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Title: Chapter 6 Study PP

Chapter 6 Study PP
  • Who wrote the following   "Keep, ancient
    lands, your storied pomp!" cries she    With
    silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,   
    Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,   
    The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.   
    Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,   
    I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"   
     A)    Henry Wadsworth Longfellow     B)    Walt
    Whitman     C)    Emily Dickinson     D)   
    Robert Frost     E)    Emma Lazarus

Answer   E)    Emma Lazarus Explanation
Emma Lazarus wrote the poem "The New Colossus" in
1883. It is engraved on the base of the Statue of
"Education is a social process. Education is
growth. Education is, not a preparation for life
education is life itself. " Which American
educational reformer insisted on a
child-centered, practical curriculum and viewed
education as playing a key role in developing
citizenship and democracy? A)    John
Dewey B)    Horace Mann C)    James Conant D)  
Charles Eliot E)    Henry Adams
Answer  A)    John Dewey Explanation Dewey,
one of the founders of the progressive education
movement, made a major impact on American
education in the first decades of the 20th
Century. He insisted that the child be the center
of every lesson and that the curriculum be
practical and relevant. With a profound belief in
the power of democracy, he also envisioned a
different role for teachers "The teacher is not
in the school to impose certain ideas or to form
certain habits in the child, but is there as a
member of the community to select the influences
which shall affect the child and to assist him in
properly responding to these influences."
The phrase "white man's burden" referred to A)
American Indians B) the enormous cost of 19th
century European wars C) the sense of obligation
felt by whites in England and America to
"civilize" non-white people D) the role of the
Freedmen's Bureau in educating ex-slaves E) the
results of the Mexican-American War
Answer  C) the sense of obligation felt by
whites in England and America to "civilize"
non-white people Explanation Imperialists
viewed the white Christian culture as superior to
non-white cultures. They justified colonial
domination as a noble mission to bring
civilization to needy natives of color. British
author Rudyard Kipling penned "The White Man's
Burden" in 1899 in which he referred to
non-whites as "your new-caught, sullen peoples,
half-devil and half-child."
In which of the following presidential elections
did a third-party candidate who was a former
president win over four million votes and finish
second in the Electoral College voting? A) 1824
Jackson, J.Q. Adams, Clay, Crawford B) 1860
Douglas, Bell, Breckenridge, Lincoln C) 1912
Taft, Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt D) 1968
Humphrey, Nixon, Wallace E) 1992 Clinton, George
H.W. Bush, Perot
Answer  C) 1912 Taft, Wilson, Theodore
Roosevelt Explanation Republican Theodore
Roosevelt, disappointed in his hand-picked
successor William Howard Taft, entered the 1912
election as a candidate of the Progressive or
Bull-Moose Party, winning 88 electoral votes.
Woodrow Wilson won well over half of the
electoral votes, however, garnering the largest
electoral majority in U.S. history to that time.
Ross Perot holds the record for most third-party
popular votes for 1992 with 19,237,247 and 19 of
the total.
The "World's Greatest Athlete" Which
American  athlete won both the decathlon and
pentathlon gold medals at the Olympic Games,
only to have them later taken away because of
his professional status? A) Jesse Owens B)
Bruce Jenner C) Bob Mathias D) Cassius Clay E)
Jim Thorpe
Answer  E) Jim Thorpe, a Sac and Fox Indian,
won both the decathlon and the pentathlon at the
1912 Olympic Games. He was congratulated by King
Gustav V of Sweden with "You, sir, are the
greatest athlete in the world." Thorpe replied
"Thanks, King." Because Thorpe had accepted
payment while playing semi-professional baseball,
however, he was stripped of his medals by the
Olympic Committee. They were posthumously
reinstated in 1982, 30 years after Thorpe's
death. Thorpe also played for three professional
baseball and six professional football teams.
Pulitzer Prize-Winning Author Which of the
following American authors, famous for his
sparse and direct use of words, served as an
ambulance driver in World War I, lived as an
expatriate in Paris during the 1920s, covered
the Spanish Civil War as a journalist, and lived
in Cuba and Key West Florida in his later
life? A) James Michener B) Ernest
Hemingway C) F. Scott Fitzgerald D) John
Steinbeck E) William Faulkner
Answer  E) Ernest Hemingway won the Pulitzer
Prize for The Old Man and the Sea. He lived a
colorful life in Europe, Cuba, and the U.S. and
developed a simple, direct style of prose that
was both copied and mocked. He wrote There is
nothing to writing. All you do is sit down at a
typewriter and bleed and Poor Faulkner. Does
he really think big emotions come from big words?
He thinks I don't know the ten-dollar words. I
know them all right. But there are older and
simpler and better words, and those are the ones
I use.
Child labor was one target of Progressive
reforms Which of the following would most
likely have supported Progressive reforms in the
first decades of the 20th century? (A) leaders
of urban political machines (B) steel and oil
company owners (C) white middle class city
residents (D) bankers (E) migrant farm workers
Answer  (C) white middle class city
residents Explanation Progressivism was a
largely urban movement of young white middle
class and professional citizens who sought to use
government to help address the ills of society.
Progressives had their greatest impact on
American life from 1900-1920.
  • The Northern Securities case
  • resulted in the Supreme Court ordering a
  • railroad monopoly to be dissolved
  • (B) was an example of President Theodore
  • refusal to get actively involved in trust cases
  • (C) was based on the 1887 Interstate Commerce Act
  • (D) resulted in a number of new holding companies
  • trusts being formed
  • (E) established the principle that a holding
    company's intent to
  • eliminate competition is protected by the

