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Global Economy and Extreme Poverty

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Title: Global Economy and Extreme Poverty


1
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2
Climate Change andhow to help slow it down
  • Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol
  • ECE UPRM
  • Director - CLiMMATe Lab (CLoud Microwave
    Measurements of ATmospheric Events)
  • PI _at_ UPRM- for the Center for Collaborative
    Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA)

3
Climate Change
  • Scientific consensus is caused mainly because of
    human activity, such as CO2 emissions.

According to the report from the UN-IPCC 2007.
4
IPCCIntergovernamental Panel on Climate Change
www.ipcc.ch
5
En estas gráficas se compara los modelos
naturales y antropogénicos con las medidas reales.
6
Human Activities
  • For example
  • CO2 emissions to the atmosphere cars,
    electricity, water
  • Deforestation construction
  • Contamination
  • other greenhouse gases like methane(22x), nitrous
    oxides (310x)

7
Global Warming
8
Consequences
  • Extreme weather
  • Storms
  • Floods, droughts
  • Cold winters, heat waves
  • Sea level
  • Impact on agriculture, species, economy, health,
    etc

9
Social impacts
  • Sub-Saharan Africa produces about 3 of the
    worlds greenhouse gases, yet
  • Its climate and ecological systems have already
    been altered by global warming and will undergo
    further damage in the years ahead.

Demonstrators in Nairobi, Kenya, protest failure
of developed countries to curb emissions of
greenhouse gases.
www.un.org
10
A 2006 report by economist Sir Nicholas Stern
suggests that global warming could shrink the
global economy by 20!
11
Global average temperatureYears 1860-2000
12
  • http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/c
    limate_change/html/climate.stm

13
Costa Rica
  • First official lost species due to Global
    warming
  • golden toad
  • Also corals are bleaching
  • All over the world.

14
Some of its consequences are irreversible
Permafrost Glaciers
15
Worst case scenario Ocean conveyor belt stops
Due to change in salinity, if Artic keeps
melting, this current could stop, creating a
small ice age in Europe and North America. IPCC
16
World Population Growth
2000 1987 1975 1960 1930 1800
6 5 4 3 2 1 0
It took all human history to reach 1 billion in
1800.
billions
10,000 BC 5,000 BC
Year 0 1000 2000
17
On top of this
  • New blooming economies want to live their own
    version of the American Dream.

Example in China, the traditional bicycle lane
was closed to lay way to an extra automobile
lane. India is now also flourishing economically
and greatly increasing their CO2 emissions.
18
The Good News is that
  • we can make a difference
  • while saving

19
Solution?
  • You just have to turn a bit GREEN!

20
Save , andhelp the planet
  • Every time we use
  • electricity
  • gasoline
  • products
  • water
  • We send emissions to the atmosphere that warms it
    more.

21
Water
22
Puerto Rico Dry Season
Puerto Rico Wet Season
In PR global warming is expected to decrease rain
by 10-20!
23
Water
  • When we save water, we save and CO2 emissions
  • Buy shower head of 1.5-2gpm

24
Saving water
  • Water saving kits like this from the EcoStore can
    save up to 40 of water bill!
  • In PR this is equivalent to 15-20 per month for
    a typical family.

25
Saving water

Cost 1/gallon (tipical use 40 gallons/ 2 month) Cost filter 4-6 is equivalent to 40 gallons!
Total Cost 40/ 40 gallons Total Cost 5/40 gallons
Difference 40- 5 35 more expensive (And you save the effort of recycling the 40 bottles!) Savings 35 (every 2 mo.) Environmental Savings 40 bottles derived from petroleum!
26
Paper use
  • Print on both sides, minimize color.
  • Use recycle paper, 100 post-consumer
  • Cancel Catalogs
  • Subscribe to online magazines, Pay online
  • Avoid millions of tree from being chop down

27
Zinio.com
28
Reforestation
  • Plant trees
  • Lower your home temperature up to 10F!,
  • Increase value of your property!
  • Reduce CO2 emissions
  • Natural Resources gives you up to 200 free trees!

29
Small changes, make a big difference
30
Products
31
Effect on the Planet
  • Every time we buy plastic, glass, aluminum and
    paper, and other products, we are indirectly
    emitting more greenhouse gases like CO2 to the
    atmosphere that warms it even more.

32
  • Be a wise consumer
  • Buy less!
  • Give away what you dont use.

33
Dont through batteries to the trash!
  • They contain many toxics, heavy metals like
    mercury that poison our water bodies, when it
    rains of the landfills.
  • Recycle them!.
  • Use rechargeable batteries..
  • Same with cell phones, and other electronics

Busca la lista de centros de acopio de baterías
en http//campusverde.uprm.edu
34
Rechargeable Batteries (4 AA 4 AAA)
Save 100 for each one!
35
Eat less Meat
  • Methane is 20x stronger than CO2 in capturing IR
  • Could be capture and use to generate energy.

36
Effect of What we Eat to Climate Change
raising animals for food generates more
greenhouse gases than all the cars and trucks in
the world combined. 2006 U.N. report
  • According to a 2006 study by U. of Chicago
  • Eating a vegan diet prevents the equivalent of
    1.5 tons of CO2 emissions every year, more than
    the 1 ton of CO2 emissions prevented by switching
    from a typical large sedan to a Toyota Prius.

