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Greek Tragedy

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Title: Greek Tragedy


1
Greek Tragedy
  • Lecturer Wu Shiyu

2
Athens after the Persian Wars
  • Athens grown into a major sea power protecting
    important trade routes prosper from these trade
    routes
  • A cultural sponge absorbing influences from all
    over the ancient world
  • A great breeding ground Trade and money flowed,
    art flourished, and new ideas spread. This hive
    of activity was for the development of Athenian
    drama.

3
Social Background
  • Great Leaders and Their Visions (Thomistocles and
    Pericles)
  • The Democratic Reform of the System of Justice
  • Stipend be paid to men who served on juries
  • Poor people make a living by rowing or as a
    juror.

4
1. General Introduction
  • The Athenians went to the theatre just twice a
    year at two festivals in honor of the god
    Dionysos (Drama Competition )
  • (1) The City Dionysia (The Dionysia) In the
    month of March, over three days.
  • (2) The Lenaia Festival In the month of
    January.

5
2. General Introduction
  • The presentations of the plays themselves were
    political events, financed by the state and part
    of a huge national holiday
  • The Theatre of Dionysus on the slope of the
    Acropolis in Athens capable of accomodating
    around 30,000.

6
??????????
7
2. A Day at the Theatre The Night Before
  • A great feast and celebration honoring the
    presence of Dionysos, whose statue had been
    brought into the city earlier that day on a ship
    and rolled through the streets of Athens.

8
2. A Day at the Theatre The Day of the Festival
  • Citizens gather at the theatre on the southern
    slope of the Acropolis in Athens
  • Work would stop in Athens for the three days
  • Men would come into the city from all over
    Attica.

9
2. A Day at the Theatre The Day of the Festival
  • Watch the performance of three tragedies staged
    by a single dramatist (performed as a trilogy).
    (?????,1 to 2 hours)
  • Watch a Satyr play a type of physical comedy
  • Watch a comedy by a playwright such as
    Arisophanes (Added later in the fifth century,
    soon proved popular)

10
3. What is a Tragedy?
  • Tragedy derived from the Greek word tragoidia,
    something like goat song.
  • Probably a goat sacrifice connected with the
    rites of Dionysus and the original Dithyrambic
    songs sung at this feast.

11
3. What is a Tragedy?
  • Tragedy is the characteristic culture statement
    of the Athenian democracy. (political schooling)
  • The God Dionysus, the God of wine who brings you
    eternal life. (The God of Nothing in Excess)
  • Learning wisdom through suffering. In the
    tragedy, you can learn wisdom by watching others
    suffer.

12
4. Tragedy Aristotles Definition
  • The imitation of an action.
  • Its not the action itself, but the imitation of
    the action that is complete and noble.
  • It must deal with the noble theme and
    individual(a great and noble figure like Oedipus
    ).
  • It is performed, not narrated.

13
4. Tragedy Aristotles Definition
  • And by watching this performance, the emotions of
    fear and pity are to be aroused in you. Fear, for
    what has happened to Oedipus pity, for what
    happens to him. And thereby to achieve a
    catharsis
  • A catharsis is purging (as thought you eat so
    many proms), you have to be purged of these
    emotions. To learn to be purged, not to be
    weighed down by them, but to learn from them and
    to go on. (????????????)

14
4. Tragedy Aristotles Definition
  • And attending these tragedies was a civic duty.
    At one period the Athenians were paid to go to
    the tragedy. That is how important it was!
  • And the great creative age of Athenian tragedy is
    absolutely coterminous (??? ) with the great age
    of Athenian Democracy.

15
The Seeing Place
5. Greek Theatre
16
Greek Theatre
17
5. Greek Theatre The Mask
  • All the actors wore masks on stage. The tragic
    mask was a simple whole facemask made of linen,
    cork, or wood. (not preserved)
  • Acoustic Effects

18
The Mask
19
Our Debts to the Athenians
  • Theatre seeing place (theatron)
  • Drama ............ doing or
    performing an action
  • Scene skene
  • Chorus singing and dancing troupe
  • Orchestra . Choral performing space
  • Protagonist ... The first actor in a
    tragedy
  • Odeion small covered theatre
  • Podium raised platform

20

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???? ??
(1?3?5?7?9?11) ?????? (2?4?6?8?10) ??????????
???? ??????, ?????????? ??????
????,?? ?????? ???? ???,????