Answer  (A) resulted in the Supreme Court
ordering a railroad monopoly to be
dissolved Explanation The 5-4 Northern
Securities Supreme Court decision (1903) ruled
that the Sherman Antitrust Act prevented the
establishment of holding companies that reduced
Which of the following statements are true
of  the February 1917 Zimmermann Telegram I.
Germany pledged to help Mexico recover the
regions of the American southwest that were lost
by Mexico in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo II.
Germany threatened the U.S. with trade sanctions
if it entered the war III. Germany announced its
intention to resume unrestricted submarine
warfare IV.  The U.S. intercepted a telegram from
German to Mexican officials (A) I and IV
only (B) I and III only (C) I, II, and III
only (D) III and IV only (E) all of the
statements are true
Answer  (B) I and III only Explanation 
The Zimmermann Telegram, intercepted by British
agents, informed Mexican officials that Germany
intended to resume submarine warfare and promised
to help Mexico regain its lost territories if it
declared war on the U.S. By April President
Wilson, who had long pledged to keep the U.S. out
of the European war, asked Congress for a
declaration of war.
Treaty of Paris, 1898 American soldiers
celebrate victory at Santiago, Cuba In
the 1898 Treaty of Paris (A) Guam became an
independent nation (B) Spain admitted sole guilt
for the destruction of the U.S.S. Maine (C) Spain
gave up all claims to Cuba (D) the Philippine
Islands were transferred to U.S. control with no
payment to Spain (E) the U.S. agreed to give Cuba
its freedom
Answer  (C) Spain gave up all claims to
Cuba Explanation  The Treaty of Paris formally
ended the 1898 Spanish-American War and gave the
U.S. control over Puerto Rico, Cuba, Guam, and
the Philippine Islands. The U.S. paid Spain 20
million for the Philippines.
During World War I (A) American intellectuals
warmly welcomed the outpouring of patriotism and
national pride (B) integration of black and white
troops in combat units was common (C) American
civil liberties were fiercely protected by both
the Congress and the courts (D) the U.S. reduced
its role as a creditor nation (E) the federal
government set prices, controlled production and
generally became heavily involved in the private
sector of the American economy
Answer  (E) the federal government set
prices, controlled production and generally
became heavily involved in the private sector of
the American economy Explanation  The War
Industries Board and the Office of Price
Administration supported the American war effort
by establishing production quotas and prices.
  The American negotiating team at Versailles,
1919 The most important goal of Woodrow Wilson
at the 1919 Versailles meetings was to (A)
establish an international organization to
prevent future wars (B) end unrestricted
submarine warfare (C) impose reparations
payments on Germany (D) acquire colonies for the
U.S. (E) force Germany to accept sole
responsibility for the war
Answer  (A) establish an international
organization to prevent future wars Explanation
  The League of Nations, which the U.S. never
joined, was key to President Wilson's plan of
preventing future devastating wars similar to
World War I.
During the 1920s (A) American farm
incomes increased dramatically (B) a number of
American intellectuals became disenchanted with
American values and moved to Europe (C)
professional sports, including baseball and
football, decreased in popularity (D) the number
of American families able to purchase an
automobile decreased (E) television sets became a
regular feature in American homes
Answer  (B) a number of American
intellectuals became disenchanted with American
values and moved to Europe Explanation  "The
Lost Generation" was the label given to the
American intellectuals, including Ernest
Hemingway and Gertrude Stein, who left the U.S.
during the 1920s and moved to Europe, most
commonly France.  Many became disillusioned with
American society following World War I. Farm
income decreased by 2/3 during the 1920s.
Professional sports increased in popularity
during the 1920s, as did a normal families'
ability to purchase an automobile. Radios began
appearing in American homes, but while the first
television broadcast took place in 1928,
televisions did not become readily available to
consumers until the late 1940s.
Which of the following characterized the
flappers of the 1920s? I. smoking cigarettes II.
drinking alcohol III. wearing cosmetics IV.
bobbed hair V. straight, tight dresses with bare
arms (A) I, II and III only (B) I, III, IV and
V only (C) I, II, III and V only (D) II, III, and
IV only (E) all of the options characterized
Answer  (E) all of the options characterized
flappers Explanation  The young women known
as flappers in the 1920s smoked, drank, danced,
bobbed their hair, and wore cosmetics. F. Scott
Fitzgerald described the ideal flapper as
"lovely, expensive, and about nineteen." They
often de-emphasized their curves and raised their
hemlines to just below the knee. Both flapper
behavior and dress were seen as unconventional
and even outlandish and helped redefine women's
One of the chief causes of the 1929 Stock
Market Crash was (A) over-regulation by the
federal government (B) the reduction of tariffs
which gave foreign manufacturers an edge in the
U.S. market (C) margin buying, which allowed
investors to use a fraction of the cost of a
stock to make a purchase (D) overly-aggressive
tax policies which taxed the rich and thus
discouraged stock market purchases (E) lack of
interest by middle-class Americans in stock
market investing
Answer  (C) margin buying, which allowed
investors to use a fraction of the cost of a
stock to make a purchase Explanation  While a
number of factors led to the disastrous Stock
Market Crash in October 1929, one of the chief
causes was margin buying, which allowed investors
to pay as little as 10 of the cost of stocks to
make a purchase. As stock prices fell, the system
collapsed as investors and lenders could not meet
margin calls.
Harlem Renaissance   Zora Neal Thurston Which
of the following statements about the Harlem
Renaissance of the 1920s is accurate? I. It
