this situation. ?
  • Both men and women were obligated to seek
    knowledge. ?
  • Reciting and memorizing the Quran was an
    important requirement in education. ?
  • The mosques served as neighborhood schools.

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Section 2-Assessment 1
Section Assessment
What were some of the accomplishments of the
Umayyads?
They reorganized the government, minted money,
set up postal routes, repaired irrigation canals,
and encouraged the arts.
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Section 2-Assessment 2
Section Assessment
How did the Arab Empire change under the Abbasids?
Baghdad was built, the post of vizier was
created, trade developed, and interest in Greek
science and philosophy grew. Arab artisans
produced luxury goods.
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Section 2-Assessment 3
Section Assessment (cont.)
Drawing a Conclusion Why were the years from 710
to around 300 called the Golden Age of Muslim
Spain?
Answers will vary. A rich culture flourished
during this period.
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Section 2-Assessment 4
Section Assessment (cont.)
Recreate the diagram on page 342 of your
textbook, and use it to show how the teachings of
Islam tried to improve the treatment of women in
Arab society.
Sample answer beforecould not inherit property
from parents, killing of a female child common,
few rights afterentitled to half of husbands
wealth, right to an inheritance, discouraged
practice of marrying multiple wives
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End of Section 2
34
Section 3-1
Arab Contributions
  • Between the 770s and the 1300s, Arab scholars
    helped preserve much of the learning of the
    ancient world and made many other contributions
    to the modern world. ?
  • Many Arab scientists, known as alchemists, tried
    to turn base metals, such as tin, iron, and lead,
    into gold and silver. ?
  • Arab astronomers studied the heavens, named
    stars, described solar eclipses, and proved the
    moons effects on tides and the oceans.

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Section 3-2
Arab Contributions (cont.)
  • The astronomer-geographer al-ldrisi drew the
    first accurate map of the world. ?
  • Arab mathematicians invented algebra and borrowed
    the numerals 0-9 from Gupta mathematicians. ?
  • The Arabs gave much to the field of medicine,
    setting up the worlds first school of pharmacy,
    opening the worlds first drugstores, and
    organizing medical clinics. ?
  • The Persian doctor al-Razi discovered differences
    between measles and smallpox.

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Section 3-3
Arab Contributions (cont.)
  • The Arabs also made many contributions to the
    arts. ?
  • The Persian poet Omar Khayyáms Rubáiyát is
    considered one of the finest poems ever written.
    ?
  • Islamic art is distinct and full of color. ?
  • Much of what is known about this time comes from
    Arabs, such as Ibn Khaldun, who wrote down the
    history of Islam.

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Section 3- Assessment 1
Section Assessment
How did the use of the Arabic language promote
learning?
It helped unite scholars throughout the Arab
Empire.
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38
Section 3- Assessment 2
Section Assessment (cont.)
What are two of the best-known Arab writings?
Two of the best-known writings are The Arabian
Nights and Rubáiyát.
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Section 3- Assessment 3
Section Assessment (cont.)
Drawing Conclusions Do you think the numerals 0
through 9 should be called Arabic or Gupta
numerals? Explain.
Answers will vary.
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40
Section 3- Assessment 4
Section Assessment (cont.)
Recreate the diagram on page 344 of your
textbook, and use it to show Arab contributions
to science, math, and the arts.
Answers will vary.
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41
End of Section 3
42
Chapter Summary 1
Chapter Summary Study Guide
  • Muhammad was born in Makkah in 570. ?
  • In 613, Muhammad began to preach that the only
    god is Allah. This was the start of the Islamic
    religion. ?
  • In 622, Muhammad and his followers went from
    Makkah to Yathrib, where they organized a new
    government and army. ?
  • In 630, Muhammad led his followers into Makkah
    and dedicated the Ka bah to Allah.

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Chapter Summary 2
Chapter Summary Study Guide (cont.)
  • In 631, delegates throughout Arabia declared
    their loyalty to Muhammad and their belief in
    teachings such as the five pillars. ?
  • After Muhammads death in 632, his followers
    chose a new leader, known as a caliph, and began
    building a huge empire. ?
  • In 661, the capital of the Arab Empire was moved
    to Damascus and the Umayyad Dynasty began.

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44
Chapter Summary 3
Chapter Summary Study Guide (cont.)
  • In 750, the Abbasids took control of the Arab
    Empire and concentrated on trade rather than war.
    ?
  • The Moors in Spain combined Arab and Jewish
    cultures and allowed religious freedom. ?
  • The Arabs made many contributions to modern
    civilization, especially in science, math, and
    the arts.