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?????(??????)
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21
7. Great Tragedians
  • We possess the writings of 3 great tragedians,
    Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. Each of them
    is an Athenian Citizen.

22
8. Aeschylus (c. 524-456 B.C.)
  • Recognized as the father of tragedy, and is the
    earliest of the three Greek tragedians whose
    plays survive, the others being Sophocles and
    Euripides.
  • He expanded the number of characters in plays to
    allow for conflict among them.

23
Aeschylus (c. 524-456 B.C.)
24
8. Aeschylus (c. 524-456 B.C.)
  • Aeschylus was born in an old aristocratic family
    in 524 B.C.
  • During the Persian wars he had participated in
    the Battle of Marathon and Battle of Salamis.
  • In 472 B.C. he returned to Athens and took part
    in the drama competition with his play the
    Persians. This play won first prize for him.
  • In 468 B.C. he lost the competition to Sophocles,
    but during his lifetime he had won 13 times of
    the competition.
  • The life of Aeschylus represent the growth of
    Athenian political, military, and cultural power.

25
The Persians (First Prize)
  • Atossa Id like to know, dear friends,
  • Where Athens is.
  • Chorus Far west where the Lord Sun fades out.
  • Atossa My son really wanted to hunt down this
    city?
  • Chorus Yes, so Greece would bend beneath a
    Shah.
  • Atossa Does it field a manhorde of an
    army?
  • Chorus Such that is has worked evils on the
    Medes.
  • Atossa Then bowtugging arrows glint in their
    hands?
  • Chorus No. Spear held steady, and heavy
    shields.
  • Atossa What else? Wealth in their houses?
  • Chorus Treasure, a fountain of silver lies in
    their soil.
  • Atossa But who herds the manflock? Who lords the
    army?
  • Chorus Theyre not anyones slaves or
    subjects.

26
The Persians (First Prize)
  • Shores and reefs filled up with our dead
  • And every able ship under Persian command
  • Broke order,
  • Scrambling to escape.
  • We might have been tuna or netted fish,
  • For they kept on, spearing and gutting us
  • With splintered oars and bits of wreckages,
  • While moaning and screams drowned out
  • The noise till
  • Nights black face closed it all in.

27
The Persians
  • The Chorus and Atossa lament.
  • Atossa calls up the spirit of her dead husband
    Darius.
  • Darius tells of how he was defeated by the
    Athenians at
  • Marathon.
  • He warns that Earth herself is an ally of the
    Greeks.
  • Darius also warns against reckless pride and
    descends.
  • Atossa leaves and pledges to accept her son
    depsite his folly.
  • Xerxes enters a broken man and tells of his
    defeat.
  • He joins the lament with the chorus.

28
9. Works of Aeschylus
  • Among Aeschylus 90 plays, seven of them were
    preserved wholly till today, and another three
    were partly preserved. These include, the
    Persians, Seven against Thebes, Prometheus Bound,
    Agamemnon, Libation Bearer, and Eumenides (these
    last three compose a trilogy Oresteia)

29
10. The Oresteia Our Only Trilogy
  • Agamemnon,
  • Libation Bearer,
  • And Eumenides
  • ?????
  • ???
  • ?????
  • Followed by a Satyr

30
The Curse
  • Their heads and hands and feet were hacked (?, ?
    )
  • Into pieces and thrown into a boiling stew (? ),
  • From which he, in ignorance, ate his fill.
  • A meal that brought the curses upon this House!
  • When he discovered the obscene truth, he screamed
  • Out in horror, reeled back from the table,kicking
    it over
  • And, retching, vomited up the butchered flesh.
  • Then he shouted out his curse on the sons of
    Pelops,
  • Damn to death the clan of Pleistenes!