drew heavily on African roots for
inspiration. II. During the 1920s it was often
referred to as the New Negro Movement. III. It
had little lasting impact on American literary
culture IV. Artists received significant
financial support from wealthy white patrons. V.
It promoted both literary and visual artistic
efforts. (A) I, II, IV and V only (B) I, II
and III only (C) I, III, IV and V only (D) I,
II, and V only (E) all of the statements are
Answer  (A) I, II, IV and V
only Explanation The Harlem Renaissance, which
witnessed a cultural revolution that began in New
York City and spread throughout the U.S., was
originally funded largely by wealthy white
patrons. Poets, novelists, artists, and musicians
all took part in the new movement. One of the
leading authors was  Zola Neal Thurston, whose
Their Eyes Were Watching God featured this quote
"Ships at a distance have every mans wish on
board. For some they come in with the tide. For
others they sail forever on the horizon, never
out of sight, never landing until the Watcher
turns his eyes away in resignation, his dreams
mocked to death by Time. That is the life of men.
Now, women forget all those things they dont
want to remember and remember everything they
dont want to forget. The dream is the truth.
Then they act and do things accordingly."
The Noble Experiment Federal agents
destroying illegal kegs of alcohol during
Prohibition The words "bootlegger,"
"speakeasy," and "noble experiment" all refer
to (A) the Ku Klux Klan (B) the Scopes Trial
fundamentalist-modernist controversy (C) the 19th
Amendment (D) Prohibition (E) Mexican immigrants
Answer  (D) Prohibition Explanation 
Herbert Hoover nicknamed Prohibition the "noble
experiment." Bootleggers illegally provided
alcohol to customers and speakeasies were
restaurants and clubs that surreptitiously served
alcohol in violation of the 18th Amendment, which
made it illegal to produce, sell, or transport
alcoholic beverages.
The Agricultural Administration Act   (A)
nationalized American farms (B) was repeatedly
supported by U.S. Supreme Court decisions (C)
raised farm income by limiting agricultural
production (D) prevented any starvation in the
U.S. (E) protected the legal rights of
Answer  (C) raised farm income by limiting
agricultural production Explanation  Declared
unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1936,
the AAA attempted to bolster farm prices by
reducing production and paying subsidies to 
farmers to reduce their planting acreage. While
successful in raising the prices of some
products, it provided little help to the
sharecropper and tenant farmers of the U.S.
Which of the following New Deal acts included
unemployment insurance? (A) the Social
Security Act (B) the National Labor Relations
Act      (C) the Glass-Steagall Act (D) the
Federal Emergency Relief Act (E) the National
Industrial Recovery Act
Answer  (A) the Social Security
Act Explanation  Pressured by critics such as
Huey Long and Dr. Francis Townsend that the
federal government wasn't doing enough for the
poor, President Roosevelt promoted passage of the
Social Security Act, which taxed both employers
and workers to provide unemployment insurance,
old-age insurance, and assistance for the blind
and disabled.
New Deal opponents (A) exposed massive
corruption in the Tennessee Valley Authority (B)
were all from the political right    (C) accused
it of being socialist and fascist (D) found no
support among Supreme Court justices (E) produced
evidence of immorality and scandal in the
Roosevelt household
Answer  (C) accused it of being socialist and
fascist Explanation  The New Deal proposed by
President Franklin Roosevelt earned enemies on
both the left and the right and in the Supreme
Court which overturned a number of programs.
A technique that labor unions first used with
great effect in the 1930s was (A) collective
bargaining (B) blacklisting  (C) the sit-down
strike (D) the picket line (E) the boycott
Answer  (C) the sit-down strike Explanation 
Auto workers in Flint, Michigan staged a sit-down
strike in 1936 in a General Motors factory.
Rather than protesting outside the factory, the
workers staged their strike inside it. When
police attempted to take over, the workers used
fire hoses against them. Eventually the United
Auto Workers were given protection by National
Guard troops and became the exclusive bargaining
representative for plant workers.
Displaying the NRA blue eagle indicated
cooperation by a business establishment The
National Industrial Recovery Act (A) provided
emergency relief to unemployed workers (B) placed
boys in rural labor camps and required them to
send home money each month (C) prevented stock
market abuses (D) encouraged fair competition and
established minimum wages (E) provided federal
insurance for bank deposits
Answer (D) encouraged fair competition and
established minimum wages Explanation  The
National Recovery Administration sought to
establish fair codes of competition, permit
collective bargaining for workers, and establish
minimum wages. Business owners placed a poster of
the NRA Blue Eagle in their windows to indicate
their participation in the federal program.
W.E.B. DuBois (A) supported an
accommodationist position which emphasized
self-help and self-improvement rather than on
ending segregation (B) co-founded the SCLC
(Southern Christian Leadership Conference), an
important civil rights group (C) led the Niagara
Movement which demanded that blacks be given the
right to vote and that segregation be
abolished (D) was an effective speaker and
organizer for civil rights, but produced little
written work (E) supported the 1895 Atlanta
Compromise between black leaders and Southern
white leaders
  • (C) led the Niagara Movement which demanded that
    blacks be given the right to vote and that
    segregation be abolished
  • Explanation DuBois, who was an effective speaker
    as well as a prolific writer on civil rights
    issues, strongly opposed the accomodationist
    position adopted by Booker T. Washington and the
    signers of the Atlanta Compromise. Instead,
    DuBois, who helped establish the NAACP,
    vigorously called for equal treatment for blacks,
    an end to segregation, and access to voting