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End of Chapter Summary
46
Chapter Assessment 1
Understanding the Main Idea
How did Bedouins earn a living?
They earned their living as herders and traders.
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47
Chapter Assessment 2
Understanding the Main Idea
Why did Muhammad begin to spend time alone in a
cave outside Makkah?
He began to spend time in a cave because he was
troubled by the corruption in Makkah.
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48
Chapter Assessment 3
Understanding the Main Idea
Why did Makkahs leaders persecute Muhammad and
his followers?
They were afraid of losing money because fewer
pilgrims would come to Makkah.
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49
Chapter Assessment 4
Understanding the Main Idea
What is the Islamic Creed?
The Islamic Creed is a confession of faith
stating There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad
is His prophet.
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50
Chapter Assessment 5
Understanding the Main Idea
In what direction do Muslims face when they pray?
They pray in the direction that points them
toward Makkah.
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51
Chapter Assessment 6
Understanding the Main Idea
What does the Quran promise all believers who
fulfill their duties?
They will go to Paradise.
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52
Chapter Assessment 7
Understanding the Main Idea
What brought about the downfall of the Umayyad
Dynasty?
The downfall of the Umayyad Dynasty was caused by
conquered people who became Muslim who felt they
were unfairly treated, and by the division of
Muslims into the Shi ah and the Sunni.
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53
Chapter Assessment 8
Understanding the Main Idea
What did the name Arab mean under the Abbasids?
The name referred to any subject who spoke Arabic.
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Chapter Assessment 9
Understanding the Main Idea
What discoveries did Arab doctors make?
They discovered the circulation of the blood, the
differences between measles and small pox, and
that tuberculosis is contagious.
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55
Chapter Assessment 10
Critical Thinking
What role did religion play in Arab life?
Religion brought pilgrims to Makkah (which helped
its economy), united Muslims, and set guidelines
for the way Muslims lived.
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56
Chapter Assessment 11
Critical Thinking
How did the Moorish kingdom in Spain show it had
been influenced by different cultures?
Many groups lived there and Muslims, Jews, and
Christians studied medicine and philosophy
together.
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57
Chapter Assessment 12
Critical Thinking
Which Arab contribution do you think has most
affected other civilizations? Explain your
choice.
Answers will vary.
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58
Chapter Assessment 13
Critical Thinking
What parts of life in the Arab Empire would you
have liked? What parts would you have disliked?
Answers will vary.
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59
Chapter Assessment 14
Geography in History
Location Islam spread across a wide area, as seen
on the map on page 337 of your textbook. It
included most of the area from the western edge
of the Mediterranean Sea to the eastern shores of
the Arabian Sea. What longitude and latitude
lines mark the approximate location of this area?
The area spanned from about 45 N to 25 N and 5
W to 65 E.
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60
Chapter Assessment 15
What is false about the following A man and
woman move to Madina in 613, the year Muhammad
began preaching. That year, called the Anno
Hijrah, they joined the thousands who supported
Muhammad.
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End of Chapter Assessment
62
History Online
Explore online information about the topics
introduced in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your
browser and go to the Human Heritage A World
History Web site. At this site, you will find
interactive activities, current events
information, and Web sites correlated with the
chapters and units in the textbook. When you
finish exploring, exit the browser program to
return to this presentation. If you experience
difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually
launch your Web browser and go to
http//www.humanheritage.glencoe.com
63
Global Chronology
1290 A.D. Ottoman Dynasty founded in Asia Minor
710 A.D. Moors invade Spain
570 A.D.Muhammad born
750 A.D. Abbasids become rulers of Arab Empire
622 A.D. Muhammad flees from Makkah to Yathrib
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64
People in History 1.1
Muhammad 570 A.D.-632 A.D. Prophet of Islam
Muhammad is one of the great figures in world
history. His revelations and teachings form the
basis of Islam, a faith that now claims more than
one billion followers. While living in Yathrib
(Madina), he established a model for future
Islamic states in which religious leaders oversee
government. His appeal for Islamic unity helped
Muhammad to extend his Islamic state to the
entire Arabian Peninsula.
65
Fun Facts 3.1
Arabic Numerals
Europeans resisted the use of Arabic numerals
well into the 1400s. An Italian bookkeeping
manual insisted that roman numerals cannot be
falsified as easily as those of the new art of
computation, of which one can, with ease, make
one out of another, such as turning the zero into
a 6 or a 9.
66
Then Now Contents 1
Calendars The Quran
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Then Now 1.1
Calendars
The Islamic calendar, started in 622, is a lunar
calendar with 354 days divided into 12 months.
The Muslim Era, which counts years from the
Hijrah, is used officially in Saudi Arabia,
Yemen, and the Persian Gulf states. Even in
Muslim countries that officially use the
Gregorian calendar, many people follow the Muslim
calendar at home.
68
Then Now 1.2
The Quran
As Muhammad preached, his followers wrote down or
memorized his teachings. After Muhammads death,
his successor Abu Bakr ordered Muslims to
retrieve those teachings wherever they could be
found. It took 20 years to compile the teachings
into the Quran, the Muslim scriptures followed
today.
69
Then Now Contents 2
The Bazaar Cordoba
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Then Now 2.1
The Bazaar
Muslim merchants traded their wares in the
bazaar, originally the term for Persian public
markets. The name came to be used for colorful
outdoor marketplaces throughout the Middle East
and North Africa. In English today, bazaar means
a store that sells many kinds of goods.
71
Then Now 2.2
Cordoba
By the 900s, Cordoba,the capital of Muslim Spain,
was the largest city in Europe and a cultural
center for scholars, musicians, and artisans.
Cordoba was known especially for its fine
leatherwork, woven silk and brocades, and gold
and silver jewelry. Visitors to Cordoba today
can still see the Great Mosque, completed about
976.
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