31
A Question
  • Is Clytemnestra justified to kill Agamemnon? Is
    this revenge, protection, or destiny?

32
(No Transcript)
33
(No Transcript)
34
10. The Last Days of Aeschylus
  • He went to Sicily for the last time
    and was not able to come back to Athens. It was
    said he was killed by a tortoise dropped from the
    sky. He was buried in Gela, and his epitaph reads
    (written by himself),

35
  • Beneath this stone lies Aeschylus, son of
    Euphorion, the Athenian,
  • who perished in the wheat-bearing land of Gela
  • of his noble prowess the grove of Marathon can
    speak,
  • or the long-haired Persian who knows it well.
  • ??????????????,??????,
  • ?????????????
  • ???????????????,
  • ????????????
  • ??????????????????
  • His far-reaching influences

36
Mosaic of Orestes
37
11. Influence outside of Greek culture
  • During his presidential campaign in
    1968, Senator Robert F. Kennedy quoted Aeschylus
    on the night of the assassination of Martin
    Luther King, Jr.
  • Kennedy was notified of King's murder before a
    campaign stop in Indianapolis, Indiana and warned
    not to attend the event due to fears of rioting
    from the mostly African-American crowd.
  • Kennedy insisted on attending and delivered an
    impromptu speech that delivered news of King's
    death to the crowd. Acknowledging the audience's
    emotions, Kennedy referred to his own grief at
    the murder of his brother, President John F.
    Kennedy and said

38
  • My favorite poet was Aeschylus. He once
    wrote Even in our sleep, pain, which cannot
    forget, falls drop by drop upon the heart, until
    in our own despair, against our will, comes
    wisdom through the awful grace of God."
  • What we need in the United States is
    not division what we need in the United States
    is not hatred what we need in the United States
    is not violence or lawlessness but love and
    wisdom, and compassion toward one another, and a
    feeling of justice toward those who still suffer
    within our country, whether they be white or they
    be black... Let us dedicate ourselves to what the
    Greeks wrote so many years ago to tame the
    savageness of man and make gentle the life of
    this world." The speech is now considered to be
    Kennedy's finest as well as one of the greatest
    speeches in American history.

39
11. Sophocles (500-406 B.C.)
  • When he was young, he received good education
    and was influenced by his father, who was good at
    music and dance. In 480 B.C., young Sophocles was
    selected as a chorus boy for celebrating Athenian
    victory over the Persians. Later Sophocles
    entered into politics. In 443 B.C. he was
    Financial Chief for the Delian League headed by
    Athens, and was later elected twice as strategoi.

40
11. Sophocles (500-406 B.C.)
  • His first known performance was in 468 B.C.,
    where he defeated Aeschylus at the City Dionysia.
  • He was said to have created over 120 works and
    won twenty victories. He dominated the fifth
    century in a spectacular career.
  • He was also an actor, but he retired early
    because of poor vocal range. He then wrote for an
    actor named Tlepolemus.
  • The addition of a third actor.

41
Sophocles (500-406 B.C.)
42
Sophocles (500-406 B.C.)
43
12. Works of Sophocles
  • Created over 120 works, only seven of them still
    in existence
  • Antigone, ????,?441?
  • Oedipus the King ?????,?431?
  • Philoctetes??????,?429?
  • Electra ?????,?418?
  • The Trachiniae ??????,?409?
  • Oedipus at Colonus ?????????,?401?

44
12. Works of Sophocles Oedipus the King
  • This was perhaps the most famous of all Greek
    tragedies, primarily because in the fourth
    century B.C. it was held by Aristotle in his
    poetics to be a paragon of tragedy, and then in
    the twentieth century to have entered the
    psychoanalytical vocabulary of Sigmund Freud in
    his Interpretation of Dreams.

45
12. Works of Sophocles Oedipus the King
  • The play opens with the news that the people of
    Thebes are suffering a terrible plague. Everyone
    in the audience at that time would have firsthand
    experience of the devastating effect of such a
    pestilence. Some scholars have seen a reflection
    of Pericles in the role of Oedipus.