Which of the following is not an example of the
muckraking journalism that emerged in the late
19th and early 20th centuries?
  • (A) Theodore Dreiser wrote Sister Carrie, a
    depiction of the evils of urban life (B) Nellie
    Bly went undercover in a mental hospital,
    depicting a cruel and unjust system (C) Lincoln
    Steffens exposed city machines in The Shame of
    the Cities (D) Jacob Riis described the life of
    the urban poor in How the Other Half Lives (E)
    Ida Tarbell exposed Standard Oil Trust abuses

  • (A) Theodore Dreiser's Sister Carrie, a depiction
    of the evils of urban life
  • Explanation Muckrakers were investigative
    journalists who sought to promote reform by
    exposing wrongs in a number of areas of American
    life. Theodore Roosevelt wrote of the importance
    of muckrakers in 1906 "There are, in the body
    politic, economic and social, many and grave
    evils, and there is urgent necessity for the
    sternest war upon them. There should be
    relentless exposure of and attack upon every evil
    man whether politician or business man, every
    evil practice, whether in politics, in business,
    or in social life. I hail as a benefactor every
    writer or speaker, every man who, on the
    platform, or in book, magazine, or newspaper,
    with merciless severity makes such attack,
    provided always that he in his turn remembers
    that the attack is of use only if it is
    absolutely truthful." Sister Carrie was a
    fictional account of a rural Wisconsin girl who
    becomes exposed to the harsh realities of the