37
Eat less Meat to help the Planet
  • So why does meat cause so much global warming?
  • Growing feed for farmed animals requires intense
    use of synthetic fertilizer, which releases N2O
    a far stronger greenhouse gas than even CO2 .
  • The tens of billions of farmed animals of the
    world produce massive amounts of flatulence and
    liquid manure, which release large amounts of
    methane into the atmosphere as well as forming
    nitrous oxide, both of which are powerful green
    house gases.
  • Heating buildings that house farm animals
    emission of green house gases

"Rearing Cattle Produces More Greenhouse Gases
Than Driving Cars, UN Report Warns," UN News
Centre, 29 Nov. 2006.
38
Is it Sustainable?
  • 70-90 of all planted cereals are destined to
    feed animals of consumption
  • 100 acres of land yield enough to feed
  • 28 meat-eating humans
  • 400 vegetarians

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Styrofoam
  • Generates many toxic gases CO2 during their
    production.
  • NOT biodegradable, are prohibited in many cities
    in the U.S.
  • Releases styrene, which related to cancer.
  • More expensive than reusable dinnerware.

41
Sell your TrashRecycle, Reuse , Reduce
  • cardboard
  • Plastic
  • Aluminum cans
  • Glass
  • Batteries
  • Water
  • Cooking oil
  • leaves
  • Methane
  • MBytes

42
If we dont recycle
  • More emissions of methane, CO2 and other toxic
    and greenhouse gases
  • Which contribute to climate change.
  • Waste of virgin material limited material in
    the planet, so not sustainable!

43
Recycle correctly NO straws NO cups Only 1
y 2
44
About materials
  • Plastics consume energy when
  • fabricated
  • transport
  • Steel and aluminum emit CO2 when produced
  • Mass animal Farming and landfill emit methane
  • Paper production decreases absorption of CO2 in
    the atmosphere due to deforestation.

45
What should I buy?
  • Reduced packaging
  • Concentrated Products

All packages need large amounts of energy to be
produces, and many emit tons of CO2 in the
atmosphere annually.
X3 x1
46
Compost
  • Recycle leaves, and other waste
  • Its better for your health and the environment.
  • Organic food (better health, less Br)

47
What should I buy?
  • A fiberglass pool employs 1/3 of the energy than
    a concrete pool.

48
Save Mbytes!
How? Cut each Picture, then Paste Special in JPG
or GIF Format.
  • Saves materials energy

Great for dial-up connection!
ORgt Right-click on figure, press Format Figure,
Compress , All, or change with Paste Special to
Jpeg or gif Format. Save a lot of space on your
USB memory sticks! Up to 20x!!
49
Gasoline
50
Increase your MPGMPG miles per gallon
optimum MPG
smaller MPG
Car Acceleration
Pressure on pedal
  • Dont press gas pedal too much.
  • Learn to drive at optimum acceleration.

51
Increase your MPG
  • Use minimum acceleration
  • Drive less, combine trips, use mass transport
  • Dont leave motor running gt 1min
  • Remove excess equipment
  • Park in the shade
  • Keep your car tune-up tires inflated
  • Consider a Hybrid vehicle
  • Turn off A/C when going uphill when not needed
  • Avoid holes
  • Use Overdrive
  • http//www.ucsusa.org/clean_vehicles/fuel_economy
    /practical-driving-tips.html
  • Every gallon saves 20 pounds of CO2 from being
    emitted!

52
Optimum speed?
  • Respect maximum speed, save

55
53
Hybrid cars
54
Alternative Transportation
55
Electricity
56
DMSP
57
Electric appliances use electricity even when
turned off. Theyre called Phantom Loads!
58
Some examples
5-23 of electric bill Represents 3B in the U.S.
59
Inside of an adapter
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  • Turn off printer speakers when not in use.
  • Unplugged them every night.
  • Turn off breakers from washing machines and
    others

63
Computers
  • Turn off PC if you will not use it in 1hr or
    more.
  • Dont let the adaptor plugged in!!!

64
Cell phone chargers
  • Dont leave the charger connected!
  • Uses 70-95 of the energy as if charging.

65
Myth vs. Reality turning on and off an appliance
with reduce its life. FALSE! Appliances are
designed different today! Turn-off and SAVE!
66
What should I buy?
  • a laptop uses 1/3 of the electricity of a desktop!

versus
And it doesnt need a UPS.
67
What should I buy?
LCD
Plasma
  • LCD uses 1/3 less energy than a Plasma TV!

68
Compact fluorescent Lights (CFL)
  • Save 150 per lightbulb during its life
  • Use 1/4 electricity.
  • Last 10 times more.

www.energystar.gov/ia/business/bulk_purchasing/bps
avings_calc/Calc_CFLs.xls
69
LED lights
  • Use even less electricity than CFL
  • Last longer
  • Have NO mercury
  • Cost more ?

70
A/C
  • If you use air conditioner, set the temperature
    1-2 degrees less cold, this will save and many
    emissions.
  • A window fan
  • brings in fresh air from
  • outside.
  • Save 25 /month
  • for each A/C unit!

71
What should I buy?
Its worth buy appliances that are energy
efficient. Compare! Saves 10-60/ mo. each!!
72
What should I buy?
  • A solar water heater
  • Saves 40-100/mo.
  • Lasts 30 years!

Israel banned
73
What should I buy?
  • GAS appliances save 25-50/month!
  • Using a clothlines, saves even more.

74
Electric Bill AEE(house of 4)
  • Average Consumption

75
Electric Bill
After eliminationg Electric phamtons changing
some CFL
76
Electric Bill
After using 3 fans instead of 3 A/C
77
Factura de AEE
Electric Bill
After installing a solar water heater
78
Many solutions
79
Native Americans knew about Sustainability
  • We do not inhering the Earth from our Fathers
  • We borrow it from our children

80
Web References
  • www.nasa.gov
  • www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/globalwarming
  • www.povertymap.net
  • www.unmillenniumproject.org
  • www.st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk
  • www.noaa.gov
  • www.ucsusa.org
  • www.borgenproject.org
  • www.unicef.org
  • www.energyhog.org FUN!! (PC games)
  • cacique.uprm.edu/aceer
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