46
(No Transcript)
47
  • Finally, Oedipus hears a crack of
    thunder and knows it is time for him to
    die.Theseus leads him to a secret sacred place,
    and we hear from a messenger the mystical way in
    which Oedipus left the living world.

48
(No Transcript)
49
  • ???????????????????????????????,??????????????
    ???????????????,????????????????,??????????,??
    ??????????,?????????,????,??????????????,?????????
    ????????,?????????????,?????????????????

50
13. On Sophocles
  • Known for its deeper development of characters
    than earlier playwrights.
  • His reputation was such that foreign rulers
    invited him to attend their courts, never
    accepted.
  • Aristotle used Sophocles's Oedipus the King in
    his Poetics (c. 335 BC) as an example of the
    highest achievement in tragedy.

51
Portrait of the Greek actor
52
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  • ?????(?496-?406)?????????????????27?????????,???
    ???????????????????,???????????????100????,???7?
    ??,?????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????,????????????????????

53
  • ????????????????,?????????????????????????,??????
    ????????????????,???????????,???????????????,?????
    ????????,??????????????????????????,??????????????
    ????????????

54
13. On Sophocles
  • When Sophocles passed away in 406 B.C., the
    Athenians and the Spartans were fighting with
    each other. Because of war, his body was not able
    to be sent back to his hometown for burial. When
    the Spartan general heard of this, he ordered to
    have a truce so that the Athenians could bury
    Sophocles. During his long life, Sophocles had
    been high in position and leading a happy life.
  • ????,????

55
  • ??????????,????????????,?????????????????????????
    ???,????????????
  • ???????????,??????????????????????????????,????
    ???????????????? (Periclean Age)?????????????????
    ????????????,?????????????????????

56
14. Euripides (c. 480 -406 B.C.)
  • Little is known about Euripides Born in Salamís
    on 23 September 480 BCE, the day of the Persian
    War's greatest naval battle.
  • The last of the three great tragedians of
    classical Athens.
  • Written ninety-five plays, eighteen or nineteen
    survived complete.

57
14. Euripides (c. 480 -406 B.C.)
  • First competed in the City Dionysia in 455 BCE,
    one year after the death of Aeschylus. He came
    third because refused to cater to the fancies of
    the judges.
  • Until 441 BCE that he won first prizeclaimed
    only four victories.

58
Euripides (c. 480 -406 B.C.)
59
15. Works of Euripides
???441?,???? ???438?,????? ???431?,??? Medea ???430?,?????? ????430?,????? ???428?,????? ???424?,??? ???421?,?????? ???414?,??????????? ???413?,????? ???412?,?? ???412?,?? ???411?,?????? ???408?,????? ???407?,????? ???407?,?????????
60
15. Works of Euripides
  • ?????????????????,.
  • ????????????,?????????,??????????,??????????????.?
    ?????????????,??????????,????????????????.
  • ?????,??????????????,????????????,???????????,????
    ????,???????????,???????????,????????.

61
15. Works of Euripides
  • ?????????????????????,?????????????.??????????????
    ??,????????????.
  • ?????????????,?????????,??????????????.
  • ??????????,??????????.
  • Focused on the realism of his characters.

62
Medea
63
(No Transcript)
64
  • ???????????
  • ???????????
  • ??????????????

65
15. Works of Euripides
  • ??????????????.?????????????,???????,??????
    ????.?????,?????????????????,???????????????????
    ?????.??????????????????.

66
15. Works of Euripides
  • ????????????,????,??????,????.???????????,???????
    ??????????. ????????,??????????,?????,????????,???
    ????????????????,?????????

67
16. Comments
  • In comparison with Aeschylus (thirteen times) and
    Sophocles (eighteen victories), Euripides was the
    least honoured of the three, at least in his
    lifetime.
  • Later in the 4th century BCE, Euripides' plays
    became the most popular, largely because of the
    simplicity of their language. His works
    influenced New Comedy and Roman drama, and were
    later idolized by the French classicists his
    influence on drama extends to modern times.

68
16. Comments
  • ????????????????????,?????"?????????".??????????
    ????????,??????????????.????????????????????.???
    ???????????.???,?????????????????.???,????,??,??
    ??????????.