  • The conscience of the people, in a time of grave
    national problems, has called into being a new
    party, born of the nations sense of justice. We
    ... here dedicate ourselves to the fulfillment of
    the duty laid upon us by our fathers to maintain
    the government of the people, by the people and
    for the people whose foundations they laid.
  • We hold with Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln
    that the people are the masters of their
    Constitution, to fulfill its purposes and to
    safeguard it from those who, by perversion of its
    intent, would convert it into an instrument of
    injustice. In accordance with the needs of each
    generation the people must use their sovereign
    powers to establish and maintain equal
    opportunity and industrial justice, to secure
    which this Government was founded and without
    which no republic can endure.
  • The above statements came from which party
    platform during the presidential race in 1912?
  • (A) Republican Party/William H. Taft (B)
    Democratic Party/Woodrow Wilson (C) Prohibition
    Party/Eugene W. Chafin (D) Socialist
    Party/Eugene Debs (E) Progressive or "Bull Moose"
    Party/Theodore Roosevelt

  • (E) Progressive or "Bull Moose" Party/Theodore
  • Explanation Disappointed in the policies of his
    handpicked successor, William H. Taft, Theodore
    Roosevelt launched a new Progressive Party.
    Finishing second in popular votes,
    Roosevelt's presence in the race helped Democrat
    Woodrow Wilson win the election.

After 146 garment workers were killed in the
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
  • (A) the factory owners were imprisoned for
    endangering their workers (B) child labor laws
    were passed in all 48 states (C) the 18th
    Amendment to the Constitution was ratified by
    Congress (D) New York state created a Factory
    Safety Commission which recommended laws
    improving working conditions (E) demand for
    inexpensive cotton garments decreased across the

  • (D) New York state created a Factory Safety
    Commission which recommended laws improving
    working conditions
  • Explanation The doors to the Triangle Shirtwaist
    Factory were chained shut to prevent unauthorized
    breaks by the workers, mainly young women, when a
    tragic fire broke out in 1911. In addition to the
    Commission, the fire led to the creation of the
    International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union,
    which pushed for safe working conditions for its

Which of the following was not a motivation for
the U.S. involvement in a war against Spain in
  • (A) Spanish concentration camps in Cuba (B)
    Filipino propaganda (C) popular support in the
    U.S. for Cuban independence (D) the publication
    of the de Lomé letter critical of President
    McKlinely (E) sinking of the battleship Maine

  • (B) Filipino propaganda
  • Explanation President William McKinley found the
    U.S. ready for war with Spain in 1898 for a
    number of reasons, including brutal treatment of
    Cubans in Spanish-run concentration camps,
    support for Cuban independence fueled by
    newspapers, the publication of a critical letter
    by a Spanish diplomat which said of McKinley "he
    is weak and catering to the rabble and, besides,
    a low politician who desires to leave a door open
    to himself and to stand well with the jingos of
    his party," and the mysterious explosion on the
    U.S.S. Maine in Havana Harbor.

  • Anti-imperialists such as Mark Twain and Andrew
    Carnegie were most troubled by U.S. actions in
    which location following the Spanish-American
  • (A) Cuba (B) Puerto Rico (C) Philippine
    Islands (D) Hawaii (E) China

  • Answer       (C) Philippine Islands
  • Explanation Following the Spanish-American War,
    a war between Filipinos and the American army was
    criticized severely by anti-imperialist
    individuals and groups in the U.S.

  • The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
  •       (A)  was used to settle the Russo-Japanese
    War and earned Theodore Roosevelt the Nobel Peace
    Prize       (B)  was passed by both houses of
    Congress       (C)  in effect reversed the Monroe
    Doctrine       (D)  asserted that the U.S. had
    the right to intervene militarily in Latin
    America to preserve order       (E)  warned
    Europe that the U.S. desired a sphere of
    influence in China

  • (D)  asserted that the U.S. had the right to
    intervene militarily in Latin America to preserve
  • Explanation The Roosevelt Corollary, presented
    in a speech to Congress in 1904, extended the
    Monroe Doctrine by asserting that if economic
    order was needed to be maintained in a Latin
    American nation, the U.S. would intervene.

  • Which of the following was not an aspect of
    American economic changes in the 1920s?
  • (A)  assembly line production (B)  a reduction in
    tariffs on European goods (C)  mass
    production (D)  a growth in stock market
    investment (E)  an emphasis on consumer goods and
    labor-saving devices

  • (B)  a reduction in tariffs on European goods
  • Explanation Tariffs on foreign products rose
    during the 1920s. Both the Fordney-McCumber
    Tariff (1922) and the Smoot-Hawley Tariff (1929)
    raised tariffs over previous levels.

  • The Scopes Trial indicated that
  •       (A)  American fundamentalism was dead      
    (B)  Darwin's theory of evolution could be taught
    without controversy in American public
    schools       (C)  tension between rural,
    traditional values and urban, modern values was
    increasing in American society       (D) 
    religious teachings no longer had meaning for
    most Americans       (E)  the Creation story was
    accepted as metaphorical, not literal by most
    Tennessee residents

  • (C)  tension between rural, traditional values
    and urban, modern values was increasing in
    American society
  • Explanation The 1925 Scopes Trial in Dayton,
    Tennessee served as a microcosm of the tensions
    growing in American society among a number of
    groups. During the trial, defense attorney
    Clarence Darrow cross-examined prosecuting
    attorney William Jennings Bryan in a stunning
    exposé of the literal biblical interpretation
    held by many traditional believers.

  • Which of the following was not part of Franklin
    Roosevelt's first year in office?
  •       (A)  the U.S. went off the gold
    standard       (B) the FERA (Federal Emergency
    Relief Act) was passed, providing emergency aid
    to poor families       (C)  the Emergency Banking
    Act required banks to demonstrate soundness
    before reopening       (D)  the Social Security
    system was established       (E)  the PWA (Public
    Works Administration) was started

  • (D)  the Social Security system was established
  • Explanation Roosevelt wasted little time after
    his inauguration in March 1933. A variety of
    measures, mostly economic in nature, were passed
    by Congress in an attempt to get the country
    moving. The Social Security Act was passed in

  • Which of the following was not an example of the
    expanding bureaucracy of the federal government
    during World War 2?
  • (A)  War Labor Board (B)  War Manpower
    Commission (C)  Office of Price
    Administration (D)  National Youth
    Administration (E)  War Production Board

  • (D)  National Youth Administration
  • Explanation The federal bureaucracy nearly
    quadrupled in size during World War 2. The most
    significant agency was the War Production Board
    which oversaw the conversion and expansion of
    factories and set priorities and schedules for
    American industry. The National Youth
    Administration (NYA) was a New Deal agency
    operating from 1935 to 1939 that focused on
    providing work and education for Americans
    between the ages of 16 and 24.