69
16. Comments
  • ?????????Anaxagoras??,??????????????????????????,
    ???????,??????????????????????,???????????,??????
    ???????????????????????
  • ??????????Protagoras????????,
  • ??,???????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????,?????????,????????,?????????????????????,?
    ???????????????

70
  • ????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????!??????,???????,?????????????

71
4????????
  • ??
  • ??
  • ???

   ??????????????     ???????????????????   ????????????????????
    ???????????????? ???????,????     ???????,????
???????????,??????????,????????? ????????????,????????????????,??????????????????????????? ??????????????,????????
72
Influences of Greek Drama
  • Athens exported the festival to its numerous
    colonies and allies in order to promote a common
    cultural identity. Western theatre originates in
    Athens and its drama has had a significant and
    sustained impact on Western culture as a whole.

73
?????
  • ??????????????,???????????????

74
?? ?????
  • ( ?)?????
  • ??
  • ???????????(???)
  • ????????????,???5??????,??????????,?????

75
(?)????
  • ???????????????,???????????,??????????
  • ????????????????????,????????
  • ?????????

76

???(????)
????(????) ??
???? ??
(1?3?5?7?9?11) ?????? (2?4?6?8?10) ??????????
???? ??????, ?????????? ??????
????,?? ?????? ???? ???,????


?????? ???,????
?????(??????)
??????(??????)


???(????????)
77
(?)??????
  • ????????????,?????????????????????,???????????(?
    ?)??


78
1??????Aeschylus
  • 1?????
  • ???????????
  • ?????????
  • 2???
  • (???525??456)

79
?????(??)
80
3???





  • ???????90??????, ??7??????????
  • ??????????????
  • ???????????????
  • ??????????,?????????,????????????????,?????

81
????????
  • ????
  • ???
  • ???

82
4?????
  • (1)???????????????????????????????????????,????
    ???????,???????????,???????????????,????????????
  • (2)?????????,????????????????????
  • (3)???????,?????,???,??????????,???????
  • (4)???????,?????

83
5.     ???????????
  • 1?????
  • 2???

84
3????????
  • ?????,??????
  • ????,??????
  • ????,???????

85
2??????Sophocles
  • 1?????
  • ??????? ,
  • ?????????????
  • ??????
  • 2???
  • (???496?406)

86
3???
  • ????120???(?130?????????)?
  • ??24?,???????????
  • ????????7?????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????

87
4?????
  • (1)?????????????????
  • (2)??????????,????????,????????
  • (3)??????,???????????????????,????????????,????,??
    ??,?????
  • (4)??????????,????????????????????,??????????????

88
5????????? Oedipus Tyrannus
  • 1?????
  • 2???

89
(No Transcript)
90
(No Transcript)
91
??????????
92
3?????????????
  • ????????????
  • ????????????????
  • ???????

93
4?????
  • ??????
  • ??????????????????? ?????
  • ???????????????????

94
3??????Euripides
  • 1?????
  • ???????,
  • ????????
  • ?????????????
  • 2???
  • (???485?406)

95
3???
  • ????92??????????
  • ?6????
  • ??????18??

96
4???
  • ????????????,?????????????????
  • ???????????
  • ?????????,???????????,?????????????

97
5???????
98
  • ???????????
  • ???????????
  • ??????????????

99
4????????
  • ??
  • ??
  • ???

   ??????????????     ???????????????????   ????????????????????
    ???????????????? ???????,????     ???????,????
???????????,??????????,????????? ????????????,????????????????,??????????????????????????? ??????????????,????????
100
?? ?????
  • (?)??
  • ?? ??????
  • ?? ??? ???? ???
  • ??
  • ???? ?? ?? ?? ??

101
(?)???? ?????
  • ?????(???446?385)
  • ???
  • ????
  • ??????????
  • ??

102
(No Transcript)
103
??????????
104
??
105
????????
106
??????
107
???? ????
108
???????????????
109
?????????
110
??????????? Orestes and Electra
111
?????????????
112
??????????????
113
?????at Delphi
114
????
115
????1
116
????2
117
? ?!
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